BioScience Dictionary

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Ot.

Found Glycoprotein 26 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. Agglutination
* The clumping together of cells due to the binding of agglutinin (a protein) molecules on each cell's surface. * The clumping together of two organisms of the same species for the purpose of sexual reproduction. Often conducted by means of a carbohydrate on one organism and a protein on the other, resulting in a glycoprotein .

2. Antigenic determinant
A molecule (such as a glycoprotein ) on the surface of a microbe or macromolecule that triggers an immune response.

3. Antitrypsin (alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-1-protease inhibitor)
This is a glycoprotein produced in the liver which is the major antiprotease in the blood, serving mainly to inhibit leukocyte elastase. It is a single-chain molecule, has 394 amino acid s and a molecular weight of 51,000. * Hereditary antitrypsin deficiency is one of the most common genetic disorders among males of European descent. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency results in leukocyte elastase building up and breaking down the lining of the lung, which results in a severe form of emphysema (oxidizing agents in cigarette smoke are also known to inactivate antitrypsin, thus causing the high rates of emphysema among long-term smokers). Because over 20,000 people are affected by this deficiency, large amounts of this antiprotease are needed. To meet the demand, researchers are genetically engineering sheep that produce the antiprotease in their milk.

4. Beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta hCG)
This is a glycoprotein composed of two subunits and secreted by the placenta. It is detectable 1 day after implantation of the a fertilized ovum and peaks at 60 to 90 days of gestation. Normal level is less than 5 mIU/mL; 20-100 IU/L 1 to 2 weeks after conception and 50,000 IU/L about 65 days after pregnancy then declines. In molar pregnancy, it can be extremely high initially, (over 100,000 IU/L) but declines with time. Normal Ranges: (in IU/L): non-pregnant: 0 - 5, possibly pregnant: 5 - 25 During Gestation: 0 - 1 wk: 5 - 50, 1 - 2 wks: 50 - 500, 2 - 3 wks: 100 - 1,000, 3 - 4 wks: 500 - 6,000, 1 - 3 months: 5,000 - 200,000, 2nd trimester: 3,000 - 50,000, 3 rd trimester: 1,000 - 50,000 * In the first three weeks of a normal pregnancy, the serum beta hCG approximately doubles every two days. The doubling time of hCG is considered a more reliable method of evaluating an early pregnancy than a single result.

5. Concanavalin A (con A)
A protein found in the jack beans plant Canavalin ensiformis which sticks various cell types and glycoprotein s (proteins with sugar s attached) to one another by crosslinking them. It can also function much like platelet s in blood do for animals. Also, it encourages mitosis and cell division in dormant lymphocyte s. It is used in the lab technique of affinity chromatography to purify glycoproteins.

6. Cytidine monophosphate (CMP, cytidylic acid)
A cytosine ribonucleotide (where the nitrogenous base cytosine is linked to the sugar ribose and a phosphate group) that helps make glycoprotein s (a protein linked to a sugar or polysaccharide ).

7. Egg coat
A layer of glycoprotein s and other stuff which surrounds an egg (ovum) , just outside of the egg's cell membrane . The coat protects the egg, and for organisms which practice external fertilization (fertilization outside of the parents' bodies) it can help prevent the sperm of other species from entering the egg. For the eggs of mammals, the egg coat is called the zona pellucida and for sea urchins (a popular study organism for developmental biologist s) it is called the vitelline layer.

8. Env genes
One of three retrovirus gene s which codes for the env glycoprotein s.

9. Env glycoproteins
An important protein component of the mature retrovirus protein outer coat (the capsid ). It is coded for by the env gene s.

10. Erythropoetin
A glycoprotein (a molecule combining sugar and protein ) that induces erythropoesis (the making of red blood cell s in the bone marrow). It is made by the kidneys.

View web definitions »

Learn more about Glycoprotein »