BioScience Dictionary

 
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Found Eukaryote 38 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. Actinomycin D
A relatively toxic antibiotic produced by the fungus like bacterium Streptomyces parvallum. It inhibits RNA transcription in eukaryotes and has antitumor properties, so it is often used in conjunction with other drugs in chemotherapy .

2. Archae (Archaebacteria)
This is a super-classification of odd bacteria that are neither prokaryote s nor eukaryote s; some scientists believe they represent a separate kingdom. The primary genus is Archaebacteria, whose members fall in three categories: microbes that can live in extremely salty environments (halophiles), microbes that produce methane (methanogens), and microbes that can live in extremely hot environments (thermophiles). All are of interest to biotechnologists because they have unique biochemical features (e.g., the enzyme s of the theromophiles are extremely stable at high temperatures).

3. Calvin cycle
(aka Calvin-Benson Cycle or Carbon fixation) Series of biochemical, enzyme -mediated reactions during which atmospheric carbon dioxide is reduced and incorporated into organic molecules, eventually some of this forms sugars. In eukaryotes , this occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast .

4. Cellular respiration
The transfer of energy from various molecules to produce ATP ; occurs in the mitochondria of eukaryotes , the cytoplasm of prokaryotes . In the process, oxygen is consumed and carbon dioxide is generated.

5. Centriole
Paired cellular organelle which functions in the organization of the mitotic spindle during cell division in eukaryotes .

6. Colinear
A linear molecule having a sequence of units which corresponds to the sequence of units in another linear molecule. For example, the sequence of amino acid s in a polypeptide corresponds to the sequence of nucleotide base s of the mRNA which was translate d to make it. In bacteria the sequence of nucleotide bases in an mRNA molecule is colinear with the sequence of nucleotide bases in a DNA segment which was transcribed to make it (though this is not the case for eukaryote s, which have intron s).

7. Consensus sequence
A sequence of nucleotide base s which are extremely similar among many different gene s of different systems. In eukaryote s, this sequence is known as the "TATA box" or the "Hogness box," and it has the general sequence of TATAAAA. In the bacteria Escherichia coli it is known as the "Pribnow box" and has the general sequence of TATAATG. The sequence is most often found in promoter s and does important things like binding important protein s (including RNA polymerase ) to initiate transcription .

8. Contractile vacuole
Organelle in many eukaryotes that acts as a bilge pump in the active transport of excess water from the cell.

9. Cytochrome c
A type of cytochrome , a protein which carries electron s, that is central to the process of respiration in mitochondria (an organelle found in eukaryote s which produces energy).

10. Cytoplasmic gene
A gene which occurs outside the nucleus of an eukaryote or outside the regular chromosome s of a bacteria .


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