República Argentina (Spanish)
|Sol de Mayo2
(Sun of May)
Mainland Argentina shown in dark green, with territorial claims shown in light green
and largest city
|Government||Federal presidential constitutional republic|
|-||President||Cristina Fernández de Kirchner|
|-||Vice President||Amado Boudou|
|-||Supreme Court President||Ricardo Lorenzetti|
|-||Lower house||Chamber of Deputies|
|Independence from Spain|
|-||May Revolution||25 May 1810|
|-||Declared||9 July 1816|
|-||Constitution||1 May 1853|
|-||Recognized||29 April 1857|
|-||Total||2,780,400 km2B (8th)
1,073,518 sq mi
|-||2010 census||40,117,0963 (32nd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2015 estimate|
|-||Total||$953.029 billion5 (25th)|
|-||Per capita||$22,4595 (57th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2015 estimate|
|-||Total||$563.138 billion5 (21st)|
|-||Per capita||$13,2715 (54th)|
|Gini (2011)|| 43.66
|HDI (2013)|| 0.8087
very high · 49th
|Currency||Peso ($) (ARS)|
|Time zone||ART (UTC−3)|
|Date format||dd.mm.yyyy (CE)|
|Drives on the||right[b]|
|ISO 3166 code||AR|
|a.||^ De facto at all government levels.C In addition, some provinces have official de jure languages:|
|b.||^ Trains ride on left.|
Argentina (i//; Spanish: [arxenˈtina]), officially the Argentine RepublicA (Spanish: República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America. Sharing the Southern Cone with its smaller neighbour Chile, it is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north; Brazil to the northeast; Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east; Chile to the west and the Drake Passage to the south.
With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi),B Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the second-largest in Latin America, and the largest Spanish-speaking one. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas), South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
The earliest recorded human presence in the area of modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period.10 The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 15th century.11 Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata,12 a Spanish overseas colony founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence (1810–1818) was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with massive waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the early 20th century.1314
After 1930 Argentina descended into political instability and periodic economic crisis that pushed it back into underdevelopment,15 though it nevertheless remained among the fifteen richest countries until the mid-20th century.13 Argentina retains its historic status as a middle power16 in international affairs, and is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America.1819
Argentina has the third-largest economy in Latin America and is a member of the G-15 and G-20 major economies. It is also a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, WTO, Mercosur, UNASUR, CELAC and OEI. Because of its stability, market size and growing high-tech sector,20 Argentina is classified as a high-income economy21 with a "very high" rating on the Human Development Index.7
- 1 Name and etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 External links
Name and etymology
The name "Argentina" is derived from Latin argentum ("silver", plata in Spanish), a noun associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.22
The first written use of the name can be traced to La Argentina,D a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region and the foundation of Buenos Aires.23 Although "Argentina" was already in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, and "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence.
The 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents.24 The name "Argentine Confederation" was also commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853.25 In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic",26 and that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as legally valid.27E
In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina.28 This fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, and now the country is simply referred to as "Argentina".
The earliest traces of human life in the area now known as Argentina are dated from the Paleolithic period, with further traces in the Mesolithic and Neolithic.10 Until the period of European colonization, Argentina was relatively sparsely populated by a wide number of diverse cultures with different social organizations,30 which can be divided into three main groups:31
- Basic hunters and food gatherers without development of pottery, like the Selknam and Yaghan in the extreme south.
- Advanced hunters and food gatherers like the Puelche, Querandí and Serranos in the center-east; and the Tehuelche in the south—all of them conquered by the Mapuche spreading from Chile32—and the Kom and Wichi in the north.
- Farmers with pottery, like the Charrúa, Minuane and Guaraní in the northeast, with slash and burn semisedentary existence;30 the advanced Diaguita sedentary trading culture in the northwest, which was conquered by the Inca Empire around 1480; the Toconoté and Hênîa and Kâmîare in the country's center, and the Huarpe in the center-west, a culture that raised llama cattle and was strongly influenced by the Incas.30
Europeans first arrived in the region with the 1502 voyage of Amerigo Vespucci. The Spanish navigators Juan Díaz de Solís and Sebastian Cabot visited the territory that is now Argentina in 1516 and 1526, respectively.11 In 1536 Pedro de Mendoza founded the small settlement of Buenos Aires, which was abandoned in 1541.33
Further colonization efforts came from Paraguay—establishing the Governorate of the Río de la Plata—Peru and Chile.34 Francisco de Aguirre founded Santiago del Estero in 1553. Londres was founded in 1558; Mendoza, in 1561; San Juan, in 1562; San Miguel de Tucumán, in 1565.35 Juan de Garay founded Santa Fe in 1573 and the same year Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera set up Córdoba.36 Garay went further south to re-fund Buenos Aires in 1580.37 San Luis was established in 1596.35
The Spanish Empire subordinated the economic potential of the Argentine territory to the immediate wealth of the silver and gold mines in Bolivia and Peru, and as such it became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru until the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1776 with Buenos Aires as its capital.38
Buenos Aires repelled two ill-fated British invasions in 1806 and 1807.39 The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and the example of the first Atlantic Revolutions generated criticism of the absolutist monarchy that ruled the country. As in the rest of Spanish America, the overthrow of Ferdinand VII during the Peninsular War created great concern.40
Independence and civil wars
Beginning a process from which Argentina was to emerge as successor state to the Viceroyalty,12 the 1810 May Revolution replaced the viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros with the First Junta, a new government in Buenos Aires composed by locals.40 In the first clashes of the Independence War the Junta crushed a royalist counter-revolution in Córdoba,41 but failed to overcome those of the Banda Oriental, Upper Peru and Paraguay, which later became independent states.42
Revolutionaries split into two antagonist groups: the Centralists and the Federalists—a move that would define Argentina's first decades of independence.43 The Assembly of the Year XIII appointed Gervasio Antonio de Posadas as Argentina's first Supreme Director.43
In 1816 the Congress of Tucumán formalized the Declaration of Independence.44 One year later General Martín Miguel de Güemes stopped royalists on the north, and General José de San Martín took an army across the Andes and secured the independence of Chile; then he led the fight to the Spanish stronghold of Lima and proclaimed the independence of Peru.45F In 1819 Buenos Aires enacted a centralist constitution that was soon abrogated by federalists.47
The 1820 Battle of Cepeda, fought between the Centralists and the Federalists, resulted in the end of the Supreme Director rule. In 1826 Buenos Aires enacted another centralist constitution, with Bernardino Rivadavia being appointed as the first president of the country. However, the interior provinces soon rose against him, forced his resignation and discarded the constitution.48 Centralists and Federalists resumed the civil war; the latter prevailed and formed the Argentine Confederation in 1831, led by Juan Manuel de Rosas.49 During his regime he faced a French blockade (1838–1840), the War of the Confederation (1836–1839), and a combined Anglo-French blockade (1845–1850), but remained undefeated and prevented further loss of national territory.50 His trade restriction policies, however, angered the interior provinces and in 1852 Justo José de Urquiza, another powerful caudillo, beat him out of power. As new president of the Confederation, Urquiza enacted the liberal and federal 1853 Constitution. Buenos Aires seceded but was forced back into the Confederation after being defeated in the 1859 Battle of Cepeda.51
Rise of the modern nation
Overpowering Urquiza in the 1861 Battle of Pavón, Bartolomé Mitre secured Buenos Aires predominance and was elected as the first president of the reunified country. He was followed by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento and Nicolás Avellaneda; these three presidencies set up the bases of the modern Argentine State.52
Starting with Julio Argentino Roca in 1880, ten consecutive federal governments emphasized liberal economic policies. The massive wave of European immigration they promoted—second only to the United States'—led to a near-reinvention of Argentine society and economy that by 1908 had placed the country as the seventh wealthiest13 developed nation14 in the world. Driven by this immigration wave and decreasing mortality, the Argentine population grew fivefold and the economy 15-fold:53 from 1870 to 1910 Argentina's wheat exports went from 100,000 to 2,500,000 t (110,000 to 2,760,000 short tons) per year, while frozen beef exports increased from 25,000 to 365,000 t (28,000 to 402,000 short tons) per year,54 placing Argentina as one of the world's top five exporters.55 Its railway mileage rose from 503 to 31,104 km (313 to 19,327 mi).56 Fostered by a new public, compulsory, free and secular education system, literacy skyrocketed from 22% to 65%, a level higher than most Latin American nations would reach even fifty years later.55 Furthermore, real GDP grew so fast that despite the huge immigration influx, per capita income between 1862 to 1920 went from 67% of developed country levels to 100%:56
- By 1865 Argentina was already one of the top 25 nations by per capita income.
- By 1901 it had risen to 10th place—ahead of Germany, Austria and France.
- By 1908 it had surpassed Denmark, Canada and The Netherlands to reach 7th place—behind Switzerland, New Zealand, Australia, the United States, the United Kingdom and Belgium. Argentina's per capita income was 70% higher than Italy's, 90% higher than Spain's, 180% higher than Japan's and 400% higher than Brazil's.13
Despite these unique achievements, the country was slow to meet its original goals of industrialization:57 after steep development of capital-intensive local industries in the 1920s, a significant part of the manufacture sector remained labor-intensive in the 1930s.58
In 1912, President Roque Sáenz Peña enacted universal and secret male suffrage, which allowed Hipólito Yrigoyen, leader of the Radical Civic Union (or UCR), to win the 1916 election. He enacted social and economic reforms and extended assistance to family farmers and small businesses. Argentina stayed neutral during World War I. The second administration of Yrigoyen faced an economic crisis, influenced by the Great Depression.59
In 1930, Yrigoyen was ousted from power by the military led by José Félix Uriburu. Although Argentina remained among the fifteen richest countries until mid-century,13 this coup d'état marks the start of the steady economic and social decline that pushed the country back15 into underdevelopment.
