BioScience Dictionary

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Ot.

Found Gram 109 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. Acetobacter
Acetobacter is a genus of rod-shaped, flagellated or nonmotile gram-negative bacteria that oxidize ethanol to acetic acid . These bacteria are commonly found on fruits and vegetables, and although they are used commercially to produce vinegar (especially Acetobacter aceti), they're considered pests by brewers and vintners.

2. Actinomycetes
gram-positive bacteria that can form branching filaments. They may form true mycelia or produce conidiospore s.

3. Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a gram-negative bacterium found in soil which causes crown gall disease in plants (which causes tumor s to form at the crown and at the junction of the root and stem). The tumors are caused by the Ti plasmid in the bacterium; this plasmid is being heavily researched by plant genetic engineers because it is a useful way to introduce new genes into a plant cell.

4. Alpha fetoprotein (AFP)
This is a protein the blood level of which is measured by laboratory methods. Its level is elevated in the mother's blood when there are fetal spinal cord defects (anencephaly, myelomeningocele), threatened abortion, twin gestation, and abruptio placentae. The AFP screening test for the mother's blood is usually conducted at 16 - 18 weeks of pregnancy. AFP level in the amniotic fluid obtained in amniocentesis is measured to identify abnormal fetal development. In humans, AFP is a useful marker for the diagnosis and assessment of the tumors of the testis (teratocarcinoma and embryonal carcinoma). AFP is also elevated in patients with primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) and in women with some types of germ cell ovarian tumors. (Normal range: less than 40 micrograms per liter).

5. Angiogram
This is an x-ray procedure to study the patency and flow of blood in blood vessels.

6. Anthrax
Anthrax is an infection by the gram-positive spore-forming aerobic rod-shaped bacterium, Bacillus anthracis. It usually affects sheep, cattle, horses, goats, and swine. It may infect humans, causing meningitis and pneumonia with a high rate of death.

7. Antibiogram
The sensitivity pattern of a given bacterial or fungal strain to a specific antibiotic .

8. Apoptosis (programmed cell death)
Programed cell death as signalled by the nuclei in normally functioning human and animal cells when age or state of cell health and condition dictates. Cancerous cells, however, are unable to experience the normal cell transduction or apoptosis-driven natural cell death process.

9. Artificial life (AL, alife, a-life)
Artificial life (AL, alife) is a scientific discipline in which researchers study life by creating computer programs that recreate biological systems from scratch.

10. Autoradiogram
An experimental technique to visualize the distribution of radioactivity in a specimen. X-ray film placed in contact with the specimen is exposed by ionizing radiation, creating a photographic image.

View web definitions »

Learn more about Gram »