BioScience Dictionary

 
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Found Cancer 195 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. 5-fluorodeoxyuridine
An anti- cancer agent derived from 5-fluorouracil which forms in cells that have been treated by 5-fluorouracil.

2. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)
An anti- cancer agent similar in structure to the nitrogenous base thymine , which inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thus nucleotide synthesis, so that it is particularly harmful to rapidly growing cells such as in tumors .

3. Acid phosphatase
This is an enzyme produced by cells in the prostate (a gland that surrounds the urethra in the base of the penis). It is used to diagnose and follow the progression of prostate cancer. Its level is elevated in prostate cancer, multiple myeloma , bony metastasis of cancers, and is falsely elevated after prostate surgery or examination. (Normal range: range 0.11-0.6 IU/L)

4. Acridine orange
3,6-bis(dimethylamino)acridinium chloride. A toxic, fluorescing dye that stains DNA and RNA and is typically used to identify cancerous tumor cells. When it binds to double-stranded DNA , it fluoresces green; when it binds with the phosphate groups of single-stranded DNA or RNA , it fluoresces orange. The chemical also causes frameshift mutations.

5. Acrylonitrile
A colorless liquid which will mix somewhat with water, mixes well with all common organic solvent s, and is toxic, carcinogen ic (cancer-causing), and a fire hazard. Freezing point: -83 C. Boiling point: 77.5-77.9 C. It is used as a monomer for acrylic fibers and acrylic rubber and other industrial purposes.

6. Adenocarcinoma
A cancerous tumor originating in glandular tissue.

7. Adjuvant therapy
cancer treatment that involves surgery followed by additional treatment with chemotherapy drugs and/or radiation to reduce the risk that the cancer will return.

8. Adriamycin (doxorubicin injection)
An antibiotic manufactured by Pharmacia which is used to treat certain types of cancer (such as breast carcinoma s). It is also a cardiotoxin and can cause heart failure at high cumulative dosages (above a total dose of 300 mg/m2).

9. Aflatoxin
A fungal toxin which is a powerful liver carcinogen . It is produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, which grow easily on beans, grains, and peanuts which are inappropriately stored in warm, humid conditions. The presence of aflatoxins in contaminated food supplies is thought to contribute to the high levels of liver cancer in undeveloped and developing countries.

10. AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, HIV, human immunodeficiency virus)
Acronym for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. An epidemic disease caused by an infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), a retrovirus that causes immune system failure and debilitation and is often accompanied by cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma as well as secondary infections such as tuberculosis . AIDS is spread through direct contact with bodily fluids.


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