BioScience Dictionary

 
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Ot.

Found Host cell 23 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. Baltimore, David
Born 1938. An American molecular biologist and virologist who won the Nobel Prize in 1975 for discovering that retrovirus es (a group of virus es that uses RNA to code their genome s instead of DNA ) make the enzyme " reverse transcriptase ," which is used to make DNA copies of RNA templates. This is useful to the retrovirus who is trying to reproduce with host cellular machinery. More important, this is very useful to molecular biologists and genetic engineer s who want to work with RNA molecules using DNA-manipulating techniques.

2. Cloning vector
A DNA molecule originating from a virus , a plasmid , or the cell of a higher organism into which another DNA fragment of appropriate size can be integrated without loss of the vectors capacity for self-replication; vectors introduce foreign DNA into host cells, where it can be reproduced in large quantities. Examples are plasmids, cosmid s, and yeast artificial chromosome s; vectors are often recombinant molecules containing DNA sequences from several sources.

3. Cos cells
Cell s from a monkey which have had gene s from the virus SV40 added to it. The genes are used by the virus to replicate its DNA . The cells are used by scientists as host cells in cloning experiments to make lots of gene clones of eukaryotic DNA molecules of interest, along with cloning vector s made from more parts of the SV40 genome and in which the eukaryotic DNA of interest is inserted.

4. Cos site
A 12- nucleotide base s-long segment of single stranded DNA that exists at both ends of the bacteriophage lambda's double-stranded genome . The two cos sites at the ends of the genome are complementary to one another so that the genome can become circular once the virus has infected a host bacterium . The circular genome can then be duplicated continuously until there are many repeats of it strung together; the cos sites show the virus where to cut them apart right before they are packaged into individual capsid s as new progeny viruses ready to infect more host cells.

5. Genetic colonization
The process of a parasite (such as a virus ) inserting gene s into a host's genome which cause the host cell to synthesize products that are only useful to the parasite.

6. Ghost cell (ghost)
A red blood cell which has had all of its cytoplasm ic contents removed by cell lysis so that only its outer cytoplasmic membrane remains.

7. Host cell
* A cell which has been infected by a virus is known as the "host cell" of that virus. * A cell which is used in lab techniques such as DNA cloning to receive, maintain, and allow the reproduction of cloning vector s. The DNA introduced with the vector is replicated whenever the cell divides.

8. Host-vector system
A combination of a bacterial host cell (i.e. a specific strain) and a virus vector (i.e. a particular bacteriophage strain) which work well together for DNA cloning.

9. Inoviridae
A family of bacteriophage s which are rod-shaped. Members of the family use single-stranded DNA to encode their genome s and do not cause their host cell s to lyse . Instead, progeny virus es poke their way out through their host's cell membrane , leaving the host cell intact.

10. Intracellular parasites
Viruses that enter a host cell and take over the host's cellular machinery to produce new viral particles.


View web definitions »

Learn more about Host cell »