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Found Translation 32 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. Amber codon
The nonsense codon UAG, one of three codons which, instead of coding for an amino acid, signals that the translation of mRNA into a chain of amino acid s should stop.

2. Amber mutation
A mutation from a codon which codes for an amino acid into the amber codon UAG, which normally signals that the translation of mRNA into an amino acid chain should stop. The mutation causes the amino acid chain to stop forming before it is actually completed.

3. Amber suppressor
A tRNA molecule which suppresses amber mutation s because it has mutated to recognize the amber codon UAG (which normally signals that the translation of mRNA into an amino acid chain should stop) as a signal for inserting whatever amino acid it carries into the chain. As a result, it can prevent the amino acid chain from ending before it is completed.

4. Cotranslational transfer
Putting the leading end of a polypeptide into the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum before translation of the rest of the polypeptide has been finished.

5. Elongation
During protein synthesis, the growth of the polypeptide chain through the addition of amino acids ; the second step in translation .

6. Expression vector
A cloning vector that contains the necessary regulatory sequences to allow transcription and translation of a cloned gene or genes.

7. Guanosine triphosphate (GTP)
A molecule which consists of the nitrogenous base guanine linked to the sugar ribose and which has three phosphate group s attached to the 5th carbom atom of the ribose. GTP is a high-energy compound which serves as an energy source for many biochemical reactions. It is required for the formation of peptide bond s between amino acid s during translation and is required for ribonucleic acid synthesis since it is a direct precursor.

8. Hybrid-arrested translation
The prevention of an mRNA molecule from being translated into a protein by hybridizing it to its corresponding cDNA or to a complementary mRNA. This is used to identify cDNA molecules - the scientist puts the cDNA molecule in question in a test tube with a number of mRNA molecules and observes which protein is no longer able to be made.

9. In vitro protein synthesis
translation of an mRNA molecule into polypeptide s within a laboratory mixture which contains ribosome s and all of the necessary components (as opposed to translation within a living cell , where protein synthesis normally occurs).

10. In vitro transcription / in vitro translation
The transcription of a DNA molecule into mRNA molecules, and the subsequent translation of the mRNA molecules into polypeptide s, within a laboratory mixture which contains ribosome s, enzyme s, and all of the necessary components (as opposed to transcription and translation within a living cell , where they normally occur).


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