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Hemimastix amphikineta.png
Hemimastix amphikineta
Scientific classification

Doflein 1916
  • Spironemataceae Doflein, 1916
  • Spironematellidae
  • Spironematellaceae Silva 1980
  • Paramastigidae
  • Paramastigaceae Skuja 1948

Spironemidae is a family of heterotrophic flagellates, in the group Hemimastigophora. They vary in size and shape from the ellipsoid Hemimastix amphikineta (14 × 7 μm) to the vermiform Spironema terricola (43 × 3 μm), and are united by the possession of two rows of cilia, called kineties.[1]

Phylogenomic analysis shows that Hemimastigophora are a distinct and ancient lineage of eukaryotic organisms, forming a possible sister clade to the supergroup Diaphoretickes.[2][3]



  1. ^ Ilse Foissner & Wilhelm Foissner (1993). "Revision of the family Spironemidae Doflein (Protista, Hemimastigophora), with description of two new species, Spironema terricola n. sp. and Stereonema geiseri n. g., n. sp". Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 40 (4): 422–438. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.1993.tb04936.x.
  2. ^ a b Lax, Gordon; Eglit, Yana; Eme, Laura; Bertrand, Erin M.; Roger, Andrew J.; Simpson, Alastair G. B. (2018-11-14). "Hemimastigophora is a novel supra-kingdom-level lineage of eukaryotes". Nature. 564 (7736): 410–414. Bibcode:2018Natur.564..410L. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0708-8. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 30429611.
  3. ^ Chung, Emily (Nov 15, 2018). "Rare microbes lead scientists to discover new branch on the tree of life | CBC News". CBC. Archived from the original on 2018-11-17. Retrieved 2018-11-17. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  4. ^ "Part 1- Virae, Prokarya, Protists, Fungi". Collection of genus-group names in a systematic arrangement. Archived from the original on 14 August 2016. Retrieved 30 June 2016.