BioScience Dictionary

 
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Ot.

Found Immune 142 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. ABO blood group (blood type, blood typing)
A system of describing the oligosaccharide antigen s found on the surface of human blood cells. According to the type of antigen present, a person may be assigned a blood type of A, B, AB or O. A second type of antigen, the Rh factor , renders a "positive" or "negative" blood type. The ABO blood group system is important because it determines who can donate blood to or accept blood from whom. Type A or AB blood will cause an immune reaction in people with type B blood, and type B and AB blood will cause a reaction in people with type A blood. Conversely, type O blood has no A or B antigens, so people with type O blood are "universal donors." And since AB blood already produces both antigens, people who are type AB can accept any of the other blood types without suffering an immune reaction. The ABO system is also important because it can be used in paternity suits to rule out whether a man is the father of a certain child or not.

2. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
A collection of disorders that develop as a result of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) , which attacks helper T cells , crippling the immune system and greatly reducing the body's ability to fight infection; results in premature death brought about by various diseases that overwhelm the compromised immune system.

3. Active immunity (active immunization)
An organism's resistance to disease or infection, developed because the organism's immune system has produced antibodies after an infection or innoculation.

4. Adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA)
Inherited disorder caused by insufficient adenosine deaminase activity, resulting in a compromised immune system .

5. Adjuvant
* In pharmacology, a substance that, when added to a medicine, speeds or improves its action. * In immunology, a substance that is added to a vaccine to improve the immune response so that less vaccine is needed to produce more antibodies. Such adjuvants apparently work by speeding the division of lymphocytes and by keeping the antigen in the area where the immune response is taking place. In research with humans, aluminum phosphate and aluminum hydroxide gel are commonly used; in research involving lab animals, Freund's adjuvant is used.

6. Adoptive immunity
Immunity to disease or infection conferred on a previously non-immune individual by transferring lymphocytes from a previously immune individual to the non-immune individual.

7. African sleeping sickness
A disease affecting humans and other mammals in central Africa that is caused by the parasitic protozoa ns Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and is transmitted by the tsetse fly. Symptoms include fever, chills, headache, vomiting, pain in the extremities, lymph gland enlargement, anemia, depression, fatigue, coma, and eventually death if left untreated. The trypanosome is able to evade the host's immune system by frequently changing the protein s on its outer surface, by which the immune system identifies intruders.

8. Agammaglobulinemia (adj.: agammaglobulinemic)
A rare disease where the body is unable to produce immune antibodies due to the lack of gamma globulin , a type of immunoglobulin , in the blood. The disease can be acquired or inherited as an X-linked recessive genetic disease.

9. Aggressin
A term for a protein produced by a pathogenic microbe which aids its spread in the host by inhibiting the host's immune system (specifically the response by phagocyte s).

10. AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, HIV, human immunodeficiency virus)
Acronym for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. An epidemic disease caused by an infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), a retrovirus that causes immune system failure and debilitation and is often accompanied by cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma as well as secondary infections such as tuberculosis . AIDS is spread through direct contact with bodily fluids.


View web definitions »

Learn more about Immune »