BioScience Dictionary

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Found Myelin sheath 7 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. Demyelinization
The destruction of the protective myelin sheath that surrounds nerve fibers, resulting in the loss of function of those nerves. Demyelinization happens in some degenerative nerve diseases like multiple sclerosis and polio.

2. Guillain-Barre Syndrome (acute idiopathic polyneuritis)
A rare disease in which the body's immune system attacks the nerves of the peripheral nervous system , damaging the protective myelin sheath s surrounding the nerves and sometimes damaging the nerve axon s. Symptoms have a range of severity and can include abnormal sensations (such as numbness, pins and needles, vibrations, etc.), muscle weaknesses (due to the destruction of the nerves which carry signals to the affected muscles), aches and pains, and paralysis. The cause of Guillain-Barre Syndrome is unknown; often it is triggered by a virus infection (like hepatitis , mononucleosis , etc.). The disease occurs in both sexes and at any age. Treatment for the disease consists of treating the different symptoms as they arise and rehabilitation. Most patients (around 90%) recover without serious long-term disabilities between six months and two years after the syndrome begins. The 1-5% death rate is usually due to respiratory or cardiovascular complications.

3. Human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)
A human, single-stranded RNA retrovirus from the subfamily Oncovirinae which causes adult T-cell leukemia and T-cell lymphoma and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases (diseases where the protective myelin sheath around nerve fibers are destroyed). HTLV-I is closely related to HTLV-II (60% of their genome s are identical).

4. Myelin sheath
A sheath of white, fatty protein (myelin) that covers and acts as an electrical insulator for nerve fibers.

5. Myelin sheath
Layers of specialized glial cells , called Schwann cells , that coat the axons of many neurons .

6. Node of Ranvier
A gap between two of the Schwann cells that make up an axon's myelin sheath ; serves as a point for generating a nerve impulse.

7. Schwann cells
Specialized glial cells that form the myelin sheath that coats many axons . Cells surrounding the axons of some neurons , thus forming the myelin sheath.