Uriburu ruled for two years; then Agustín Pedro Justo was elected with fraud,clarification needed and signed a controversial treaty with the United Kingdom. Argentina stayed neutral during World War II, a decision that had full British support but was rejected by the United States after the attack on Pearl Harbor. A new military coup toppled the government, and Argentina declared war on the Axis Powers a month before the end of World War II in Europe. The minister of welfare, Juan Domingo Perón, was fired and jailed because of his high popularity among workers. His liberation was forced by a massive popular demonstration, and he went on to win the 1946 election.60
Perón created a political movement known as Peronism. He nationalized strategic industries and services, improved wages and working conditions, paid the full external debt and achieved nearly full employment. The economy, however, began to decline in 1950 because of over-expenditure. His highly popular wife, Eva Perón, played a central political role. She pushed Congress to enact women suffrage in 1947,61 and developed an unprecedented social assistance to the most vulnerable sectors of society.62 However, her declining health did not allow her to run for the vice-presidency in 1951, and she died of cancer the following year. Perón was reelected in 1951, even surpassing his 1946 performance. In 1955 the Navy bombed the Plaza de Mayo in an ill-fated attempt to kill the President. A few months later, during the self-called Liberating Revolution coup, he resigned and went into exile in Spain.63
The new head of State, Pedro Eugenio Aramburu, proscribed Peronism and banned all of its manifestations; nevertheless, Peronists kept organized underground. Arturo Frondizi from the UCR won the following elections.64 He encouraged investment to achieve energetic and industrial self-sufficiency, reversed a chronic trade deficit and lifted Peronism proscription; yet his efforts to stay in good terms with Peronists and the military earned him the rejection of both and a new coup forced him out.65 But Senate Chief José María Guido reacted swiftly and applied the anti-power vacuum legislation, becoming president instead; elections were repealed and Peronism proscribed again. Arturo Illia was elected in 1963 and led to an overall increase in prosperity; however his attempts to legalize Peronism resulted in his overthrow in 1966 by the Juan Carlos Onganía-led coup d'état called the Argentine Revolution, a new military government that sought to rule indefinitely.66
The 'Dirty War (Spanish: Guerra Sucia) was the name used by the Argentine Government for a period of state terrorism in Argentina against political dissidents, with military and security forces conducting urban and rural guerrilla violence against left-wing guerrillas, political dissidents, and anyone believed to be associated with socialism.676869 Victims of the violence included an estimated 15,000 to 30,000 left-wing activists and militants, including trade unionists, students, journalists, Marxists, Peronist guerrillas70 and alleged sympathizers.71 Some 10,000 of the "disappeared" were believed to be guerrillas of the Montoneros (MPM), and the Marxist People's Revolutionary Army (ERP).727374 The guerrillas were responsible for causing at least 6,000 casualties among the military, police forces and civilian population according to a National Geographic Magazine article in the mid-1980s.75 The disappeared ones were considered to be a political or ideological threat to the military junta and their disappearances an attempt to silence the opposition and break the determination of the guerillas.76
Declassified documents of the Chilean secret police cite an official estimate by the Batallón de Inteligencia 601 of 22,000 killed or "disappeared" between 1975 and mid-1978. During this period, in which it was later revealed 8,625 "disappeared" in the form of PEN (Poder Ejecutivo Nacional, anglicized as "National Executive Power") detainees who were held in clandestine detention camps throughout Argentina before eventually being freed under diplomatic pressure.77 The number of people believed to have been killed or "disappeared," depending on the source, range from 9,089 to 30,000 in the period from 1976 to 1983, when the military was forced from power following Argentina's defeat in the Falklands War.7879 The National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons estimates that around 13,000 were disappeared.80
After democratic government was restored, Congress passed legislation to provide compensation to victims' families. Some 11,000 Argentines have applied to the relevant authorities and received up to US $200,000 each as monetary compensation for the loss of loved ones during the military dictatorship.81
The exact chronology of the repression is still debated, however, as in some senses the long political war started in 1969. Trade unionists were targeted for assassination by the Peronist and Marxist paramilitary as early as 1969, and individual cases of state-sponsored terrorism against Peronism and the left can be traced back to the Bombing of Plaza de Mayo in 1955. The Trelew massacre of 1972, the actions of the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance since 1973, and Isabel Martínez de Perón's "annihilation decrees" against left-wing guerrillas during Operativo Independencia (translates to Operation of Independence) in 1975, have also been suggested as dates for the beginning of the Dirty War.
Onganía shut down Congress, banned all political parties and dismantled student and worker unions. In 1969, popular discontent led to two massive protests: the Cordobazo and the Rosariazo. The terrorist guerrilla organization Montoneros kidnapped and executed Aramburu.82 The newly chosen head of government, Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, seeking to ease the growing political pressure, let Héctor José Cámpora be the Peronist candidate instead of Perón. Cámpora won the March 1973 election, issued a pardon for condemned guerrilla members and then secured Perón's return from his exile in Spain.83
On the day Perón returned to Argentina, the clash between Peronist internal factions—right-wing union leaders and left-wing youth from Montoneros—resulted in the Ezeiza Massacre. Cámpora resigned, overwhelmed by political violence, and Perón won the September 1973 election with his third wife Isabel as vice-president. He expelled Montoneros from the party84 and they became once again a clandestine organization. José López Rega organized the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (AAA) to fight against them and the People's Revolutionary Army (ERP). Perón died in July 1974 and was succeeded by his wife, who signed a secret decree empowering the military and the police to "annihilate" the left-wing subversion,85 stopping ERP's attempt to start a rural insurgence in Tucumán province.86 Isabel Perón was ousted one year later by a junta of the three armed forces, led by army general Jorge Rafael Videla. They initiated the National Reorganization Process, often shortened to Proceso.87
The Proceso shut down Congress, removed the judges of the Supreme Court, banned political parties and unions, and resorted to the forced disappearance of suspected guerrilla members and of anyone believed to be associated with the left-wing. By the end of 1976 Montoneros had lost near 2,000 members; by 1977, the ERP was completely defeated. A severely weakened Montoneros launched a counterattack in 1979, which was quickly annihilated, ending the guerrilla threat. Nevertheless, the junta stayed in power. Then head of state General Leopoldo Galtieri launched Operation Rosario, which escalated into the Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de Malvinas); within two months Argentina was defeated by the United Kingdom. Reynaldo Bignone replaced Galtieri and began to organize the transition to democratic rule.88
Raúl Alfonsín won the 1983 elections campaigning for the prosecution of those responsible for human rights violations during the Proceso: the Trial of the Juntas and other martial courts sentenced all the coup's leaders but, under military pressure, he also enacted the Full Stop and Due Obedience laws,8990 which halted prosecutions further down the chain of command. The worsening economic crisis and hyperinflation reduced his popular support and the Peronist Carlos Menem won the 1989 election. Soon after, riots forced Alfonsín to an early resignation.91
Menem embraced neo-liberal policies:92 a fixed exchange rate, business deregulation, privatizations and dismantling of protectionist barriers normalized the economy for a while. He pardoned the officers who had been sentenced during Alfonsín's government. The 1994 Constitutional Amendment allowed Menem to be elected for a second term. The economy began to decline in 1995, with increasing unemployment and recession;93 led by Fernando de la Rúa, the UCR returned to the presidency in the 1999 elections.94
De la Rúa kept Menem's economic plan despite the worsening crisis, which led to growing social discontent.93 A massive capital flight was responded to with a freezing of bank accounts, generating further turmoil. The December 2001 riots forced him to resign.95 Congress appointed Eduardo Duhalde as acting president, who abrogated the fixed exchange rate established by Menem.96 By the late 2002 the economic crisis began to recess, but the assassination of two piqueteros by the police caused political commotion, prompting Duhalde to move elections forward.97 Néstor Kirchner was elected as the new president.98
Boosting the neo-Keynesian economic policies97 laid by Duhalde, Kirchner ended the economic crisis attaining significant fiscal and trade surpluses, and steep GDP growth.99 Under his administration Argentina restructured its defaulted debt with an unprecedented discount of about 70% on most bonds, paid off debts with the International Monetary Fund,100 purged the military of officers with doubtful human rights records,101 nullified and voided the Full Stop and Due Obedience laws,102G ruled them as unconstitutional, and resumed legal prosecution of the Juntas' crimes. He did not run for reelection, promoting instead the candidacy of his wife, senator Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who was elected in 2007104 and reelected in 2011.
With a mainland surface area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,518 sq mi),B Argentina is located in southern South America, sharing land borders with Chile across the Andes to the west;106 Bolivia and Paraguay to the north; Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east;107 and the Drake Passage to the south;108 for an overall land border length of 9,376 km (5,826 mi). Its coastal border over the Río de la Plata and South Atlantic Ocean is 5,117 km (3,180 mi) long.107
Argentina's highest point is Aconcagua in the Mendoza province (6,959 m (22,831 ft) above sea level),109 also the highest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres.106 The lowest point is Laguna del Carbón in the San Julián Great Depression Santa Cruz province (−105 m (−344 ft) below sea level,109 also the lowest point in the Southern and Western Hemispheres, and the seventh lowest point on Earth)110
The northernmost point is at the confluence of the Grande de San Juan and Río Mojinete rivers in Jujuy province; the southernmost is Cape San Pío in Tierra del Fuego province; the easternmost is northeast of Bernardo de Irigoyen, Misiones and the westernmost is within Los Glaciares National Park in Santa Cruz province.107 The maximum north–south distance is 3,694 km (2,295 mi), while the maximum east–west one is 1,423 km (884 mi).107
Some of the major rivers are the Paraná, Uruguay—which join to form the Río de la Plata, Paraguay, Salado, Negro, Santa Cruz, Pilcomayo, Bermejo and Colorado.111 These rivers are discharged into the Argentine Sea, the shallow area of the Atlantic Ocean over the Argentine Shelf, an unusually wide continental platform.112 Its waters are influenced by two major ocean currents: the warm Brazil Current and the cold Falklands Current.113
Argentina is divided into seven geographical regions:H
- Northwest, a continuation of the high Puna with even higher, more rugged topography to the far-west;114 the arid precordillera, filled with narrow valleys or quebradas to the mid-west;115 and an extension of the mountainous Yungas jungles to the east.115
- Mesopotamia, a subtropical wedge covering the western Paraná Plateau and neighbouring lowlands enclosed by the Paraná and Uruguay rivers.106
- Gran Chaco, a large, subtropical and tropical low-lying, gently sloping alluvial plain116 between Mesopotamia and the Andes.
