BioScience Dictionary

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Ot.

Found Glucose 117 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. Acetohexamide (Dymelor)
A pill taken to lower the level of glucose in the blood. Only some people with non insulin -dependent diabetes take these pills.

2. Acetone-butanol fermentation
The formation of acetone and butanol through the anaerobic fermentation of glucose by Clostridium acetobutylicum. However, most industrial plants make acetone and butanol through synthetic processes that use petrochemicals.

3. Acetyl CoA
An intermediate compound formed during the breakdown of glucose by adding a two-carbon fragment to a carrier molecule (Coenzyme A or CoA).

4. Adrenal cortex
This is the outer portion of the adrenal gland ; it secretes hormone s such as hydrocortisone (a glucocortoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid). Glucocortoids help cells synthesize glucose , catabolize protein s, mobilize free fatty acid s, and inhibit inflammation in allergic responses. Mineralocortoids regulate the levels of minerals such as sodium and potassium in the blood.

5. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
A peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland . It stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoid hormones, which help cells synthesize glucose , catabolize proteins , mobilize free fatty acid s, and inhibit inflammation in allergic responses.

6. Aldose reductase inhibitor
A class of drugs being studied as a way to prevent eye and nerve damage in people with diabetes . Aldose reductase is an enzyme that is normally present in the eye and in many other parts of the body. It helps change glucose (sugar) into a sugar alcohol called sorbitol. Too much sorbitol trapped in eye and nerve cells can damage these cells, leading to retinopathy and neuropathy . Drugs that prevent or slow (inhibit) the action of aldose reductase are being studied as a way to prevent or delay these complications of diabetes.

7. Alpha cell
A type of cell in the pancreas (in areas called the islets of Langerhans ). Alpha cells make and release a hormone called glucagon , which raises the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.

8. Alpha glucosidase
An enzyme which removes the last 1,4-linked alpha-D- glucose residue from the nonreducing end of a long chain (or polymer ) of such residues, making an alpha-D-glucose molecule out of it in the process.

9. Amylose
One of two types of glucose polymer s that together make up starch. (Amylopectin is the other type.) Amylose is the portion of starch that is soluble in water. The chemical structure of amylose is very similar to that of cellulose .

10. Antidiabetic agent
A substance that helps a person with diabetes control the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood so that the body works as it should. See: insulin .

View web definitions »

Learn more about Glucose »