|UN number||1001 (dissolved)
3138 (in mixture with ethylene and propylene)
|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||26.04 g mol−1|
|Density||1.097 g/L = 1.097 kg/m3|
−80.8 °C, 192.4 K, −113.4 °F (Triple point at 1.27 atm)
−84 °C, 189 K, -119 °F (Sublimation point at 1 atm)
|Solubility in water||slightly soluble|
|Std enthalpy of
|300 °C (572 °F)|
| (what is: / ?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2. It is a hydrocarbon and the simplest alkyne.3 This colorless gas is widely used as a fuel and a chemical building block. It is unstable in pure form and thus is usually handled as a solution.4 Pure acetylene is odorless, but commercial grades usually have a marked odor due to impurities.5
As an alkyne, acetylene is unsaturated because its two carbon atoms are bonded together in a triple bond. The carbon–carbon triple bond places all four atoms in the same straight line, with CCH bond angles of 180°. Since acetylene is a linear symmetrical molecule, it possesses the D∞h point group.6
Acetylene was discovered in 1836 by Edmund Davy, who identified it as a "new carburet of hydrogen".7 It was rediscovered in 1860 by French chemist Marcellin Berthelot, who coined the name "acetylene". Berthelot was able to prepare this gas by passing vapours of organic compounds (methanol, ethanol, etc.) through a red-hot tube and collecting the effluent. He also found acetylene was formed by sparking electricity through mixed cyanogen and hydrogen gases. Berthelot later obtained acetylene directly by passing hydrogen between the poles of a carbon arc.8 Commercially available acetylene gas could smell foul due to the common impurities hydrogen sulphide and phosphine. However, acetylene gas with high purity would generate a light and sweet smell.
Today acetylene is mainly manufactured by the partial combustion of methane or appears as a side product in the ethylene stream from cracking of hydrocarbons. Approximately 400,000 tonnes are produced by this method annually.4 Its presence in ethylene is usually undesirable because of its explosive character and its ability to poison Ziegler-Natta catalysts. It is selectively hydrogenated into ethylene, usually using Pd–Ag catalysts.9
Until the 1950s, when oil supplanted coal as the chief source of carbon, acetylene (and the aromatic fraction from coal tar) was the main source of organic chemicals in the chemical industry. It was prepared by the hydrolysis of calcium carbide, a reaction discovered by Friedrich Wöhler in 1862 and still familiar to students:
- CaC2 + 2H2O → Ca(OH)2 + C2H2
Calcium carbide production requires extremely high temperatures, ~2000 °C, necessitating the use of an electric arc furnace. In the US, this process was an important part of the late-19th century revolution in chemistry enabled by the massive hydroelectric power project at Niagara Falls.citation needed
In terms of valence bond theory, in each carbon atom the 2s orbital hybridizes with one 2p orbital thus forming an sp hybrid. The other two 2p orbitals remain unhybridized. The two ends of the two sp hybrid orbital overlap to form a strong σ valence bond between the carbons, while on each of the other two ends hydrogen atoms attach also by σ bonds. The two unchanged 2p orbitals form a pair of weaker π valence bonds.10
At atmospheric pressure, acetylene cannot exist as a liquid and does not have a melting point. The triple point on the phase diagram corresponds to the melting point (−80.8 °C) at the minimum pressure at which liquid acetylene can exist (1.27 atm). At temperatures below the triple point, solid acetylene can change directly to the vapor (gas) by sublimation. The sublimation point at atmospheric pressure is −84 °C.
One new application is the conversion of acetylene to ethylene for use in making a variety of polyethylene plastics. An important reaction of acetylene is its combustion, the basis of the acetylene welding technologies. Otherwise, its major applications involve its conversion to acrylic acid derivatives.4
Compared to most hydrocarbons, acetylene is relatively acidic, though it is still much less acidic than water or ethanol. Thus it reacts with strong bases to form acetylide salts. For example, acetylene reacts with sodium amide in liquid ammonia to form sodium acetylide, and with butyllithium in cold THF to give lithium acetylide.11
Acetylides of heavy metals are easily formed by reaction of acetylene with the metal ions. Several, e.g., silver acetylide (Ag2C2) and copper acetylide (Cu2C2), are powerful and very dangerous explosives.12
- With carbon monoxide to give acrylic acid, or acrylic esters, which can be used to produce acrylic glass.citation needed
In 1881, the Russian chemist Mikhail Kucherov15 described the hydration of acetylene to acetaldehyde using catalysts such as mercury(II) bromide. Before the advent of the Wacker process, this reaction was conducted on an industrial scale.16
The polymerization of acetylene with Ziegler-Natta catalysts produces polyacetylene films. Polyacetylene, a chain of CH centres with alternating single and double bonds, was the one of first discovered organic semiconductors. Its reaction with iodine produces a highly electrically conducting material. Although such materials are not useful, these discoveries led to the developments of organic semiconductors, as recognized by the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2000 to Alan J. Heeger, Alan G MacDiarmid, and Hideki Shirakawa.4