- Sierras Pampeanas, a series of medium-height mountain chains located in the center.117
- Cuyo, a basin and range area in the central Andes piedmont, to the west.116
- Pampas, a massive and hugely fertile alluvial plain located in the center east.118
- Patagonia, a large southern plateau consisting mostly of arid, rocky steppes106 to the east; with moister cold grasslands to the south and dense subantarctic forests to the west.119
Argentina is a megadiverse country120 hosting one of the greatest ecosystem varieties in the world: 15 continental zones, 3 oceanic zones, and the Antarctic region are all represented in its territory.120 This huge ecosystem variety has led to a biological diversity that is among the world's largest:120121
- 9,372 cataloged vascular plant species (ranked 24th)I
- 1,038 cataloged bird species (ranked 14th)J
- 375 cataloged mammal species (ranked 12th)K
- 338 cataloged reptilian species (ranked 16th)
- 162 cataloged amphibian species (ranked 19th)
Although the most populated areas are generally temperate, Argentina has an exceptional climate diversity, ranging from tropical in the north122 to subpolar in the far continental south.123 The average annual precipitation ranges from 150 millimetres (6 in) in the driest parts of Patagonia to over 2,000 millimetres (79 in) in the westernmost parts of Patagonia and the northeastern parts of the country.124 Mean annual temperatures range from 5 °C (41.0 °F) in the far south to 25 °C (77.0 °F) in the north.124 Climate patterns roughly follow the geographic regional division:H
- The Northwest climate is varied, with rainfall diminishing north to south and east to west:112 Puna, to the high Andean west, is dry and with great temperature fluctuation but cold overall, frequently falling below freezing point at night;112 Yungas, to the east, are tropical, very hot and moist.125
- Mesopotamia is subtropical overall, with hot and very humid tropical climate in the north,126 and gradually becoming temperate and semi-humid to the south.127
- Gran Chaco has very hot subtropical to tropical climate,122 and humid summers with mild drier winters. With heavy seasonal rainfalls,127 it is subject to periodic droughts.128
- Cuyo is generally mild, although mountainous areas have alpine climate with temperatures below freezing much of the year.129
- Pampas and Sierras Pampeanas are temperate, with hot, stormy summers and cool winters; moisture is higher in the east.130
- Patagonia is very windy, with mild summers and cold112 to very cold winters131 with heavy snowfall and frost,112 especially in mountainous zones.132 Precipitation steeply diminishes from west to east.133
Major wind currents include the cool Pampero Winds blowing on the flat plains of Patagonia and the Pampas; following the cold front, warm currents blow from the north in middle and late winter, creating mild conditions.130 The Sudestada usually moderates cold temperatures but brings very heavy rains, rough seas and coastal flooding. It is most common in late autumn and winter along the central coast and in the Río de la Plata estuary.130 The Zonda, a hot dry wind, affects Cuyo and the central Pampas. Squeezed of all moisture during the 6,000 m (19,685 ft) descent from the Andes, Zonda winds can blow for hours with gusts up to 120 km/h (75 mph), fueling wildfires and causing damage; between June and November, when the Zonda blows, snowstorms and blizzard (viento blanco) conditions usually affect higher elevations.134
Seat of the Congress
Workplace of the President
Palace of Justice
Argentina is a federal constitutional republic and representative democracy.135 The government is regulated by a system of checks and balances defined by the Constitution of Argentina, the country's supreme legal document. The seat of government is the city of Buenos Aires, as designated by Congress.136 Suffrage is universal, equal, secret and mandatory.137L
The federal government is composed of three branches:
- Legislative: The bicameral Congress, made up of the Senate and Deputy chambers, makes federal law, declares war, approves treaties and has the power of the purse and of impeachment, by which it can remove sitting members of the government.139
- The Chamber of Deputies represents the people and has 257 voting members elected to a four-year term. Seats are apportioned among the provinces by population every tenth year.140 As of 2014[update] ten provinces have just five deputies while the Buenos Aires Province, being the most populous one, has 70.
- The Chamber of Senators represents the provinces, has 72 members elected at-large to six-year terms, with each province having three seats; one third of Senate seats are up for election every other year.141 At least one-third of the candidates presented by the parties must be women.
- Executive: The President is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law—subject to Congressional override—and appoints the members of the Cabinet and other officers, who administer and enforce federal laws and policies.142 The President is elected directly by the vote of the people, serves a four-year term and may be elected to office no more than twice in a row.143
- Judicial: The Supreme Court and lower federal courts interpret laws and overturn those they find unconstitutional.144 The Judicial is independent of the Executive and the Legislative. The Supreme Court has seven members appointed by the President—subject to Senate approval—who serve for life. The lower courts' judges are proposed by the Council of Magistrates (a secretariat composed of representatives of judges, lawyers, researchers, the Executive and the Legislative), and appointed by the President on Senate approval.145
Argentina is a federation of twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires. Provinces are divided for administration purposes into departments and municipalities, except for Buenos Aires Province, which is divided into partidos. The City of Buenos Aires is divided into communes.
Provinces hold all the power that they chose not to delegate to the federal government;146 they must be representative republics and must not contradict the Constitution.147 Beyond this they are fully autonomous: they enact their own constitutions,148 freely organize their local governments,149 and own and manage their natural and financial resources.150 Some provinces have bicameral legislatures, while others have unicameral ones.M
During the War of Independence the main cities and their surrounding countrysides became provinces though the intervention of their cabildos. The Anarchy of the Year XX completed this process, shaping the original thirteen provinces. Jujuy seceded from Salta in 1834, and the thirteen provinces became fourteen. After seceding for a decade, Buenos Aires accepted the 1853 Constitution of Argentina in 1861, and was made a federal territory in 1880.152
An 1862 law designated as national territories those under federal control but outside the frontiers of the provinces. In 1884 they served as bases for the establishment of the governorates of Misiones, Formosa, Chaco, La Pampa, Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego.153 The agreement about a frontier dispute with Chile in 1900 created the National Territory of Los Andes; its lands were incorporated into Jujuy, Salta and Catamarca in 1943.152 La Pampa and Chaco became provinces in 1951. Misiones did so in 1953, and Formosa, Neuquén, Río Negro, Chubut and Santa Cruz, in 1955. The last national territory, Tierra del Fuego, became the Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur Province in 1990.152
Foreign policy is officially handled by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Worship, which answers to the President.
An historical and current middle power,16 Argentina bases its foreign policies on the guiding principles of non-intervention,154 human rights, self-determination, international cooperation, disarmament and peaceful settlement of conflicts.155 The country is one of the G-15 and G-20 major economies of the world, and a founding member of the UN, WBG, WTO and OAS. In 2012 Argentina was elected again to a two-year non-permanent position on the United Nations Security Council and is participating in major peacekeeping operations in Haiti, Cyprus, Western Sahara and the Middle East.156
A prominent Latin American18 and Southern Cone19 regional power, Argentina co-founded OEI, CELAC and UNASUR, of which the former president Néstor Kirchner was first Secretary General. It is also a founding member of the Mercosur block, having Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela as partners. Since 2002 the country has emphasized its key role in Latin American integration, and the block—which has some supranational legislative functions—is its first international priority.157
Argentina claims 965,597 km2 (372,819 sq mi) in Antarctica, where it has the world's oldest continuous state presence, since 1904.158 This overlaps claims by Chile and the United Kingdom, though all such claims fall under the provisions of the 1961 Antarctic Treaty, of which Argentina is a founding signatory and permanent consulting member, with the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat being based in Buenos Aires.159
Argentina disputes sovereignty over the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas), and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands,160 which are administered by the United Kingdom as Overseas Territories.
TAM VCA 155 Palmaria
ARA Hércules (B-52)
Argentine Air Force
The President holds the title of commander-in-chief of the Argentine Armed Forces, as part of a legal framework that imposes a strict separation between national defense and internal security systems:161162
- The National Defense System, an exclusive responsibility of the federal government,163 coordinated by the Ministry of Defense, and comprising the Army, the Navy and the Air Force.164 Ruled and monitored by Congress165 through the Houses' Defense Committees,166 it is organized on the essential principle of legitimate self-defense: the repelling of any external military aggression in order to guarantee freedom of the people, national sovereignty, and territorial integrity.166 Its secondary missions include committing to multinational operations within the framework of the United Nations, participating in internal support missions, assisting friendly countries, and establishing a sub-regional defense system.166
- Military service is voluntary, with enlistment age between 18 and 24 years old and no conscription.167 Argentina's defense has historically been one of the best equipped in the region, even managing its own weapon research facilities, shipyards, ordnance, tank and plane factories.168 However, real military expenditures declined steadily after 1981 and the defense budget in 2011 was about 0.74% of GDP, a historical minimum,169 below the Latin American average.
- The Interior Security System, jointly administered by the federal and subscribing provincial governments.162 At the federal level it is coordinated by the Interior, Security and Justice ministries, and monitored by Congress.162 It is enforced by the Federal Police; the Prefecture, which fulfills coast guard duties; the Gendarmerie, which serves border guard tasks; and the Airport Security Police.170 At the provincial level it is coordinated by the respective internal security ministries and enforced by local police agencies.162
Benefiting from rich natural resources, a highly literate population, a diversified industrial base, and an export-oriented agricultural sector, the economy of Argentina is Latin America's third-largest.171 It has a "very high" rating on the Human Development Index7 and a relatively high GDP per capita,172 with a considerable internal market size and a growing share of the high-tech sector.20
A middle emerging economy and one of the world's top developing nations,173N Argentina is a member of the G-20 major economies. Historically, however, its economic performance has been very uneven, with high economic growth alternating with severe recessions, income maldistribution and—in the recent decades—increasing poverty. Early in the 20th century Argentina achieved development,14 and became the world's seventh richest country.13 Although managing to keep a place among the top fifteen economies until mid-century,13 it suffered a long and steady decline and now it's just an upper middle-income country.174
High inflation—a weakness of the Argentine economy for decades—has become a trouble once again, with rates in 2013 between the official 10.2% and the privately estimated 25%, causing heated public debate over manipulated statistics.175176 Income distribution, having improved since 2002, is classified as "medium", still considerably unequal.6
Argentina ranks 102nd out of 178 countries in the Transparency International's 2012 Corruption Perceptions Index.177 While the country has settled most of its debts, it faces a technical debt crisis since 31 July 2014. A New York judge blocked Argentina's payments to 93% of its bonds unless it pays to "Vulture funds" the full value of the defaulted bonds they bought after its 2001 default. Argentina vowed not to capitulate to what it considered the ransom tactics of the funds.178
In 2012[update] manufacturing accounted for 20.3% of GDP—the largest goods-producing sector in the nation's economy.180 Well-integrated into Argentine agriculture, half of the industrial exports have rural origin.180
In 2012[update] the leading sectors by volume were: food processing, beverages and tobacco products; motor vehicles and auto parts; textiles and leather; refinery products and biodiesel; chemicals and pharmaceuticals; steel, aluminum and iron; industrial and farm machinery; home appliances and furniture; plastics and tires; glass and cement; and recording and print media.180 In addition, Argentina has since long been one of the top five wine-producing countries in the world.180 However, it has also been classified as one of the 74 countries where instances of child labor and forced labor have been observed and mentioned in a 2014 report published by the Bureau of International Labor Affairs.184 The ILAB's List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor clearly shows that Argentina's agricultural sector relies heavily on such practices.
Córdoba is Argentina's major industrial center, hosting metalworking, motor vehicle and auto parts manufactures. Next in importance are the Greater Buenos Aires area (food processing, metallurgy, motor vehicles and auto parts, chemicals and petrochemicals, consumer durables, textiles and printing); Rosario (food processing, metallurgy, farm machinery, oil refining, chemicals, and tanning); San Miguel de Tucumán (sugar refining); San Lorenzo (chemicals and pharmaceuticals); San Nicolás de los Arroyos (steel milling and metallurgy); and Ushuaia and Bahía Blanca (oil refining).185 Other manufacturing enterprises are located in the provinces of Santa Fe (zinc and copper smelting, and flour milling); Mendoza and Neuquén (wineries and fruit processing); Chaco (textiles and sawmills); and Santa Cruz, Salta and Chubut (oil refining)185
Tourism in Argentina is characterized by its cultural offerings and its ample and varied natural assets. The country had 5.57 million visitors in 2013, ranking in terms of the international tourist arrivals as the top destination in South America, and second in Latin America after Mexico.187 Revenues from international tourists reached US$4.41 billion in 2013, down from US$4.89 billion in 2012.187 The country's capital city, Buenos Aires, is the most visited city in South America.188
- Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, the capital of the Nation.
