BioScience Dictionary

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Found Sexually-transmitted disease 2 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV1, HSV2)
Herpes is a virus in the family Herpesviridae . Type 1 HSV causes blisters on the lips, nostrils, and possibly on the lining of the eyelids. Type 2 HSV causes blisters and lesions on and around genitalia. Type 2 HSV is a sexually-transmitted disease . The most common symptom is a single blister or cluster of painful blister-like sores. In females the genital lesions appear around the vaginal opening, urethra, anus and buttocks. Burning during urination and abnormal vaginal discharge may occur. Males may develop blisters on the penis and/or around the anus and buttocks. The fluid-filled sores are highly contagious and may last up to three weeks. They will usually crust over, form a scab and then heal completely without scarring. Other symptoms include fever, headache, swollen glands, muscle aches and tiredness. These symptoms are most common during the initial herpes outbreak. Individuals who have sexual contact with an infected partner may develop symptoms within 2-10 days or longer. Herpes is transmitted through the mucous membranes by direct physical contact with an individual who has the blister-like lesions. Oral, anal and genital sexual activity can transmit the virus; using a condom and spermicides during sex can reduce the risk of transmission. The best way to prevent infection is to avoid sexual contact with a person with herpes symptoms. If a pregnant woman contracts herpes, there is a chance that her baby will be infected during delivery if the woman has genital sores.There is currently no cure for herpes, though treatments exist to alleviate symptoms; treaments include the prescription drugs alacyclovir (Valtrex) or Acyclovir (Zovirax).

2. Syphilis (Treponema pallidum, T. pallidum)
Syphilis is a sexually-transmitted disease caused by the spirochete (elongated, spiral-shaped bacterium) Treponema pallidum. This serious disease can lead to insanity or death. The symptoms can resemble those of other diseases, which can make diagnosis difficult. Syphilis is characterized by four stages: Primary Stage * occurs 10-100 days after infection. * is characterized by the appearance of one or more chancres (a red, bloodless, painless ulcer less than 1 cm in diameter). These appear on the genitalia (and can be inside the vagina in women and can go unnoticed). A chancre may appear elsewhere on the body; if so, it can become inflamed and/or produce pus. A chancre lasts 3-6 weeks and heals without treament, leaving a small scar. * causes swollen lymph nodes near the site of a chancre. * is contagious. Secondary Stage * characterized by rashlike skin lesions that can cover part or all of the body. The lesions are painless (unless they get a secondary infection) and appears 1-6 months after the appearance of the chancre. They can resemble warts, pustules, or ulcers. Left untreated, they heal in 2-12 weeks without scarring. * also causes fever, sore throat, weakness, weight loss, swelling of the lymph nodes, and loss of the eyelashes and/or part of the eyebrows. * can turn into meningovascular syphilis, a secondary form characterized by inflammation of the covering of the brain and spinal cord (aseptic meningitis) and/or changes in the vascular structure of the brain. * is contagious. Latent Syphilis ("Hidden Stage") * the infected person appears to have recovered and is usually symptom-free. * lasts from 1-46 years (2-20 years is most common) * can be interrupted by relapses to secondary stage syphilis; 25% of infectees have relapses, usually in the 1st year of latency (but relapses can occur up to 4 years after latency starts). * is not contact infectious, except during a relapse; however, children born to latent infectees may still be congenitally infected. Tertiary Syphilis ("Late Stage") * may occur as early as one year after infection or anytime thereafter * eventually appears in 33% of untreated sufferers * causes widespread lesions of the skin, bones, and internal organs. * causes severe neurologic and cardiovascular problems, leading to possible insanity, blindness, and death. A person who has been infected with syphilis does not acquire immunity to it. If a woman with syphilis gets pregnant, her child may be born with congenital syphilis. 40% of infected fetuses die before birth; newborns suffer from secondary-stage syphilis and enter the latent stage if they survive their first year. Syphilis can be cured with antibiotics; using a condom during sex can reduce the risk of transmission.