Acetylene is used to volatilize carbon in radiocarbon dating. The carbonaceous material in an archeological sample is treated with lithium metal in a small specialized research furnace to form lithium carbide (also known as lithium acetylide). The carbide can then be reacted with water, as usual, to form acetylene gas to be fed into mass spectrometer to sort out the isotopic ratio of carbon-14 to carbon-12.citation needed
Acetylene is a moderately common chemical in the universe, often associated with the atmospheres of gas giants.19 One curious discovery of acetylene is on Enceladus, a moon of Saturn. Natural acetylene is believed to form from either catalytic decomposition of long chain hydrocarbons at temperatures of 1,770 K and above. Since such temperatures are highly unlikely on such a small distant body, this discovery is potentially suggestive of catalytic reactions within that moon, making it a promising site to search for prebiotic chemistry.2021
Acetylene is not especially toxic but when generated from calcium carbide it can contain toxic impurities such as traces of phosphine and arsine. It is also highly flammable (hence its use in welding). Its singular hazard is associated with its intrinsic instability, especially when it is pressurized. Samples of concentrated or pure acetylene can easily react in an addition-type reaction to form a number of products, typically benzene and/or vinylacetylene. These reactions are exothermic, and unlike other common flammables, do not require oxygen to proceed. Consequently, acetylene can explode with extreme violence if the absolute pressure of the gas exceeds about 200 kPa (29 psi). Most regulators and pressure gauges on equipment report gauge pressure and the safe limit for acetylene therefore is 101 kPagage or 15 psig.2223 It is therefore shipped and stored dissolved in acetone or dimethylformamide (DMF),24 contained in a gas cylinder with a porous filling (Agamassan), which renders it safe to transport and use, given proper handling. Copper catalyses the decomposition of acetylene and as a result acetylene should not be transported in copper pipes. Brass pipe fittings should also be avoided.
Calcium carbide was used to generate acetylene used in the head lamps for miners and cavers before the widespread use of incandescent lighting; or many years later low-power/high-lumen LED lighting; and is still used by mining industries in some nations without workplace safety laws.
- Acyclic Hydrocarbons. Rule A-3. Unsaturated Compounds and Univalent Radicals, IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry
- , Gas Encyclopaedia, Air Liquide
- R.H.Petrucci, W.S.Harwood and F.G.Herring "General Chemistry", 8th edn.(Prentice-Hall 2002), p.1072
- Pässler, Peter; Hefner, Werner; Buckl, Klaus; Meinass, Helmut; Meiswinkel, Andreas; Wernicke, Hans-Jürgen; Ebersberg, Günter; Müller, Richard; Bässler, Jürgen; Behringer, Hartmut; Mayer, Dieter (2008). "Acetylene". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a01_097.pub3. ISBN 3527306730.. Article Online Posting Date: 15 October 2008
- Compressed Gas Association (1995) Material Safety and Data Sheet – Acetylene.
- Housecroft, C. E.; Sharpe, A. G. (2008). Inorganic Chemistry (3rd ed.). Prentice Hall. pp. 94–95. ISBN 978-0131755536.
- Miller, S.A. (1965). Acetylene: Its Properties, Manufacture and Uses 1. Academic Press Inc.
- Acetylene: How Products are Made
- Organic Chemistry 7th ed. by J. McMurry, Thomson 2008
- Midland, M. M.; McLoughlin, J. I.; Werley, Ralph T. (Jr.) (1990), "Preparation and Use of Lithium Acetylide: 1-Methyl-2-ethynyl-endo-3,3-dimethyl-2-norbornanol", Org. Synth. 68: 14; Coll. Vol. 8: 391
- Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0080379419.
- "Acetylene". Products and Supply > Fuel Gases. Linde. Retrieved November 30, 2013.
- Kutscheroff, M. (1881). "Ueber eine neue Methode direkter Addition von Wasser (Hydratation) an die Kohlenwasserstoffe der Acetylenreihe". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 14: 1540–1542. doi:10.1002/cber.188101401320.
- Dmitry A. Ponomarev and Sergey M. Shevchenko (2007). "Hydration of Acetylene: A 125th Anniversary". J. Chem. Ed. 84 (10): 1725. doi:10.1021/ed084p1725.
- The 100 most important chemical compounds: a reference guide
- "Acetylene". Products and Services. BOC. Archived from the original on May 17, 2006.
- "Precursor to Proteins and DNA found in Stellar Disk" (Press release). W. M. Keck Observatory. 20 December 2005.
- Emily Lakdawalla (17 March 2006). "LPSC: Wednesday afternoon: Cassini at Enceladus". The Planetary Society.
- John Spencer and David Grinspoon (25 January 2007). "Planetary science: Inside Enceladus". Nature 445 (7126): 376–377. doi:10.1038/445376b. PMID 17251967.
- Korzun, Mikołaj (1986). 1000 słów o materiałach wybuchowych i wybuchu. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Ministerstwa Obrony Narodowej. ISBN 83-11-07044-X. OCLC 69535236.
- "Acetylene Specification". CFC StarTec LLC. Retrieved 2012-05-02.
- Downie, N. A. (1997). Industrial Gases. London; New York: Blackie Academic & Professional. ISBN 978-0-7514-0352-7.
- Acetylene at Chemistry Comes Alive!
- Acetylene, the Principles of Its Generation and Use at Project Gutenberg
- Movie explaining acetylene formation from calcium carbide and the explosive limits forming fire hazards
- Calcium Carbide & Acetylene at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham)
- CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards - Acetylene