.укр

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укр
TLD type Cyrillic country code top-level domain
Status active1
Intended use Entities connected with Ukraine
Actual use Thousands of domains1
Registration restrictions Intended for Cyrillic domain names; no policy is defined.

The domain name укр (abbreviation of Ukrainian: Україна, transliterated: Ukrayina, English: Ukraine) is an approved2 internationalized country code top-level domain (IDN ccTLD) for Ukraine. It is a common abbreviation used in Ukraine, as in Ukrbank and Ukrnafta.

History

In June 2008 the ICANN approved a document that foresees the introduction of high-level domain names in Cyrillic and other national non-Latin alphabets.3

On November 17, 2009 Ukraine initiated an application to ICANN for assignment of the Cyrillic top-level domain name 'укр'.34 Already in December 2008 the Company Center for Internet names of Ukraine had announced the registration of domain names in two new top-level domains 'укр' and 'блог' (transliterated: bloh).5 The full set of required documents was submitted to ICANN on November 26, 2009 by the Ukrainian Network Information Center (UNIC).6 Ukraine was one of the first countries that applied for the creation of domains in their native writing system, following Russia, Egypt and China.78

The domain was expected to be available in the first half of 2010 since assignment of top-level domain takes about a month.9dubious In November 2009 UNIC Director Yuriy Honcharuk expected the new domain to start operating on the Internet in February–March 2010.6

International experts predicted in November 2009 that in coming years Cyrillic domains in Russia and Ukraine could reach about 20% of the current level of website pages.7 UNIC Director Honcharuk expected in March 2013 that 'укр' will be used for up to 200 thousand domain names.2

On March 1, 2011, ICANN announced that the .укр domain had passed string evaluation, the step before delegation.10

.укр was approved by the ICANN Board on February 28, 2013.2 The zone was added to the root servers on March 19, 2013.11 The very first two domains were тест.укр (xn--e1aybc.xn--j1amh) and уміц.укр (xn--l1ank7d.xn--j1amh).12 In Ukrainian "тест" stands for "test", and "уміц" stands for "Український Мережевий Інформаційний Центр", Ukrainian Network Informational Centre. According UNIC Director Honcharuk registration .укр domain names could begin in the summer of 2013.2 Registration is allowed both in Russian and in Ukrainian.2 The .укр registration of domains of Ukrainian government agencies in the Ukrainian language began on 22 August 2013.13 On 21 August 2013 the first such site got active — президент.укр (president.ukr). Before the end of 2013, many sites were active.

Doubts about registration

In June 2008 President Oleksandr Olshansky of the Ukrainian Internet company Internet Invest14 considered it unlikely that .укр would be assigned by ICANN. According to Olshansky the existing rules for non-Latin domain names stipulate that at least one letter should differ in the shape from the corresponding Latin character.3 The country name Україна (Ukraine) does not contain any letter whose shape does not exist in any Latin language. In November 2009 UNIC Director Yuriy Honcharuk had stated there were no technical issues preventing the assignment of this Cyrillic domain.6 Latin ccTLDs contain two letters, whereas .укр contains three, which makes it recognizably distinct, especially with the lack of any such suffix as ".ykp".

See also

References

  1. ^ a b https://www.google.com/search?q=site:.укр
  2. ^ a b c d e (Russian) Украина наконец получила кириллический домен ". укр" According to experts, in Ukraine ". укр" will be some 200,000 domain names, TSN.ua (1 March 2013)
  3. ^ a b c Market operator: Cyrillic .укр domain unlikely to be registered, Kyiv Post (November 18, 2009)
  4. ^ Ukraine to register domain '.укр' , Ukrinform (November 17, 2009)
  5. ^ (Russian) В Украине появятся кирилличные домены .Укр и .Блог, Korrespondent (December 9, 2008)
  6. ^ a b c Cyrillic .ukr domain to start operating on Internet in Feb-March 2010, Kyiv Post (November 27, 2009)
  7. ^ a b (Russian) Украина регистрирует национальный интернет-домен «.укр», bigmir)net (November 18, 2009)
  8. ^ (Russian) Русскоязычная доменная зона .РФ заработает в ноябре, Lenta.Ru (October 24, 2009)
  9. ^ (Russian) Ъ: Регистрация сайтов в доменной зоне .укр начнется через полгода, (November 17, 2009)
  10. ^ IDN ccTLD Request From Ukraine Successfully Passes String Evaluation, ICANN (March 1, 2011)
  11. ^ ".УКР is going live". Habr. March 21, 2013. Retrieved March 21, 2013. 
  12. ^ (Russian) В зоне .УКР появились первые домены Zone .укр appeared first domain, ukr.net (21 March 2013)
  13. ^ Azarov: Registration of addresses of government agencies in Cyrillic domain .ukr to begin on August 22, Interfax-Ukraine (21 August 2013)
  14. ^ Archived Whois, Who.is
    UNIAN Stock Market, UNIAN (June 11, 2008)