BioScience Dictionary

 
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Ot.

Found Fat 131 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. ABO blood group (blood type, blood typing)
A system of describing the oligosaccharide antigen s found on the surface of human blood cells. According to the type of antigen present, a person may be assigned a blood type of A, B, AB or O. A second type of antigen, the Rh factor , renders a "positive" or "negative" blood type. The ABO blood group system is important because it determines who can donate blood to or accept blood from whom. Type A or AB blood will cause an immune reaction in people with type B blood, and type B and AB blood will cause a reaction in people with type A blood. Conversely, type O blood has no A or B antigens, so people with type O blood are "universal donors." And since AB blood already produces both antigens, people who are type AB can accept any of the other blood types without suffering an immune reaction. The ABO system is also important because it can be used in paternity suits to rule out whether a man is the father of a certain child or not.

2. Accumulation
Repeated exposures to a chemical may result in the progressive increase of its concentration in an organism, organ or tissue; illness or other effects may increase with successive doses. Factors involved in accumulation include selective binding of the chemical to tissue molecules, concentration of fat soluble chemicals in body fat, absent or slow metabolism of the chemical, and slow excretion of the chemical. Accumulation is a mass balance effect where input exceeds output.

3. Acetyl-CoA pathway
A pathway of autotroph ic carbon dioxide fixation commonly happened in obligate anaerobe s such as methanogen s, homoacetogen s, and sulfate reducing bacteria .

4. Acyl carrier protein (ACP)
A small (77 peptide s long) protein which binds six other enzyme s involved in fatty acid synthesis. It was first isolated in E. coli bacteria.

5. Adipocyte (fat cell)
An animal cell that stores fat .

6. Adipose tissue
Connective tissue that has been specialized to store fat.

7. Adrenal cortex
This is the outer portion of the adrenal gland ; it secretes hormone s such as hydrocortisone (a glucocortoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid). Glucocortoids help cells synthesize glucose , catabolize protein s, mobilize free fatty acid s, and inhibit inflammation in allergic responses. Mineralocortoids regulate the levels of minerals such as sodium and potassium in the blood.

8. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
A peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland . It stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoid hormones, which help cells synthesize glucose , catabolize proteins , mobilize free fatty acid s, and inhibit inflammation in allergic responses.

9. African sleeping sickness
A disease affecting humans and other mammals in central Africa that is caused by the parasitic protozoa ns Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and is transmitted by the tsetse fly. Symptoms include fever, chills, headache, vomiting, pain in the extremities, lymph gland enlargement, anemia, depression, fatigue, coma, and eventually death if left untreated. The trypanosome is able to evade the host's immune system by frequently changing the protein s on its outer surface, by which the immune system identifies intruders.

10. Agarose (agarbiose)
This linear galactan is created by purifying agar ; when it is heated and cooled, it forms a gel that is used as a support for many types of electrophoresis and immunodiffusion . A typical gel is about 1% agarose. Agarose is more porous than acrylamide and is sold in different grades; the lower its sulfate content, the more highly purified it is.


View web definitions »

Learn more about Fat »