BioScience Dictionary

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Found DNA 556 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. 2-aminopurine
A derivative of purine which can substitute for adenine during dna replication . As a result, it can induce mistakes in dna and is therefore a powerful mutagen .

2. 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT)
An antibiotic used to treat infection by HIV (the AIDS virus ). The drug works by blocking replication of the HIV genetic material (in this case it is composed of RNA rather than dna ) by preventing the viral RNA from inserting into the host dna.

3. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine
A nucleotide base derived from cytosine which is used by the bacteriophage T4 in place of cytosine in its dna . The substitution protects the bacteriophage from its own nuclease enzyme s (enzymes which cut apart dna).

4. 6-mercaptopurine
Purine analog which can result in dna damage upon incorporation during synthesis of a dna strand.

5. 6-mercaptopurine
A toxic drug used to treat acute forms of leukemia (lymphocitic and granulocytic) by inhibiting dna synthesis.

6. Abnormal hemoglobin
Hemoglobin molecule with a different shape due to an altered amino acid sequence (ultimately caused by an altered dna base sequence), such as in the inherited disease sickle-cell anemia .

7. Acridine orange
3,6-bis(dimethylamino)acridinium chloride. A toxic, fluorescing dye that stains dna and RNA and is typically used to identify cancerous tumor cells. When it binds to double-stranded dna , it fluoresces green; when it binds with the phosphate groups of single-stranded dna or RNA , it fluoresces orange. The chemical also causes frameshift mutations.

8. Acrosome
A membrane-bound section at the tip of the head of a sperm which contains lytic enzyme s (hyaluronidase in mammalian sperm) which break down the outer coat of the egg and allow the sperm to inject its haploid dna .

9. Activator
In biochemistry: * A dna -binding protein that regulates one or more gene s by increasing the rate of transcription . * A metabolite that positively modulates an allosteric enzyme .

10. Acycloguanosine (acyclovir)
An antiviral medication used to treat herpesvirus infections; it works by inhibiting viral dna synthesis.

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