BioScience Dictionary

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | Ot.

Found Serum 57 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN)
This is renal failure characterized by sudden drop in urinary output and the steady increase of serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels. Common causes of ATN are hypotension, sepsis, burns, and eclampsia. The urine specific gravity is 1.010 or less (loss of ability to concentrate). In the recovery phase, high output failure (low specific gravity, large volume, and lack of ability to excrete nitrogen or potassium) is often the case.

2. Alcohol
Ethyl alcohol, also known as ethanol, the spirit in wine, is classified as a sedative-hypnotic drug. The criminal code of Canada states that it is an offence while the person's ability to operate or has control of a motor vehicle or vessel is impaired by alcohol or a drug or while the person's blood levels of alcohol exceed 80 mg/dL. Impaired driving performance has been observed with serum levels of ethanol as low as 30 mg/dL. A serum level above 300 mg/dL usually produces coma. Intoxication of alcohol is associated with violence, suicide, child and spouse abuse, respiratory depression, stupor, vomiting, predisposing to Mallory-Weiss Syndrome, hypoglycemia, cardiac arrhythmia, seizures. Chronic ingestion is associated with liver cirrhosis and withdrawal symptoms (Delirium Tremens).Two groups of alcohol drinkers are indentifiable based on the pattern of drinking: the problem drinkers and the ones with severe alcohol dependence. * Methyl alcohol, also known as methanol, or wood alcohol can also produce the sensation of being "drunk". However, ingestion of large quantities of methanol can cause visual disturbances (blindness via neurological damage), and a metabolic acidosis and is a medical emergency necessitating fluid resuscitation, respiratory care, ethanol infusion to block the building up of toxic products and dialysis. * Isopropyl alcohol is rubbing alcohol; it is poisonous.

3. Alpha1-antitrypsin
This is a protease inhibitor (Pi). Low serum levels of this antienzyme predisposes patients to early onset of emphysema and chronic liver disease. Ten percent of the adult population has the heterozygote genotype MZ in which intermediate levels of alpha1-antitrypsin is present. The incidence of liver disease in MZ is only mildly higher than the general population. (Normal ranges by genotype: normal MM: more than 250mg/deciliter, heterozygous MZ: 50 - 250 mg/dL, homogygous ZZ: less than 50 mg/dL)

4. Anti-nuclear antibody
Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) is an antibody against nuclear materials such as DNA , RNA , histone or non-histone protein s. ANA is usually found in the serum of individuals with certain autoimmune diseases, e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjogren's syndrome, polymyositis, systemic sclerosis, etc. Different diseases have ANA against different nuclear components.

5. Antiserum
A serum containing antibodies that will work against specific virus es, bacteria , or other antigen s.

6. Ascites
* Edema , or the abnormal buildup of fluid, in the abdominal cavity outside the intestines. This is often a symptom/complication of liver problems or cancer of abdominal organs. * A tumor (hybridoma) in the abdominal cavity of a genetically-engineered mouse that secretes a serum containing a desired monoclonal antibody .

7. Beta human chorionic gonadotropin (beta hCG)
This is a glycoprotein composed of two subunits and secreted by the placenta. It is detectable 1 day after implantation of the a fertilized ovum and peaks at 60 to 90 days of gestation. Normal level is less than 5 mIU/mL; 20-100 IU/L 1 to 2 weeks after conception and 50,000 IU/L about 65 days after pregnancy then declines. In molar pregnancy, it can be extremely high initially, (over 100,000 IU/L) but declines with time. Normal Ranges: (in IU/L): non-pregnant: 0 - 5, possibly pregnant: 5 - 25 During Gestation: 0 - 1 wk: 5 - 50, 1 - 2 wks: 50 - 500, 2 - 3 wks: 100 - 1,000, 3 - 4 wks: 500 - 6,000, 1 - 3 months: 5,000 - 200,000, 2nd trimester: 3,000 - 50,000, 3 rd trimester: 1,000 - 50,000 * In the first three weeks of a normal pregnancy, the serum beta hCG approximately doubles every two days. The doubling time of hCG is considered a more reliable method of evaluating an early pregnancy than a single result.

8. Bilirubin
Bilirubin is the by-product of breaking down hemoglobin that is measured in a blood sample. The unconjugated form of bilirubin is also called indirect bilirubin. After the liver adds a glucuronide to the unconjugated bilirubin, it is called conjugated bilirubin, also called direct bilirubin. Conjugated bilirubin is excreted into the hepatic ducts, the common bile duct and then the bowel. serum levels of bilirubin increase when there is excessive breaking down of red blood cells, or when there is liver dysfunction. Jaundice is clinically recognizable when total bilirubin exceeds 50 umol/liter. Normal ranges: Total bilirubin 5.1-17.0 umol/L (adult) and 17-20 umol/L (newborn), Indirect bilirubin 3.4-12.0 umol/L, Direct bilirubin 1.7 - 5.0 umol/L

9. Blood serum
This is blood plasma minus the clots.

10. Calcemia (hypercalcemia) (adj.: calcemic, hypercalcemic)
Calcemia is the condition in which the blood level of calcium is abnormally high; more often known as hypercalcemia. People affected with hypercalcemia do not have appetite, feels nausea and vomiting and weak. The normal levels of serum calcium is 2.1 to 2.6 mmol/L and adjusted according to the levels of albumin .

View web definitions »

Learn more about Serum »