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Found Tumors 34 times.

Displaying results 1 to 10.

1. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)
An anti- cancer agent similar in structure to the nitrogenous base thymine , which inhibits the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thus nucleotide synthesis, so that it is particularly harmful to rapidly growing cells such as in tumors .

2. Adenomatosis
Abnormal formation of glandular tumors, usually in more than one gland.

3. Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a Gram-negative bacterium found in soil which causes crown gall disease in plants (which causes tumor s to form at the crown and at the junction of the root and stem). The tumors are caused by the Ti plasmid in the bacterium; this plasmid is being heavily researched by plant genetic engineers because it is a useful way to introduce new genes into a plant cell.

4. Alpha fetoprotein (AFP)
This is a protein the blood level of which is measured by laboratory methods. Its level is elevated in the mother's blood when there are fetal spinal cord defects (anencephaly, myelomeningocele), threatened abortion, twin gestation, and abruptio placentae. The AFP screening test for the mother's blood is usually conducted at 16 - 18 weeks of pregnancy. AFP level in the amniotic fluid obtained in amniocentesis is measured to identify abnormal fetal development. In humans, AFP is a useful marker for the diagnosis and assessment of the tumors of the testis (teratocarcinoma and embryonal carcinoma). AFP is also elevated in patients with primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) and in women with some types of germ cell ovarian tumors. (Normal range: less than 40 micrograms per liter).

5. Astroblastoma
A rare form of cancer characterized by tumors made up of large cells with two or three nuclei .

6. Bence-Jones protein
A protein found in the urine of people who have multiple myeloma , or bone marrow tumors. The protein is an antibody fragment.

7. Bronchoscopy
This is the procedure in which an instrument is introduced through the mouth or the nostril to examine the upper airway: nasal pharynx, oral pharynx, larynx, trachea and the bronchi. Biopsy and cell samples (sputum or bronchial washings) could be obtained and foreign body could be retrieved. In rigid bronchoscopy a metal tube is used. In fiberoptic bronchoscopy a flexible fiberoptic instrument is used. Laser excision of bronchial tumors is also performed through a bronchoscope. Material effects, risks and side effects: bleeding after biopsy; coughing; laryngospasm; aspiration; collapse of small airways; hypoxemia.

8. Carcinoid syndrome
Carcinoid syndrome consists of facial flushing, head and neck edema, abdominal cramps and diarrhea, bronchospasm, pulmonic and tricuspid valves lesions and increased urinary excretion of 5-HIAA (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid). It is caused by the proliferation of carcinoid tumors (serotonin-producing neuroendocrine tumors that occur mainly in the small intestine and liver).

9. Carcinoids (gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors)
Yellow, cancerous tumor s of hormone-making cells in the gastrointestinal tract (specifically, they are classed as neuroendocrine or amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation tumors). They produce excess endocrine s such as kallikrein (an activator of bradykinin release) and serotonin . These tumors can be found in the intestine, stomach, or sometimes on the liver. In later stages, this type of cancer causes symptoms such as diarrhea, wheezing, heart murmurs, enlarged liver, and a dusky appearance to the skin. Carcinoids can be diagnosed with a urine test or with a CAT scan.

10. Carcinoma of pancreas (pancreatic cancer)
This cancer of the pancreas mainly occurs in the cells of the ducts; 2/3 of the tumors occur at the head of pancreas and obstruction of the pancreatic ducts is the first symptom.


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