BioScience Dictionary

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Found Genome 107 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. Alu sequence
Any of a family of short (300 base pair s long) repeated sequence s that occur throughout the human genome .

2. Arabidopsis thaliana
Arabidopsis thaliana is a small, weedy flowering plant that has been intensely studied as a model for plant biology and pathology. It has been such a favorite of researchers primarily because it grows rapidly and has a compact genome.

3. Att site
A site on the chromosome of the bacteria E. coli where the lambda bacteriophage can insert its genome (all of its DNA ) so that it can lie dormant and have its DNA reproduced whenever the bacterium reproduces for as long as the bacterium remains healthy (that is, so that it becomes lysogen ic).

4. Autosome
A chromosome not involved in sex determination. The diploid human genome consists of 46 chromosomes, 22 pairs of autosome s, and 1 pair of sex chromosome s (the X and Y chromosomes).

5. Bacillus subtilis
B. subtilis is a Gram-positive , rod-shaped, nonpathogenic bacterium which lives in soil. Its genome has been widely studied and is frequently used in genetic engineering and microbiology experiments.

6. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)
Bacillus thuringiensis is a bacterium that kills insects (mainly in the genera Lepidoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera) and is a major component of the microbial pesticide industry. Researchers are also investigating ways to incorporate the bacterium's insect toxins into the genomes of plants to make insect-resistant crops.

7. Bacterial transformation
A genetics lab procedure where bacteria are induced to accept and incorporate into their genome foreign pieces of cell -less, isolated DNA , often in the form of a plasmid . The DNA to be introduced usually contains a selectable marker so that the bacteria which successfully incorporate the DNA can be selected for.

8. Bacterial transposition
A short sequence of DNA (known as a transposon ) which can change location on the bacterial genome (the sum total of all of the bacterium's DNA) and contains gene s which code for protein s that enable it to change location. They are useful because they can also contain genes for other things, like antibiotic resistance, and because they can be introduced into a bacterial genome by a researcher.

9. Bacteriophage lambda
A bacteriophage (a virus which infects bacteria ) that infects E. coli . It has a complex set of regulatory mechanisms to determine whether it will quietly insert its DNA into the bacterial genome to become dormant and to be reproduced whenever the bacterium reproduces (to lysogenize ), or whether it will hijack the bacterium's cellular machinery to reproduce itself and prepare to infect more bacteria, causing the bacterium to self-destruct shortly after infection (to lyse ). Lambda is particularly useful to geneticist s because parts of it can be used to introduce foreign DNA into the bacterial genome; it is a cloning vector .

10. Baltimore, David
Born 1938. An American molecular biologist and virologist who won the Nobel Prize in 1975 for discovering that retrovirus es (a group of virus es that uses RNA to code their genome s instead of DNA ) make the enzyme " reverse transcriptase ," which is used to make DNA copies of RNA templates. This is useful to the retrovirus who is trying to reproduce with host cellular machinery. More important, this is very useful to molecular biologists and genetic engineer s who want to work with RNA molecules using DNA-manipulating techniques.

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