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An increase in the number of copies of a specific DNA fragment; can be in vivo or in vitro . See also: cloning , pcr .
2. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP)
Invented by KeyGene, a Dutch biotech company based in Wageningen, Holland The technique is now merchandised under licence agreement by Perkin Elmer. Selected markers are amplified in a pcr , which makes AFLP an easy and fast tool for strain identification in agriculture , botany , microbiology and animal breeding.
The alternative pcr . Invented by the Dutch company Organon, which got involved in a patent lawsuit with Roche, which owns the unique rights for pcr.
4. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
A method for amplifying a DNA base sequence using a heat- stable polymerase and two 20-base primer s, one complementary to the (+)-strand at one end of the sequence to be amplified and the other complementary to the (- )-strand at the other end. Because the newly synthesized DNA strands can subsequently serve as additional templates for the same primer sequences, successive rounds of primer annealing, strand elongation, and dissociation produce rapid and highly specific amplification of the desired sequence. pcr also can be used to detect the existence of the defined sequence in a DNA sample.
5. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
A method of amplifying or copying DNA fragments that is faster than cloning. The fragments are combined with DNA polymerase , nucleotides , and other components to form a mixture in which the DNA is cyclically amplified.
6. RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA)
DNA polymorphism s amplified by arbitrary primer s using pcr . Useful as molecular marker s.
7. Sequence tagged site (STS)
Short (200 to 500 base pair s) DNA sequence that has a single occurrence in the human genome and whose location and base sequence are known. Detectable by pcr , STSs are useful for localizing and orienting the mapping and sequence data reported from many different laboratories and serve as landmarks on the developing physical map of the human genome. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are STSs derived from cDNAs.
8. Taq polymerase
A heat-stable DNA polymerase isolated from the bacterium Therrnus aquaticus, used in pcr.