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Found Cloning 32 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. Alkaline phosphatase
An enzyme which hydrolyzes phosphate ester s and works best in the pH range of 9 to 11; it catalyzes the removal of phospate groups near the 5' end of linear DNA strands such as restricted plasmid molecules. This enzyme is typically obtained from calf intestinal tissue or E. coli and is used widely in gene cloning experiments and in enzyme-antibody conjugates in ELISA and immunochemistry .

2. Amplification
An increase in the number of copies of a specific DNA fragment; can be in vivo or in vitro . See also: cloning , PCR .

3. Bacteriophage lambda
A bacteriophage (a virus which infects bacteria ) that infects E. coli . It has a complex set of regulatory mechanisms to determine whether it will quietly insert its DNA into the bacterial genome to become dormant and to be reproduced whenever the bacterium reproduces (to lysogenize ), or whether it will hijack the bacterium's cellular machinery to reproduce itself and prepare to infect more bacteria, causing the bacterium to self-destruct shortly after infection (to lyse ). Lambda is particularly useful to geneticist s because parts of it can be used to introduce foreign DNA into the bacterial genome; it is a cloning vector .

4. Blunt-end ligation
A lab technique to join together two pieces of blunt-end DNA , such as an insert into a cloning vector , which requires the enzyme ligase because there are no single-stranded overhanging ends for the attachment to form more spontaneously, by itself.

5. Charon phage
A cloning vector made from the virus bacteriophage lambda that is used to clone DNA .

6. Cloning
The process of asexually producing a group of cells (clones), all genetically identical, from a single ancestor. In recombinant DNA technology , the use of DNA manipulation procedures to produce multiple copies of a single gene or segment of DNA is referred to as cloning DNA.

7. Cloning vector
A DNA molecule originating from a virus , a plasmid , or the cell of a higher organism into which another DNA fragment of appropriate size can be integrated without loss of the vectors capacity for self-replication; vectors introduce foreign DNA into host cells, where it can be reproduced in large quantities. Examples are plasmids, cosmid s, and yeast artificial chromosome s; vectors are often recombinant molecules containing DNA sequences from several sources.

8. Cohen, Stanley
Born 1922. A molecular biologist who was the first to do experiments in the molecular cloning of gene s from one strain of bacteria into another. In particular, he cloned the gene for resistance to tetracycline (an antibiotic ), found in Staphylococcus aureus , into Escherichia coli , which did not have resistance to tetracycline before. By doing this, he demonstrated that it is possible to take genes from one organism, put them into a different organism, and have the gene survive intact and able to make functioning protein s in the new organism.

9. Col E1
A plasmid which naturally occurs in some strains of the bacteria Escherichia coli. It codes for an E. coli-produced antibiotic called a colicin and immunity to its self-produced colicin (so that it doesn't unintentionally destroy itself). It is one of a number of such plasmids, each of which code for a different type of colicin. The plasmid is useful for making cloning vector s for making recombinant DNA molecules.

10. Complementary DNA cloning (cDNA cloning)
A lab technique where a double-stranded cDNA molecule (or dscDNA ) is inserted into a cloning vector (another DNA molecule which will continue to be capable of replication after insertion of foreign material), so that the gene encoded by the cDNA can be expressed (transcribed and used) or so many copies of the gene can be made.

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