BioScience Dictionary

 
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Found Genetic 313 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT)
An antibiotic used to treat infection by HIV (the AIDS virus ). The drug works by blocking replication of the HIV genetic material (in this case it is composed of RNA rather than DNA ) by preventing the viral RNA from inserting into the host DNA.

2. Abortion
The expulsion or removal of an embryo or fetus from the mother prematurely; this can be done as an artificial procedure, but it often happens naturally when the mother's body expels the embryo/fetus because it has died, has genetic or developmental defects, or because of infection or illness in the mother. Natural abortions are typically called "miscarriages". Medically-induced abortions, which can be completed with surgery or with hormone drugs, are done because the embryo/fetus is unwanted, deformed, not likely to live, or endangers the mother's life or health.

3. Achiasmatic
Undergoing meiosis , a process where the cell 's nucleus divides, without reaching the stage at which homologous chromatid s pair to exchange genetic material (called chiasma ta).

4. Additive genetic variance
The proportion of genetic variation that is the summation of the effect of all individual genes influencing a trait.

5. Adrenogenital syndrome
Adrenogenital syndrome is the autosomal recessive form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency. 21-hydroxylase is an enzyme needed in the synthesis of cortisol . Diminished levels of cortisol results in excessive secretion of ACTH which stimulates adrenal hyperplasia which secretes excessive androgen . Affected genetic females under the influence of androgen would display masculine characteristics such as hirsutism (excessive body hair), small breasts, heavy arms and legs and enlarged clitoris. Affected genetic males display enlargement of penis with small testes, and increased pigmentation. With early treatment, prognosis is good.

6. Agammaglobulinemia (adj.: agammaglobulinemic)
A rare disease where the body is unable to produce immune antibodies due to the lack of gamma globulin , a type of immunoglobulin , in the blood. The disease can be acquired or inherited as an X-linked recessive genetic disease.

7. Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a Gram-negative bacterium found in soil which causes crown gall disease in plants (which causes tumor s to form at the crown and at the junction of the root and stem). The tumors are caused by the Ti plasmid in the bacterium; this plasmid is being heavily researched by plant genetic engineers because it is a useful way to introduce new genes into a plant cell.

8. Albinism
A rare genetic condition in which the body has no pigment whatsoever, due to an inherited inability to correctly manufacture melanin. This means that the animal with the condition (called an albino ) has white, pale pink, or even translucent skin, white fur or hair, and pink eyes (no pigment in the iris means that the only color comes from the blood vessels in the eye).

9. Albinism
genetic condition caused by the body's inability to manufacture pigments; an autosomal recessive trait.

10. Alkaptonuria (dark urine disease)
This illness, caused by a recessive gene that causes a deficiency of the enzyme homogensitic acid deoxygenase, was the first recognized genetic disease. It is characterized by abnormal deposits in the connective tissue and urine which turn dark when exposed to air. Severe arthritis and blockages in arteries and heart valves can occur in later stages of the disease. Its incidence is about one in a million.


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