BioScience Dictionary

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Found Fungus 42 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. Acidulants
Food additives that are used to impart a sharp flavor. The most common acidulant is citric acid (produced by the fermentation of molasses or other sugars by the fungus Aspergillus niger). Malic acid and fumaric acid are also frequently used.

2. Actinomycin D
A relatively toxic antibiotic produced by the fungus like bacterium Streptomyces parvallum. It inhibits RNA transcription in eukaryotes and has antitumor properties, so it is often used in conjunction with other drugs in chemotherapy .

3. Amylase
There are two commercially-used forms of this starch-hydrolyzing enzyme : * alpha amylase breaks the alpha-1,4-glucosidic bonds of starch to yield oligosaccharide s. Slightly different versions of this enzyme are produced by the bacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, B. subtilis and the fungus Aspergillus oryzae. Alpha amylase is used to make corn syrup, beer, wallpaper removers, cold-soluble laundry starch, and digestive aids. * beta amylase has exo-alpha-1,4-glucanase activity and acts on linear alpha-1,4-linked glucans, breaking alternate bonds to form maltose. This enzyme is found in most plants but is rare in fungi and bacteria; it is the amylase produced by germinating barley, which is used in beer production.

4. Anamorph
The asexual form of a fungus which reproduces by releasing spore s which are genetically identical to each other and to the parent.

5. Arthrospore
This is a cell formed by the fragmentation of a fungus' hyphae .

6. Blastomycosis
An acute or chronic mycosis which usually affects man and animals (e.g. dogs). Blastomycosis is caused by a fungus called Blastomyces dermatitidis and occurs in North America, Africa and Israel. Infection apparently occurs by inhalation of spores from the fungus although B. dermatitidis has proved difficult to isolate from environmental habitats.

7. Cephalosporin
A type of antibiotic produced by the fungus Cephalosporium which works more or less like penicillin .

8. Chestnut blight
A disease of chestnut trees caused by the fungus Enqothia parasitica. The major symptom is swollen, cracked cankers that form on the outside of the tree, spread into the tree and kills it. This disease is the primary reason why there are almost no American chestnut trees alive today. The population was decimated when the disease was introduced to America with Japanese chestnut trees.

9. Chiastobasidial
Having to do with the the positions of the spindle s in a developing fruiting body or basidium (the "mushroom" part) of fungus .

10. Chloramphenicol (chloromycetin, Ak-Chlor, Alficetyn, Amphicol, Anacetin, Chlorocid, Enicol, Intramycetin, Leukomycin, Novomycetin)
A broad-spectrum antibiotic that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis; it was first isolated from the funguslike bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae but is now produced synthetically.

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