BioScience Dictionary

 
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Ot.

Found Mutation 95 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. Acridine orange
3,6-bis(dimethylamino)acridinium chloride. A toxic, fluorescing dye that stains DNA and RNA and is typically used to identify cancerous tumor cells. When it binds to double-stranded DNA , it fluoresces green; when it binds with the phosphate groups of single-stranded DNA or RNA , it fluoresces orange. The chemical also causes frameshift mutations.

2. Allopatric speciation (geographic speciation)
The evolutionary process through which two geographically separated (and therefore non-interbreeding) population s of the same species become less and less similar to each other over time (via mutation or the success of different traits in each environment) and eventually become distinctly different species.

3. Amber mutation
A mutation from a codon which codes for an amino acid into the amber codon UAG, which normally signals that the translation of mRNA into an amino acid chain should stop. The mutation causes the amino acid chain to stop forming before it is actually completed.

4. Amber suppressor
A tRNA molecule which suppresses amber mutation s because it has mutated to recognize the amber codon UAG (which normally signals that the translation of mRNA into an amino acid chain should stop) as a signal for inserting whatever amino acid it carries into the chain. As a result, it can prevent the amino acid chain from ending before it is completed.

5. Antennapedia complex
A set of mutation s that cause developmental defects in the limbs and appendages of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, such as the development of legs ("-pedia") in the places where antennae are supposed to be.

6. Antigenic drift
In influenza virus, minor changes in viral proteins ( antigen s) due to gene mutation .

7. Autosomal recessive
An autosomal recessive gene is one which is required in two copies on an autosome to be active in an organism. For instance, a person who carry two copies of the same abnormal gene (in other words, this person is homozygous for the gene) will experience effects from that gene (for instance, he or she might then suffer from a disease coded by that gene). The gene can be inherit ed from both parents who carry the gene; sons and daughters have an equal chance of inheriting the gene. If a person has a genetic disease but his or her parents seem normal, then this probably means that: * The parents of this person are heterozygous , unaffected carriers of the disease, or * The person inherited one copy of the gene from a parent, and the other "good" copy underwent a mutation early in the person's embryonic development

8. Back mutation
A mutation that causes a mutant gene to revert to its original wild-type base sequence . This is the opposite of a forward mutation .

9. Bacteriophage M13
A bacteriophage (a virus which infects bacteria ) that has single-stranded DNA . It is used as a method of obtaining single strands of foreign DNA so that the foreign DNA can be sequenced (that is, the order of its nucleotide base s can be determined). It is also used in procedures to create mutation s in vitro (in a test tube rather than within an organism).

10. Balanced chromosome
A chromosome which is unable to pair with its homologue and participate in homologus recombination during meiosis because it contains several inversion mutations (that is, has segments which have become flip-flopped).


View web definitions »

Learn more about Mutation »