- Iguazú National Park, waterfalls and jungle.
- Mendoza, Andes mountains and main wine producing region.
- Bariloche, the largest ski centre in Latin America, and Villa La Angostura.
- Los Alerces National Park in central Patagonia.
- Los Glaciares National Park, glaciers.
- Ushuaia, southernmost city in the world.
- Mar del Plata, seaside beach resort.
- Salta, Inca and colonial sites in Humahuaca, the Calchaquí Valleys, Iruya, Tilcara, and other cities of the North.
- Valdes Peninsula, sea lions, elephant seals and fur seals, Magellanic penguins and Southern right whales.
- Sierras de Córdoba, mild climate and landscapes ranging from the bucolic and wild.
- Ischigualasto, strange landscape where there is a shortage of vegetation and more varied palette of soils.
- El Chaltén, mountain village and El Calafate, city with beautiful attractions and ski centers.
Argentina has the largest railway system in Latin America, with 36,966 km (22,970 mi) of operating lines in 2008[update], out of a full network of almost 48,000 km (29,826 mi).192 This system links all 23 provinces plus Buenos Aires City, and connects with all neighboring countries.193 There are four incompatible gauges in use; this forces virtually all interregional freight traffic to pass through Buenos Aires.193 The system has been in decline since the 1940s: regularly running up large budgetary deficits, by 1991 it was transporting 1,400 times less goods than it did in 1973.193 However, in recent years the system has experienced a greater degree of investment from the state, in both commuter rail lines and long distance lines, renewing rolling stock and infrastructure.194195 In April 2015, by overwhelming majority the Argentine Senate passed a law which re-created Ferrocarriles Argentinos (2015), effectively re-nationalising the country's railways, a move which saw support from all major political parties on both sides of the political spectrum.196197198
By 2004[update] Buenos Aires, all provincial capitals except Ushuaia, and all medium-sized towns were interconnected by 69,412 km (43,131 mi) of paved roads, out of a total road network of 231,374 km (143,769 mi).199 Most important cities are linked by a growing number of expressways, including Buenos Aires–La Plata, Rosario–Córdoba, Córdoba–Villa Carlos Paz, Villa Mercedes–Mendoza, National Route 14 General José Gervasio Artigas and Provincial Route 2 Juan Manuel Fangio, among others. Nevertheless, this road infrastructure is still inadequate and cannot handle the sharply growing demand caused by deterioration of the railway system.193
In 2012[update] there were about 11,000 km (6,835 mi) of waterways,200 mostly comprising the La Plata, Paraná, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers, with Buenos Aires, Zárate, Campana, Rosario, San Lorenzo, Santa Fe, Barranqueras and San Nicolas de los Arroyos as the main fluvial ports. Some of the largest sea ports are La Plata–Ensenada, Bahía Blanca, Mar del Plata, Quequén–Necochea, Comodoro Rivadavia, Puerto Deseado, Puerto Madryn, Ushuaia and San Antonio Oeste. Buenos Aires has historically been the most important port; however since the 1990s the Up-River port region has become dominant: stretching along 67 km (42 mi) of the Paraná river shore in Santa Fe province, it includes 17 ports and in 2013[update] accounted for 50% of all exports.
In 2013[update] there were 161 airports with paved runways201 out of more than a thousand.193 The Ezeiza International Airport, about 35 km (22 mi) from downtown Buenos Aires,202 is the largest in the country, followed by Cataratas del Iguazú in Misiones, and El Plumerillo in Mendoza.193 Aeroparque, in the city of Buenos Aires, is the most important domestic airport.203
Media and communications
Print media industry is highly developed in Argentina, with more than two hundred newspapers. The major national ones include Clarín (centrist, Latin America's best-seller and the second most widely circulated in the Spanish-speaking world), La Nación (center-right, published since 1870), Página/12 (leftist, founded in 1987), the Buenos Aires Herald (Latin America's most prestigious English language daily, liberal, dating back to 1876), La Voz del Interior (center, founded in 1904),204 and the Argentinisches Tageblatt (German weekly, liberal, published since 1878)205
Argentina began the world's first regular radio broadcasting on 27 August 1920, when Richard Wagner's Parsifal was aired by a team of medical students led by Enrique Telémaco Susini in Buenos Aires' Teatro Coliseo.206207 By 2002[update] there were 260 AM and 1150 FM registered radio stations in the country.208
The Argentine television industry is large, diverse and popular across Latin America, with many productions and TV formats having been exported abroad. Since 1999 Argentines enjoy the highest availability of cable and satellite television in Latin America,209 as of 2014[update] totaling 87.4% of the country's households, a rate similar to those in the United States, Canada and Europe.210
By 2011[update] Argentina also had the highest coverage of networked telecommunications among Latin American powers: about 67% of its population had internet access and 137.2%, mobile phone subscriptions.211
Science and technology
Argentines have three Nobel Prize laureates in the Sciences. Bernardo Houssay, the first Latin American among them, discovered the role of pituitary hormones in regulating glucose in animals. César Milstein did extensive research in antibodies. Luis Leloir discovered how organisms store energy converting glucose into glycogen and the compounds which are fundamental in metabolizing carbohydrates. Argentine research has led to the treatment of heart diseases and several forms of cancer. Domingo Liotta designed and developed the first artificial heart successfully implanted in a human being in 1969. René Favaloro developed the techniques and performed the world's first ever coronary bypass surgery.
Argentina's nuclear programme has been highly successful. In 1957 Argentina was the first country in Latin America to design and build a research reactor with homegrown technology, the RA-1 Enrico Fermi. This reliance in the development of own nuclear related technologies, instead of simply buying them abroad, was a constant of Argentina's nuclear programme conducted by the civilian National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). Nuclear facilities with Argentine technology have been built in Peru, Algeria, Australia and Egypt. In 1983, the country admitted having the capability of producing weapon-grade uranium, a major step needed to assemble nuclear weapons; since then, however, Argentina has pledged to use nuclear power only for peaceful purposes.212 As a member of the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency, Argentina has been a strong voice in support of nuclear non-proliferation efforts213 and is highly committed to global nuclear security.214 In 1974 it was the first country in Latin America to put in-line a commercial nuclear power plant, Atucha I. Although the Argentine built parts for that station amounted to 10% of the total, the nuclear fuel it uses are since entirely built in the country. Later nuclear power stations employed a higher percentage of Argentine built components; Embalse, finished in 1983, a 30% and the 2011 Atucha II reactor a 40%.215
Despite its modest budget and numerous setbacks, academics and the sciences in Argentina have enjoyed an international respect since the turn of the 1900s, when Dr. Luis Agote devised the first safe and effective means of blood transfusion as well as René Favaloro, who was a pioneer in the improvement of the coronary artery bypass surgery. Argentine scientists are still on the cutting edge in fields such as nanotechnology, physics, computer sciences, molecular biology, oncology, ecology, and cardiology. Juan Maldacena, an Argentine-American scientist, is a leading figure in string theory.
Space research has also become increasingly active in Argentina. Argentine built satellites include LUSAT-1 (1990), Víctor-1 (1996), PEHUENSAT-1 (2007),216 and those developed by CONAE, the Argentine space agency, of the SAC series.217 Argentina has its own satellite programme, nuclear power station designs (4th generation) and public nuclear energy company INVAP, which provides several countries with nuclear reactors.218 Established in 1991, the CONAE has since launched two satellites successfully and,219 in June 2009, secured an agreement with the European Space Agency on for the installation of a 35-m diameter antenna and other mission support facilities at the Pierre Auger Observatory, the world's foremost cosmic ray observatory.220 The facility will contribute to numerous ESA space probes, as well as CONAE's own, domestic research projects. Chosen from 20 potential sites and one of only three such ESA installations in the world, the new antenna will create a triangulation which will allow the ESA to ensure mission coverage around the clock 221
In the 2001 census INDEC, Argentina had a population of 36,260,130, and preliminary results from the 2010 census were of 40,091,359 inhabitants.222223 Argentina ranks third in South America in total population and 33rd globally. Population density is of 15 persons per square kilometer of land area, well below the world average of 50 persons. The population growth rate in 2010 was an estimated 1.03% annually, with a birth rate of 17.7 live births per 1,000 inhabitants and a mortality rate of 7.4 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants. The net migration rate has ranged from zero to four immigrants per 1,000 inhabitants per year.224
The proportion of people under 15 is 25.6%, a little below the world average of 28%, and the proportion of people 65 and older is relatively high at 10.8%. In Latin America this is second only to Uruguay and well above the world average, which is currently 7%. Argentina has one of Latin America's lowest population growth rates, recently about 1% a year, as well as a comparatively low infant mortality rate. Its birth rate of 2.3 children per woman is still nearly twice as high as that in Spain or Italy, compared here as they have similar religious practices and proportions.225226 The median age is approximately 30 years and life expectancy at birth is 77.14 years.224
As with other areas of new settlement such as the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil and Uruguay, it is considered that Argentina is a country of immigrants.229230231 Argentines usually refer to the country as a crisol de razas (crucible of races, or melting pot).
During the 18th and 19th centuries especially, Argentina was the country with the second biggest immigration wave in the world, with 6.6 million, second only to the USA in the numbers of immigrants received (27 millions) and ahead of such other areas of new settlement like Canada, Brazil and Australia.232233
Strikingly, at those times, the national population doubled every two decades. This belief is endured in the popular saying "los argentinos descienden de los barcos" (Argentines descend from the ships). Therefore, most Argentines are descended from the 19th- and 20th-century immigrants of the great immigration wave to Argentina (1850–1955),234235 with a great majority of these immigrants coming from diverse European countries. The majority of these European immigrants came from Italy and Spain.236 The majority of Argentines descend from multiple European ethnic groups with an Italian majority (55% of Argentines have Italian origins), followed by Spanish plurality. An estimated 17% of the population also have French origins, and 8% descend from Germans.citation needed
Argentina is home to a significant population of Arab and partial Arab background, mostly of Syrian and Lebanese origin (in Argentina they are considered among the White people, just like in the USA Census). The Asian population in the country numbers at around 180,000 individuals, most of whom are of Chinese237 and Korean descent, although an older Japanese community that traces back to the early 20th century also exists.
