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1. Acid-fast stain
A staining technique used to determine the cell wall property of a microorganism. After stained with dye such as hot carbol fuschin, an acid-fast organism, (.e.g. Mycobacterium species) will retain the color in its cell wall after being washed with acid-alcohol.
2. Actinomycin D
A relatively toxic antibiotic produced by the fungus like bacterium Streptomyces parvallum. It inhibits RNA transcription in eukaryotes and has antitumor properties, so it is often used in conjunction with other drugs in chemotherapy .
3. Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a Gram-negative bacterium found in soil which causes crown gall disease in plants (which causes tumor s to form at the crown and at the junction of the root and stem). The tumors are caused by the Ti plasmid in the bacterium; this plasmid is being heavily researched by plant genetic engineers because it is a useful way to introduce new genes into a plant cell.
4. Algin (alginate)
This gelatinous material, a polysaccharide extract from brown algae , is widely used in foods, medicines, and industrial and household products. The main algae that produce it are Laminaria species and Macrocystis pyrifera (a chemically different version of algin is produced by the bacterium Azobacter vinelandii.)
An antibody which can combine both with a cellular antigen (such as a virus or bacterium ) and with a complement because it has two combining elements.
Anthrax is an infection by the gram-positive spore-forming aerobic rod-shaped bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. It usually affects sheep, cattle, horses, goats, and swine. It may infect humans, causing meningitis and pneumonia with a high rate of death.
7. Antibiotic resistance
The ability of a bacterium to synthesize a protein that neutralizes an antibiotic .
A protein that is produced in response to an antigen (often a virus or bacterium ). It is able to combine with and neutralize the antigen.
A substance (e.g. a virus or bacterium ) that causes an immune system response.
10. A-protein (A proteins)
A protein found in the cell wall of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus which binds to the Fc section of immunoglobulin s and is therefore used to collect antigen - antibody complexes.