BioScience Dictionary

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Found Carbohydrates 12 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. Blood glucose
The main sugar that the body makes from the three elements of food--proteins, fats, and carbohydrates--but mostly from carbohydrates. Glucose is the major source of energy for living cells and is carried to each cell through the bloodstream. However, the cells cannot use glucose without the help of insulin .

2. Carbohydrate
A compound or molecule that is composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen in the ratio of 2H:1C:1O. carbohydrates can be simple sugar s such as sucrose and fructose or complex polysaccharide polymer s such as chitin .

3. Carbohydrates
Organic molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that serve as energy sources and structural materials for cells of all organisms.

4. Chemosynthesis
The use of inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide to make carbohydrates from the energy released by chemical reactions. Compare photosynthesis .

5. Diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes)
A disease that occurs when the body is not able to use sugar as it should. The body changes carbohydrates into glucose . A hormone called insulin is needed for the glucose to be taken up and used by tissues. Diabetes occurs when the body cannot make use of the glucose in the blood for energy because either the pancreas is not able to make enough insulin or the insulin that is available is not effective. The beta cell s in areas of the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans usually make insulin. The signs of diabetes include having to urinate often, losing weight, getting very thirsty, and being hungry all the time. Other signs are blurred vision, itching, and slow healing of sores. People with untreated or undiagnosed diabetes are thirsty and have to urinate often because glucose builds to a high level in the bloodstream and the kidney s are working hard to flush out the extra amount. People with untreated diabetes often get hungry and tired because the body is not able to use food the way it should. The causes of diabetes are not known. Scientists think that insulin- dependent diabetes may be more than one disease and may have many causes. They are looking at genetic factors and at other factors, including virus es.

6. Glucocorticoids
A group of steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex that are important in regulating the metabolism of carbohydrates , fats, and proteins.

7. Lignins
Organic substances which act as binders for the cellulose fibers in wood and certain plants, and adds strength and stiffness to the cell walls. The chemical structure of lignin is composed of a polymer of high carbon content but distinct from the carbohydrates.

8. Macromolecules
Large molecules made up of many small organic molecules that are often referred to as monomers; e.g., carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Macromolecules are polymers of monomers.

9. Monosaccharides
Simple carbohydrates , usually with a five- or six-carbon skeleton; e.g., glucose and fructose. A carbohydrate composed of a single sugar unit, such as glucose, ribose, deoxyribose, etc.

10. Mycorrhiza
Occurs when a fungus (basidiomycete or zygomycete) weaves around or into a plant's roots and forms a symbiotic relationship. Fungal hyphae absorb minerals from the soil and pass them on to the plant roots while the fungus obtains carbohydrates from the plant (pl.: mycorrhizae).