A study conducted on 218 individuals in 2010 by the Argentine geneticist Daniel Corach, has established that the genetic map of Argentina is composed by 79% from different European, mainly Italian and Spanish ethnicity, 18% of different ethnicities Native American, and 4.3% of African ethnic groups, and 63.6% of the tested group had at least one ancestor who was Indian.238239
From the 1970s, immigration has mostly been coming from Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru, with smaller numbers from Dominican Republic, Ecuador and Romania.240 The Argentine government estimates that 750,000 inhabitants lack official documents and has launched a program241 to encourage illegal immigrants to declare their status in return for two-year residence visas —so far over 670,000 applications have been processed under the program.242
The de factoC official language is Spanish, spoken by almost all Argentines.243 The country is the largest Spanish-speaking society that universally employs voseo, the use of the pronoun vos instead of tú ("you"), which imposes the use of alternate verb forms as well. Due to the extensive Argentine geography, Spanish has a strong variation among regions, although the prevalent dialect is Rioplatense, primarily spoken in the La Plata Basin and accented similarly to Neapolitan language.244 Italian and other European immigrants influenced Lunfardo—the regional slang—permeating the vernacular vocabulary of other Latin American countries as well.
There are several second-languages in widespread use among the Argentine population:
- English,O taught since elementary school. 42.3% of Argentines claim to speak it, with 15.4% of them claiming to have a high level of language comprehension.citation needed
- Italian, by 1.5 million people.243P
- Arabic, specially its Northern Levantine dialect, by one million people.243
- Standard German, by 400,000 people.243Q
- Yiddish, by 200,000 people,243 the largest Jewish population in Latin America and 7th in the world.245
- Guaraní, by 200,000 people,243 mostly in Corrientes (where it is official de jure) and Misiones.8
- Catalan, by 174,000 people.243
- French, including the rare Occitan language.
- Quechua, by 65,000 people, mostly in the Northwest.243
- Wichí, by 53,700 people, mainly in Chaco243 where, along with Kom and Moqoit, it is official de jure.9
- Vlax Romani, by 52,000 people.243
- Japanese, by 32,000 people.243
- Aymara, by 30,000 people, mostly in the Northwest.243
- Ukrainian, by 27,000 people.243
- Welsh, including its Patagonian dialect, in which 25,000 people are fluent.243 Some districts have recently incorporated it as an educational language.246
According to a CONICET poll, Argentines are 76.5% Catholic, 11.3% Agnostics and Atheists, 9% Evangelical Protestants, 1.2% Jehovah's Witnesses, 0.9% Mormons; 1.2% follow other religions, including Islam, Judaism and Buddhism.251
The country is home to both the largest Muslim250 and largest Jewish communities in Latin America, the latter being the 7th most populous in the world.252 Argentina is a member of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance.250
On 13 March 2013, Argentine Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio was elected as Pope of the Catholic Church and took the name "Francis", becoming the first pope from the Americas and from the Southern Hemisphere, the first non-European pope in 1272 years, and the first Jesuit one.255
Argentina is highly urbanized, with 92% of its population living in cities:256 the ten largest metropolitan areas account for half of the population. About 3 million people live in the city of Buenos Aires, and including the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area it totals around 13 million, making it one of the largest urban areas in the world.257
The metropolitan areas of Córdoba and Rosario have around 1.3 million inhabitants each.257 Mendoza, San Miguel de Tucumán, La Plata, Mar del Plata, Salta and Santa Fe have at least half a million people each.257
The population is unequally distributed: about 60% live in the Pampas region (21% of the total area), including 15 million people in Buenos Aires province. The provinces of Córdoba and Santa Fe, and the city of Buenos Aires have 3 million each. Seven other provinces have over one million people each: Mendoza, Tucumán, Entre Ríos, Salta, Chaco, Corrientes and Misiones. With 64.3 inhabitants per square kilometre (167/sq mi), Tucumán is the only Argentine province more densely populated than the world average; by contrast, the southern province of Santa Cruz has around 1.1/km2 (2.8/sq mi).258
|1||Buenos Aires||(Autonomous city)||3,050,728||11||Resistencia||Chaco||377,000||
|3||Rosario||Santa Fe||1,242,000||13||Bahía Blanca||Buenos Aires||304,000|
|4||Mendoza||Mendoza||885,434||14||San Salvador de Jujuy||Jujuy||298,000|
|6||La Plata||Buenos Aires||732,503||16||Paraná||Entre Ríos||268,000|
|7||Mar del Plata||Buenos Aires||604,563||17||Neuquén||Neuquén||255,000|
|8||Salta||Salta||516,000||18||Santiago del Estero||Santiago del Estero||244,733|
|9||Santa Fe||Santa Fe||493,000||19||Merlo||Buenos Aires||244,168|
|10||San Juan||San Juan||453,229||20||Quilmes||Buenos Aires||230,810|
The Argentine education system consists of four levels:260
- An initial level for children between 45 days to 5 years old, with the last year being compulsory.
- An elementary or lower school mandatory level lasting 6 or 7 years.S In 2010[update] the literacy rate was 98.07%.261
- A secondary or high school mandatory level lasting 5 or 6 years.S In 2010[update] 18.3% of people over age 15 had completed secondary school.262
- A higher level, divided in tertiary, university and post-graduate sub-levels. in 2013[update] there were 47 national public universities across the country, as well as 46 private ones.263 In 2010[update] 6.3% of people over age 20 had graduated from university.262 The public universities of Buenos Aires, Córdoba, La Plata, Rosario, and the National Technological University are some of the most important.
The Argentine state guarantees universal, secular and free-of-charge public education for all levels.T Responsibility for educational supervision is organized at the federal and individual provincial states. In the last decades the role of the private sector has grown across all educational stages.
Health care is provided through a combination of employer and labor union-sponsored plans (Obras Sociales), government insurance plans, public hospitals and clinics and through private health insurance plans. Health care cooperatives number over 300 (of which 200 are related to labor unions) and provide health care for half the population; the national INSSJP (popularly known as PAMI) covers nearly all of the five million senior citizens.265
There are more than 153,000 hospital beds, 121,000 physicians and 37,000 dentists (ratios comparable to developed nations).266267 The relatively high access to medical care has historically resulted in mortality patterns and trends similar to developed nations': from 1953 to 2005, deaths from cardiovascular disease increased from 20% to 23% of the total, those from tumors from 14% to 20%, respiratory problems from 7% to 14%, digestive maladies (non-infectious) from 7% to 11%, strokes a steady 7%, injuries, 6%, and infectious diseases, 4%. Causes related to senility led to many of the rest. Infant deaths have fallen from 19% of all deaths in 1953 to 3% in 2005.266268
The availability of health care has also reduced infant mortality from 70 per 1000 live births in 1948269 to 12.1 in 2009266 and raised life expectancy at birth from 60 years to 76.269 Though these figures compare favorably with global averages, they fall short of levels in developed nations and in 2006, Argentina ranked fourth in Latin America.267
Argentina is a multicultural country with significant European influences. Its cities are largely characterized by both the prevalence of people of European descent, and of conscious imitation of European styles in fashion, architecture and design. Modern Argentine culture has been largely influenced by Italian, Spanish and other European immigration like France, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Germany. among others. Argentina is largely characterized by both the prevalence of people of European descent, and of conscious imitation of European styles in architecture.270 Museums, cinemas, and galleries are abundant in all the large urban centers, as well as traditional establishments such as literary bars, or bars offering live music of a variety of genres.although there are lesser elements of Amerindian and African influences, particularly in the fields of music and art. 271 The other big influence is the gauchos and their traditional country lifestyle of self-reliance.272 Finally, indigenous American traditions have been absorbed into the general cultural milieu. Argentine writer Ernesto Sabato has reflected on the nature of the culture of Argentina as follows:
|“||With the primitive Hispanic American reality fractured in La Plata Basin due to immigration, its inhabitants have come to be somewhat dual with all the dangers but also with all the advantages of that condition: because of our European roots, we deeply link the nation with the enduring values of the Old World; because of our condition of Americans we link ourselves to the rest of the continent, through the folklore of the interior and the old Castilian that unifies us, feeling somehow the vocation of the Patria Grande San Martín and Bolívar once imagined.||”|
Although Argentina's rich literary history began around 1550,274 it reached full independence with Esteban Echeverría's El Matadero, a romantic landmark that played a significant role in the development of 19th century's Argentine narrative,275 split by the ideological divide between the popular, federalist epic of José Hernández' Martín Fierro and the elitist and cultured discourse of Sarmiento's masterpiece, Facundo.276
The Modernist movement advanced into the 20th century including exponents such as Leopoldo Lugones and poet Alfonsina Storni;277 it was followed by Vanguardism, with Ricardo Güiraldes's Don Segundo Sombra as an important reference.278
Jorge Luis Borges, Argentina's most acclaimed writer and one of the foremost figures in the history of literature,279 found new ways of looking at the modern world in metaphor and philosophical debate and his influence has extended to authors all over the globe. Short stories such as Ficciones and The Aleph are among his most famous books. He was a friend and collaborator with Adolfo Bioy Casares, who wrote one of the most praised science fiction novels, The Invention of Morel.280 Julio Cortázar, one of the leading members of the Latin American Boom and a major name in 20th century literature,281 influenced an entire generation of writers in the Americas and Europe.282
Other highly regarded Argentine writers, poets and essayists include Estanislao del Campo, Eugenio Cambaceres, Pedro Bonifacio Palacios, Hugo Wast, Benito Lynch, Enrique Banchs, Oliverio Girondo, Ezequiel Martínez Estrada, Victoria Ocampo, Leopoldo Marechal, Silvina Ocampo, Roberto Arlt, Eduardo Mallea, Manuel Mujica Láinez, Ernesto Sábato, Silvina Bullrich, Rodolfo Walsh, María Elena Walsh, Tomás Eloy Martínez, Manuel Puig, Alejandra Pizarnik, and Osvaldo Soriano.283
Tango, a Rioplatense musical genre with European and African influences,284 is one of Argentina's international cultural symbols.285 The golden age of tango (1930 to mid-1950s) mirrored that of jazz and swing in the United States, featuring large orchestras like those of Osvaldo Pugliese, Aníbal Troilo, Francisco Canaro, Julio de Caro and Juan d'Arienzo.286 After 1955, virtuoso Ástor Piazzolla popularized Nuevo tango, a subtler and more intellectual trend for the genre.286 Tango enjoys worldwide popularity nowadays with groups like Gotan Project, Bajofondo and Tanghetto.
Argentina developed strong classical music and dance scenes that gave rise to renowned artists such as Alberto Ginastera, composer; Alberto Lysy, violinist; Martha Argerich and Eduardo Delgado, pianists; Daniel Barenboim, pianist and symphonic orchestra director; José Cura and Marcelo Álvarez, tenors; and to ballet dancers Jorge Donn, José Neglia, Norma Fontenla, Maximiliano Guerra, Paloma Herrera, Marianela Núñez, Iñaki Urlezaga and Julio Bocca.286
A national Argentine folk style emerged in the 1930s from dozens of regional musical genres and went to influence the entirety of Latin American music. Some of its interpreters, like Atahualpa Yupanqui and Mercedes Sosa, achieved worldwide acclaim.
