Genetic engineering 9
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1. Bacillus subtilis
B. subtilis is a Gram-positive , rod-shaped, nonpathogenic bacterium which lives in soil. Its genome has been widely studied and is frequently used in genetic engineering and microbiology experiments.
A form of genetic engineering; the science of adding or altering the genetic code of an organism to achieve particular traits. This technique is becoming more and more important in agriculture as researchers seek to make crops that are resistant to pests.
The process of preparing a biological product (especially one involving genetic engineering ) for commercial use.
4. Crown gall plasmids
A plasmid , or type of circular DNA , found in the bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens which infects dicot plants. Part of the plasmid inserts itself into the plant genome and causes tumors to form in the roots or in the stems nearest the roots. The plasmid has been used by geneticists, minus the tumor-causing parts, as a vector towards the genetic engineering of plants.
5. Cyanogen bromide (CNBr)
An inorganic, toxic substance with the chemical formula CNBr which is white and crystalline with a sharp odor, is an irritant, and can be dissolved in water, alcohol , and ether. It melts at 52 degrees Celsius and boils at 61.4 degrees Celsius. It is used to extract gold, in pesticide s, and in the chemical synthesis of organic substances. It is also used in genetic engineering to cleave polypeptide chains, especially synthetic protein s, wherever the amino acid methionine occurs. It is also used to attach protein ligand s to various supporting substances in preparation for affinity chromatography .
The original complete genome of a bacterium , before addition of new genetic material (an exogenote ) from a donor by the process of genetic recombination or by genetic engineering .
The fragment of new genetic material that has been added to a bacterial genome by the process of genetic recombination or by genetic engineering . See also endogenote .
8. Genetic engineering (gene manipulation, genetic manipulation)
The manipulation of an organism's genetic endowment by introducing or eliminating specific gene s through modern molecular biology techniques. A broad definition of genetic engineering also includes selective breeding and other means of artificial selection. See recombinant DNA technologies .
9. Genetic engineering technologies
See recombinant DNA technologies .