BioScience Dictionary

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Found Protein 534 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. -ase
A suffix which indicates that the word is the name of an enzyme , which is a type of protein that catalyzes biological or biochemical reactions. For example, " cellulase " or " polymerase ".

2. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)
A plant phorbol ester which promotes tumor formation by activating membrane protein kinase C.

3. Abrin (agglutinin, toxalbumin)
A highly poisonous protein found in the seeds of Abrus precatorius, the rosary pea. Abrin is toxic because it inhibits protein synthesis, causing symptoms such as internal bleeding, intestinal upset, and the irritation of mucous membranes. It was formerly used to treat some chronic eye disorders and it is currently being researched as a potential chemotherapy drug.

4. Absorbance (optical density)
This is a measure of the amount of light absorbed by a suspension of bacterial cells or a solution of an organic molecule; it is measured by a colorimeter or spectrophotometer . Absorbance values are used to plot the growth of bacteria in suspension culture s and to gauge the purity and concentration of molecules (such as proteins) in solution. Absorbance is defined as a logarithmic function of the percent transmission of a wavelength of light through a liquid.

5. Acid proteases
Any of many protein-hydrolyzing enzyme s that work best in an acidic solution (usually in a pH range of 2-6). Such proteases include the stomach enzymes pepsin and rennin . Similar proteases produced by fungi such as Aspergillus oryzae are used in the manufacture of flour and soy sauce.

6. Actin
One of two proteins involved in muscle contraction (see also myosin ). Actin is found in both smooth and striated muscle and also serves as an important structural molecule for the cytoskeletons of many eukaryotic cells.

7. Actin
The protein from which microfilaments are composed; forms the contractile filaments of sarcomeres in muscle cells.

8. Activator
In biochemistry: * A DNA -binding protein that regulates one or more gene s by increasing the rate of transcription . * A metabolite that positively modulates an allosteric enzyme .

9. Active transport
Transport of molecules against a concentration gradient (from regions of low concentration to regions of high concentration) with the aid of proteins in the cell membrane and energy from ATP .

10. Acyl carrier protein (ACP)
A small (77 peptide s long) protein which binds six other enzyme s involved in fatty acid synthesis. It was first isolated in E. coli bacteria.

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