Argentine rock developed as a distinct musical style in the mid-1960s, when Buenos Aires and Rosario became cradles of aspiring musicians. Founding bands like Los Gatos, Sui Generis, Almendra and Manal were followed by Seru Giran, Los Abuelos de la Nada, Soda Stereo and Patricio Rey y sus Redonditos de Ricota, with prominent artists including Litto Nebbia, Andrés Calamaro, Luis Alberto Spinetta, Charly García, Fito Paez and León Gieco.286
Buenos Aires is one of the great theater capitals of the world,287288 with a scene of international caliber centered on Corrientes Avenue, "the street that never sleeps", sometimes referred to as an intellectual Broadway in Buenos Aires.289 Teatro Colón is a global landmark for opera and classical performances; its acoustics are considered among the world's top five.290U Other important theatrical venues include Teatro General San Martín, Cervantes, both in Buenos Aires City; Argentino in La Plata, El Círculo in Rosario, Independencia in Mendoza, and Libertador in Córdoba. Griselda Gambaro, Copi, Roberto Cossa, Marco Denevi, Carlos Gorostiza, and Alberto Vaccarezza are a few of the most prominent Argentine playwrights.
Argentine theatre traces its origins to Viceroy Juan José de Vértiz y Salcedo's creation of the colony's first theatre, La Ranchería, in 1783. In this stage, in 1786, a tragedy entitled Siripo had its premiere. Siripo is now a lost work (only the second act is conserved), and can be considered the first Argentine stage play, because it was written by Buenos Aires poet Manuel José de Lavardén, it was premiered in Buenos Aires, and its plot was inspired by an historical episode of the early colonization of the Río de la Plata Basin: the destruction of Sancti Spiritu colony by aboriginals in 1529. La Ranchería theatre operated until its destruction in a fire in 1792. The second theatre stage in Buenos Aires was Teatro Coliseo, opened in 1804 during the term of Viceroy Rafael de Sobremonte. It was the nation's longest-continuously operating stage. The musical creator of the Argentine National Anthem, Blas Parera, earned fame as a theatre score writer during the early 19th century. The genre suffered during the regime of Juan Manuel de Rosas, though it flourished alongside the economy later in the century. The national government gave Argentine theatre its initial impulse with the establishment of the Colón Theatre, in 1857, which hosted classical and operatic, as well as stage performances. Antonio Petalardo's successful 1871 gambit on the opening of the Teatro Opera, inspired others to fund the growing art in Argentina.
The Argentine film industry has historically been one of the three most developed in Latin American cinema, along with those produced in Mexico and Brazil.291292 Started in 1896; by the early 1930s it had already become Latin America's leading film producer, a place it kept until the early 1950s.293 The world's first animated feature films were made and released in Argentina, by cartoonist Quirino Cristiani, in 1917 and 1918.294
Argentine films have achieved worldwide recognition: the country has won two Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, with The Official Story (1985) and The Secret in Their Eyes (2009) with seven nominations:
- The Truce (La Tregua) in 1974
- Camila (Camila) in 1984
- The Official Story (La Historia Oficial) in 1985
- Tango (Tango) in 1998
- Son of the Bride (El hijo de la novia) in 2001
- The Secret in Their Eyes (El Secreto de sus Ojos) in 2009
- Wild Tales (Relatos Salvajes) in 2015
In addition, Argentine composers Luis Enrique Bacalov and Gustavo Santaolalla have been honored with Academy Award for Best Original Score in 2006 and 2007 nods and Armando Bo and Nicolás Giacobone have been honored with Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay in 2015. Also, the Argentine French actress Berenice Bejo received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress and won her the César Award for Best Actress and won the award for Best Actress for her role in the film The Past.295
Argentina also has won fifteen Goya Awards for Best Spanish Language Foreign Film with A King and His Movie (1986), A Place in the World (1992), Gatica, el Mono (1993), Autumn Sun (1996), Ashes of Paradise (1997), The Lighthouse (1998), Burnt Money (2000), The Escape (2001), Intimate Stories (2003), Blessed by Fire (2005), The Hands (2006), XXY (2007), The Secret in Their Eyes (2009), Chinese Take-Away (2011), Wild Tales (2014), being by far the most awarded in Latin America. and twenty two nominations.
Many other Argentine films have been acclaimed by the international critique: Camila (1984), Man Facing Southeast (1986), A Place in the World (1992), Pizza, Beer, and Cigarettes (1997), Nine Queens (2000), A Red Bear (2002), The Motorcycle Diaries (2004), The Aura (2005), Chinese Take-Away (2011) and Wild Tales (2014) being some of them.
Some of the best-known Argentine painters are Cándido López and Florencio Molina Campos (Naïve style); Ernesto de la Cárcova and Eduardo Sívori (Realism); Fernando Fader (Impressionism); Pío Collivadino, Atilio Malinverno and Cesáreo Bernaldo de Quirós (Postimpressionism); Emilio Pettoruti (Cubism); Julio Barragán (Concretism and Cubism) Antonio Berni (Neofigurativism); Roberto Aizenberg and Xul Solar (Surrealism); Gyula Košice (Constructivism); Eduardo Mac Entyre (Generative art); Luis Seoane, Carlos Torrallardona, Luis Aquino, and Alfredo Gramajo Gutiérrez (Modernism); Lucio Fontana (Spatialism); Tomás Maldonado and Guillermo Kuitca (Abstract art); León Ferrari and Marta Minujín (Conceptual art); and Gustavo Cabral (Fantasy art).
In 1946 Gyula Košice and others created The Madí Movement in Argentina, which then spread to Europe and United States, where it had a significant impact.297 Tomás Maldonado was one of the main theorists of the Ulm Model of design education, still highly influential globally.
Other Argentine artists of worldwide fame include Adolfo Bellocq, whose lithographs have been influential since the 1920s, and Benito Quinquela Martín, the quintessential port painter, inspired by the immigrant-bound La Boca neighborhood.
The colonization brought the Spanish Baroque architecture, which can still be appreciated in its simpler Rioplatense style in the reduction of San Ignacio Miní, the Cathedral of Córdoba, and the Cabildo of Luján. Italian and French influences increased at the beginning of the 19th century with strong eclectic overtones that gave the local architecture a unique feeling.298
Numerous Argentine architects have enriched their own country's cityscape and those around the world: Juan Antonio Buschiazzo helped popularize Beaux-Arts architecture and Francisco Gianotti combined Art Nouveau with Italianate styles, each adding flair to Argentine cities during the early 20th century. Francisco Salamone and Viktor Sulčič left an Art Deco legacy, and Alejandro Bustillo created a prolific body of Neoclassical and Rationalist architecture. Alberto Prebisch and Amancio Williams were highly influenced by Le Corbusier, while Clorindo Testa introduced Brutalist architecture locally. César Pelli's and Patricio Pouchulu's Futurist creations have graced cities worldwide: Pelli's 1980s throwbacks to the Art Deco glory of the 1920s made him one of the world's most prestigious architects, with the Norwest Center and the Petronas Towers among his most celebrated creations.
Besides many of the pasta, sausage and dessert dishes common to continental Europe, Argentines enjoy a wide variety of Indigenous and Criollo creations, including empanadas (a small stuffed pastry), locro (a mixture of corn, beans, meat, bacon, onion, and gourd), humita and mate.299
The country has the highest consumption of red meat in the world,300 traditionally prepared as asado, the Argentine barbecue. It is made with various types of meats, often including chorizo, sweetbread, chitterlings, and blood sausage.301
Common desserts include facturas (Viennese-style pastry), cakes and pancakes filled with dulce de leche (a sort of milk caramel jam), alfajores (shortbread cookies sandwiched together with chocolate, dulce de leche or a fruit paste), and tortas fritas (fried cakes)302
Argentina has a varied sporting culture, with a rich story among the world's elite in several disciplines, including:
- Pato: the national sport,305 an ancient horseback game locally originated in the early 1600s and predecessor of horseball.306307
- Football: as of 2014[update] the men's national team is, along with France's, the only to have won the most important international triplet: World Cup, Confederations Cup, and Olympic Gold Medal. It has also won 14 Copas América, 6 Pan American Gold Medals, and many other trophies.308 Alfredo Di Stéfano, Diego Maradona, and Lionel Messi are among the best players in the game's history.309
- Rugby: as of 2014[update] the men's national team, known as 'Los Pumas' has competed at the Rugby World Cup each time it has been held, achieving their highest ever result in 2007 when they came third. Since 2012 the Los Pumas have competed against Australia, New Zealand & South Africa in The Rugby Championship, the premier international Rugby competition in the Southern Hemisphere. Since 2009 the men's national 'A' team known as the 'Los Jaguares' has competed against the USA & Canada 'A' teams along with Uruguay in the Americas Rugby Championship, The Los Jaguares have won every year the competition has been competed.
- Auto racing: Juan Manuel Fangio was five times Formula One world champion under four different teams, winning 102 of his 184 international races, and is widely ranked as the greatest driver of all time.310 Other distinguished racers were Oscar Alfredo Gálvez, Juan Gálvez, Froilán González, and Carlos Reutemann.311
- Basketball: as of 2014[update] the men's national team is the only one in the FIBA Americas zone that has won the quintuplet crown: World Championship, Olympic Gold Medal, Diamond Ball, Americas Championship, and Pan American Gold Medal. It has also conquered 13 South American Championships, and many other tournaments.312 Emanuel Ginóbili, Luis Scola, Andrés Nocioni, Fabricio Oberto, Pablo Prigioni, Carlos Delfino and Juan Ignacio Sánchez are a few of the country's most acclaimed players, all of them part of the NBA.313
- Boxing: Argentina has produced some of the most formidable champions for the sport, including Carlos Monzón, the best middleweight in history;314 Pascual Pérez, one of the most decorated flyweight boxers of all times; Víctor Galíndez, as of 2009[update] record holder for consecutive world light heavyweight title defenses; and Nicolino Locche, nicknamed "The Untouchable" for his masterful defense; they are all inductees into the International Boxing Hall of Fame.315
- Tennis: Guillermo Vilas, the greatest Latin American player of the Open Era,316 and Gabriela Sabatini, the most accomplished Argentine female player of all time—having reached #3 in the WTA Ranking,317 are both inductees into the International Tennis Hall of Fame.318
- Field hockey: the women's national team Las Leonas is one of the world's most successful, with four Olympic medals, two World Cups and six Hockey Champions Trophy.313 Luciana Aymar is recognized as the best female player in the history of the game,319 being the only person to have received the FIH Player of the Year Award eight times.320
- Polo: where Argentina reigns undisputed, having won more international championships than any other country and been seldom beaten since the 1930s.321 The Argentine Polo Championship is the sport's most important international team trophy. The country is home to most of the world's top players, among them Adolfo Cambiaso, the best in Polo history.322
Some of Argentina's national symbols are defined by law, while others are traditions lacking formal designation.323 The Flag of Argentina consists of three horizontal stripes equal in width and colored light blue, white and light blue, with the Sun of May in the center of the middle white stripe.324 The flag was designed by Manuel Belgrano in 1812; it was adopted as a national symbol on 20 July 1816.325 The Coat of Arms, which represents the union of the provinces, came into use in 1813 as the seal for official documents.326 The Argentine National Anthem was written by Vicente López y Planes with music by Blas Parera, and was adopted in 1813.326 The National Cockade was first used during the May Revolution of 1810 and was made official two years later.327 The Virgin of Luján is Argentina's patron saint.328
The hornero, living across most of the national territory, was chosen as the national bird in 1928 after a lower school survey.329 The ceibo is the national floral emblem and national tree,323330 while the quebracho colorado is the national forest tree.331 Rhodochrosite is known as the national gemstone.332 The national sport is pato.305
- Outline of Argentina
- International rankings of Argentina
- Index of Argentina-related articles
- El Sonido de mi Tierra - The Great Dance of Argentina
- Article 35 of the Argentine Constitution gives equal recognition to the names "United Provinces of the River Plate", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation" and authorizes the use of "Argentine Nation" in the making and enactment of laws.1
- Area does not include territorial claims in Antarctica (965,597 km2, including the South Orkney Islands), the Falkland Islands (11,410 km2), the South Georgia (3,560 km2) and the South Sandwich Islands (307 km2).3
- Though not declared official de jure, the Spanish language is the only one used in the wording of laws, decrees, resolutions, official documents and public acts.
- The poem's full name is La Argentina y conquista del Río de la Plata, con otros acaecimientos de los reinos del Perú, Tucumán y estado del Brasil.
- Also stated in article 35 of all subsequent amendments: 1866, 1898, 1949, 1957, 1972 and 1994 (current)
- San Martín's military campaigns, together with those of Simón Bolívar in Gran Colombia are collectively known as the Spanish American wars of independence.46
- The Full Stop and Due Obedience laws had been abrogated by Congress in 1998.103
- This regional subdivision does not include Argentine Antarctica claims.
- Includes higher plants only: ferns and fern allies, conifers and cycads, and flowering plants.121
- Includes only birds that breed in Argentina, not those that migrate or winter there.121
- Excludes marine mammals.121
- Since 2012 suffrage is optional for ages 16 and 17.138
- Although not a province, the City of Buenos Aires is a federally autonomous city, and as such its local organization has similarities with provinces: it has its own constitution, an elected mayor and representatives to the Senate and Deputy chambers.151 As federal capital of the nation it holds the status of federal district.
- The other top developing nations being Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa and Turkey.173
- English is also the primary language of the disputed Falkland Islands.
- Many elder people also speak a macaronic language of Italian and Spanish called cocoliche, which was originated by the Italian immigrants in the late 19th century.
- It gave origin to a mixture of Spanish and German called Belgranodeutsch.
- In practice this privileged status amounts to tax-exempt school subsidies and licensing preferences for radio broadcasting frequencies.250
- Level duration depends on jurisdiction.
- The post-graduate sub-level of higher education is usually paid.
- The other top venues being Berlin's Konzerthaus, Vienna's Musikverein, Amsterdam's Concertgebouw and Boston's Symphony Hall.290
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 35.
- Crow 1992, p. 457: "In the meantime, while the crowd assembled in the plaza continued to shout its demands at the cabildo, the sun suddenly broke through the overhanging clouds and clothed the scene in brilliant light. The people looked upward with one accord and took it as a favorable omen for their cause. This was the origin of the "sun of May" which has appeared in the center of the Argentine flag and on the Argentine coat of arms ever since."; Kopka 2011, p. 5: "The sun's features are those of Inti, the Incan sun god. The sun commemorates the appearance of the sun through cloudy skies on May 25, 1810, during the first mass demonstration in favor of independence."
- "Población por sexo e índice de masculinidad. Superficie censada y densidad, según provincia. Total del país. Año 2010" (XLS). Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2010 (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: INDEC – Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos. 2010. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014.
- "Cuadro 1. Población estimada al 1 de julio de cada año calendario por sexo. Total del país. Años 2010–2040" (XLS). Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2010 (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: INDEC – Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos. 2010. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014.
- "Argentina". World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund. April 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2015.
- "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
- "Human Development Report 2014 – Summary" (PDF). New York, NY, USA: United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 15, 16. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 July 2014.
- Ley No. 5598 de la Provincia de Corrientes, 22 de octubre de 2004
- Ley No. 6604 de la Provincia de Chaco, 28 de julio de 2010, B.O., (9092)
- Abad de Santillán 1971, p. 17.
- Crow 1992, p. 128.
- Levene 1948, p. 11: "[After the Viceroyalty became] a new period that commenced with the revolution of 1810, whose plan consisted in declaring the independence of a nation, thus turning the legal bond of vassalage into one of citizenship as a component of sovereignty and, in addition, organizing the democratic republic."; Sánchez Viamonte 1948, pp. 196–197: "The Argentine nation was a unity in colonial times, during the Viceroyalty, and remained so after the revolution of May 1810. [...] The provinces never acted as independent sovereign states, but as entities created within the nation and as integral parts of it, incidentally affected by internal conflicts."; Vanossi 1964, p. 11: "[The Argentine nationality is a] unique national entity, successor to the Viceroyalty, which, after undergoing a long period of anarchy and disorganization, adopted a decentralized form in 1853–1860 under the Constitution."
- Bolt & Van Zanden 2013.
- Díaz Alejandro 1970, p. 1.
- "Becoming a serious country". London: The Economist. 3 June 2004. Archived from the original on 20 March 2014.
Argentina is thus not a "developing country". Uniquely, it achieved development and then lost it again.
- Wood 1988, p. 18; Solomon 1997, p. 3.
- Huntington 2000, p. 6.
- Huntington 2000, p. 6; Nierop 2001, p. 61: "Secondary regional powers in Huntington's view17 include Great Britain, Ukraine, Japan, South Korea, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Argentina."; Lake 2009, p. 55: "The US has created a foundation upon which the regional powers, especially Argentina and Brazil, can develop their own rules for further managing regional relations."; Papadopoulos 2010, p. 283: "The driving force behind the adoption of the MERCOSUR agreement was similar to that of the establishment of the EU: the hope of limiting the possibilities of traditional military hostility between the major regional powers, Brazil and Argentina."; Malamud 2011, p. 9: "Though not a surprise, the position of Argentina, Brazil's main regional partner, as the staunchest opponent of its main international ambition [to win a permanent seat on the UN Security Council] dealt a heavy blow to Brazil's image as a regional leader."; Boughton 2012, p. 101: "When the U.S. Treasury organized the next round of finance meetings, it included several non-APEC members, including all the European members of the G7, the Latin American powers Argentina and Brazil, and such other emerging markets as India, Poland, and South Africa."
- Morris 1988, p. 63: "Argentina has been the leading military and economic power in the Southern Cone in the Twentieth Century."; Adler & Greve 2009, p. 78: "The southern cone of South America, including Argentina and Brazil, the two regional powers, has recently become a pluralistic security community."; Ruiz-Dana et al. 2009, p. 18: "[...] notably by linking the Southern Cone's rival regional powers, Brazil and Argentina."
- "The 2010 Legatum Prosperity Index". London: Legatum Institute. 2010. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011.
[The country has a] foundation for future growth due to its market size, levels of foreign direct investment, and percentage of high-tech exports as share of total manufactured goods ... Argentina's economy appears stable, but confidence in financial institutions remains low.
- Rock 1987, pp. 6, 8; Edwards 2008, p. 7.
- Traba 1985, pp. 15, 71.
- Constitution of Argentina, 1826, art. 1.
- Constitution of Argentina, 1853, Preamble.
- Rosenblat 1964, p. 78.
- Constitution of Argentina, 1860 amd., art. 35.
- "Definition of Argentina in Oxford Dictionaries (British & World English)". Oxford, UK: Oxford Dictionaries. 6 May 2013. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014.
- "The Definite Article: Part II", Study Spanish
- Edwards 2008, p. 12.
- Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 18–19.
- Edwards 2008, p. 13.
- Crow 1992, pp. 129–132.
- Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 96–140.
- Crow 1992, p. 353.
- Crow 1992, p. 134.
- Crow 1992, p. 135.
- Crow 1992, p. 347.
- Crow 1992, p. 421.
- Abad de Santillán 1971, pp. 194ff.
- Rock 1987, p. 81.
- Rock 1987, pp. 82–83.
- Lewis 2003, pp. 39–40.
- Rock 1987, p. 92; Lewis 2003, p. 41.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 349–353, vol. I.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 185–252, vol. I.
- Lewis 2003, p. 41.
- Lewis 2003, p. 43.
- Lewis 2003, p. 45.
- Lewis 2003, pp. 46–47.
- Lewis 2003, pp. 48–50.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 363–541, vol. I.
- Lewis 1990, pp. 18–30.
- Mosk 1990, pp. 88–89.
- Cruz 1990, p. 10.
- Díaz Alejandro 1970, pp. 2–3.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 567–625, vol. I.
- Lewis 1990, pp. 37–38.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 7–178, vol. II.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 181–302, vol. II.
- Barnes 1978, p. 3.
- Barnes 1978, pp. 113ff.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 303–351, vol. II.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 353–379, vol. II.
- Robben 2011, p. 34.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 381–422, vol. II.
- Political Violence and Trauma in Argentina, Antonius C. G. M. Robben, p. 145, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007
- Revolutionizing Motherhood: The Mothers of the Plaza De Mayo, Marguerite Guzmán Bouvard, p. 22, Rowman & Littlefield, 1994
- "Argentina's Guerrillas Still Intent On Socialism", Sarasota Herald-Tribune, 7 March 1976
- "Argentina's Dirty War".
- "Orphaned in Argentina's dirty war, man is torn between two families", The Washington Post, 11 February 2010
- "El ex líder de los Montoneros entona un «mea culpa» parcial de su pasado"dead link, El Mundo, 4 May 1995
- A 32 años de la caída en combate de Mario Roberto Santucho y la Dirección Histórica del PRT-ERP. Cedema.org.
- ''Determinants Of Gross Human Rights Violations By State And State-Sponsored Actors In Brazil, Uruguay, Chile, And Argentina (1960–1990)', Wolfgang S. Heinz & Hugo Frühling, p. 626, Springer, 1999, Google Books
- National Geographic, Volume 170, p. 247, National Geographic Society, 1986
- Robben, Antonius C. G. M. (September 2005). "Anthropology at War?: What Argentina's Dirty War Can Teach Us". Anthropology News. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- Political Injustice: Authoritarianism and the Rule of Law in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina, Anthony W. Pereira, p. 134, University of Pittsburgh Press, 2005
- Obituary The Guardian, Thursday 2 April 2009
- Estimate of Deaths and Disappearances by 601st Intelligence Battalion (PDF). DINA Headquarters, Buenos Aires, Argentina. July 1978. pp. A8.
- "Una duda histórica: no se sabe cuántos son los desaparecidos", Clarin, 10 June 2003
- Wright, Thomas C. State terrorism in Latin America, p. 158, Rowman & Littlefield, 2007
- Robben 2011, p. 127.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 423–465, vol. II.
- Robben 2011, pp. 76–77.
- Robben 2011, p. 145.
- Robben 2011, p. 148.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 467–504, vol. II.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 505–532, vol. II.
- Ley No. 23492, 29 de diciembre de 1986, B.O., (26058) (in Spanish)
- Ley No. 23521, 9 de junio de 1987, B.O., (26155) (in Spanish)
- Galasso 2011, pp. 533–549, vol. II.
- Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 6.
- Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 9.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 551–573, vol. II.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 575–587, vol. II.
- Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 12.
- Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 13.
- Galasso 2011, pp. 587–595, vol. II.
- Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 16.
- Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 15.
- Epstein & Pion-Berlin 2006, p. 14.
- Ley No. 25779, 3 de septiembre de 2003, B.O., (30226), 1 (in Spanish)
- Ley No. 24952, 17 de abril de 1998, B.O., (28879), 1 (in Spanish)
- Galasso 2011, pp. 597–626, vol. II.
- "Informe científico que estudia el Aconcagua, el Coloso de América mide 6960,8 metros" [Scientific Report on Aconcagua, the Colossus of America measures 6960,8m] (in Spanish). Universidad Nacional de Cuyo. 2012. Retrieved September 3, 2012.
- Young 2005, p. 52: "The Andes Mountains form the "backbone" of Argentina along the western border with Chile."
- Albanese, Rubén (2009). "Información geográfica de la República Argentina" [Geographic information of the Argentine Republic] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Instituto Geográfico Nacional. Archived from the original on 31 October 2013.
- McKinney 1993, p. 6; Fearns & Fearns 2005, p. 31.
- Albanese, Rubén (2009). "Alturas y Depresiones Máximas en la República Argentina" [Maximum peaks and lows in the Argentine Republic] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Instituto Geográfico Nacional. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013.
- Lynch, David K. "Land Below Sea Level". Geology – Geoscience News and Information. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, pp. 5, 7–8, 51, 175.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 8.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 18.
- Crooker 2009, p. 16.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 209.
- Crooker 2009, p. 32.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, pp. 5, 157.
- Young 2005, p. 52; McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 5.
- Menutti & Menutti 1980, p. 44.
- "Argentina – Main Details". Montreal, Canada: Convention on Biological Diversity. 2013. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013.
- "Biodiversity 2005". Cambridge, UK: UNEP–WCMC – World Conservation Monitoring Centre of the United Nations Environment Programme. 2005.
- Crooker 2009, p. 22.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 5.
- "Argentina". Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles. Food and Agriculture Organization. Retrieved 7 June 2015.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 11.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 203.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 6.
- Menutti & Menutti 1980, pp. 56–57.
- Crooker 2009, p. 17.
- Menutti & Menutti 1980, p. 69.
- Crooker 2009, p. 25: "[Sarmiento, the] small town in the Chico River Canyon of Chubut Province holds [as of 2009] the record for the lowest temperature in South America, a bone chilling −27.22 °C (−17 °F)."
- Menutti & Menutti 1980, p. 73.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 7.
- Menutti & Menutti 1980, p. 53.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 1.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 3.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 37.
- "Argentina lowers its voting age to 16". Washington, D. C.: The Washington Post. 1 November 2012.
- Constitution of Argentina, arts. 53, 59, 75.
- Constitution of Argentina, arts. 45, 47, 50.
- Constitution of Argentina, arts. 54, 56.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 99.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 90.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 116.
- Constitution of Argentina, arts. 99, 114.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 121.
- Constitution of Argentina, arts. 5–6.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 123.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 122.
- Constitution of Argentina, arts. 124–125.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 129.
- Rey Balmaceda 1995, p. 19.
- Rock 1987, p. 155.
- Margheritis 2010, pp. 15, 92.
- "Argentina in Brief – Foreign Policy". Canberra: Embassy of Argentina in Australia. 2012. Archived from the original on 26 April 2013.
- "Secretary-General Says Joint Peacekeeping Training Centre in Campo de Mayo 'Symbol of Argentina's Commitment to Peace'". New York, NY, USA: United Nations – Secretary General. 14 June 2011. Archived from the original on 5 June 2012.
- Galasso 2011, p. 600, vol. II.
- "Destacamento Naval Orcadas" [Orcadas Naval Base] (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Fundación Marambio. 1999. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013.
- "ATS – Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty". Buenos Aires: Antarctic Treaty Secretariat. 2013.
- Constitution of Argentina, T. P. 1.
- Ley No. 23554 – Defensa Nacional, 5 de mayo de 1988, B.O., (26375), 4 (in Spanish)
- Ley No. 24059 – Seguridad Interior, 17 de enero de 1992, B.O., (27307), 1 (in Spanish)
- Constitution of Argentina, arts. 125–126.
- "Argentina – Military branches". Index Mundi – CIA World Factbook. 2011. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012.
- Constitution of Argentina, arts. 21, 75, 99.
- "A Comparative Atlas of Defense in Latin America and Caribbean – Argentina" (PDF). Buenos Aires: RESDAL – Red de Seguridad y Defensa de América Latina. 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 May 2014.
- "Argentina – Military service age and obligation". Index Mundi – CIA World Factbook. 2001. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012.
- Maldifassi & Abetti 1994, pp. 65–86.
- "Argentina – Military expenditure". Index Mundi – SIPRI – Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Yearbook: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. 2011. Archived from the original on 6 September 2013.
- Decreto No. 18711 – Fuerzas de Seguridad, 23 de junio de 1970, B.O., (21955) (in Spanish)
- "Exchanges in Argentina Move Toward Greater Integration". New York, NY, USA: The Wall Street Journal. 3 April 2013. Archived from the original on 7 March 2014.
- "Argentina". World Economic Outlook Database, October 2014. International Monetary Fund. 2 November 2014.
- "Human Development Report 2013" (PDF). New York, NY, USA: UNDP – United Nations Development Program. 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 July 2014.
- "Data–Argentina". Washington, D. C.: World Bank. 2013. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014.
- Winter, Brian (25 April 2013). "Argentina minister ducks inflation question, causes stir". Reuters (London). Archived from the original on 5 March 2014.
- "Official statistics: Don't lie to me, Argentina". The Economist (London). 25 February 2012. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013.
- "Corruption Perceptions Index 2012" (PDF). Transparency International. 2012.
- "Hectic efforts on by Argentina to avoid second default". Argentina News.Net. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- Brittle Power, p. 144.
- "Información Económica al Día – Nivel de Actividad" (XLS) (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Dirección Nacional de Política Macroeconómica – Ministerio de Economía y Finanzas Públicas. 2013. Archived from the original on 10 April 2014.
- "Argentina – Industrial production growth rate". Index Mundi – CIA World Factbook. 2011. Archived from the original on 10 March 2013.
- "Argentina – Economy Overview". Index Mundi – CIA World Factbook. 2013. Archived from the original on 3 December 2012.
- "Argentina at TIC 2013: Country pushing CNG, food processing". Port of Spain: Digital Guardian. 2013. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013.
- List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor
- "Argentina – Industry". Encyclopedia of the Nations. 2002. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013.
- "Electricity/Heat in Argentina in 2009". Paris: IEA – International Energy Agency. 2009. Archived from the original on 3 August 2013.
- "UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2014 Edition". World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). Retrieved 27 April 2015.
- "México DF, Buenos Aires y San Pablo, los destinos turísticos favoritos" (in Spanish). Infobae América. June 2011. Retrieved 19 December 2012.
- Se cumplieron 100 años del primer viaje en subte - Ambito, 1 December 2013.
- La historia de 100 años del primer subte de América del Sur - Perfil, 1 December 2013.
- Background and Inauguration in 1919 - Metro de Madrid
- "Argentina – Railways". Index Mundi – CIA World Factbook. 2013. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014.
- "Argentina – Transportation". Encyclopedia of the Nations. 2002. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013.
- Desde hoy, toda la línea Mitre tiene trenes 0 km - La Nacion, 09, February, 2015
- Exitosa prueba en la renovada vía a Rosario - EnElSubte, 09, March, 2015
- Otro salto en la recuperación de soberanía - Pagina/12, 16 April 2015
- Es ley la creación de Ferrocarriles Argentinos - EnElSubte, 15 April 2015
- Ferrocarriles Argentinos: Randazzo agradeció a la oposición parlamentaria por acompañar en su recuperación - Sala de Prensa de la Republica Argentina, 15 April 2015
- "Argentina – Roadways". Index Mundi – CIA World Factbook. 2013. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013.
- "Argentina – Waterways". Index Mundi – CIA World Factbook. 2012. Archived from the original on 1 November 2012.
- "Argentina – Airports with paved runways". Index Mundi – CIA World Factbook. 2013. Archived from the original on 1 November 2012.
- Aeberhard, Benson & Phillips 2000, p. 76.
- Aeberhard, Benson & Phillips 2000, pp. 24–25.
- Aeberhard, Benson & Phillips 2000, p. 45.
- Akstinat 2013, p. 20.
- Moore, Don (1995). "Radio with a past in Argentina". Archived from the original on 23 May 2013.
- Moore 1995.
- "Argentina–Infraestructura" (in Spanish). Mi Buenos Aires Querido. 2002. Archived from the original on 23 July 2013.
- "Homes with Cable TV in Latin America". Austin, TX, USA: LANIC – Latin American Network Information Center. 1999. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013.
- "Penetración TV paga en hogares 2014 – Argentina" (in Spanish). Coral Gables, FL, USA: LAMAC – Latin American Multichannel Advertising Council. 2014. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014.
- "South America". IWS–ITU – Internet World Stats. 2011. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014.
- Argüello, Irma (8 January 2009). "Brazil and Argentina's Nuclear Cooperation". Carnegie Endowment for international peace.
- "Background Note: Argentina". State.gov.
- "Hillary Clinton: Argentina is on the forefront of the fight for nuclear security". State.gov. 13 April 2010.dead link
- Reneau, Leandro (29 September 2012). "Atucha III se construirá con un 60% de componentes nacionales" (in Spanish). Tiempo Argentino.dead link
- "PEHUENSAT-1" (in Spanish). Asociación Argentina de Tecnología Espacial.
- "'Argentine satellite SAC-D' will be presented in Bariloche". Momento 24.dead link
- Science and Education in Argentina. argentina.ar
- satellitesdead link. CONAE. Retrieved on 25 October 2012.
- "Scientists celebrate inauguration of Pierre Auger Observatory". Pierre Auger Observatory.dead link
- Interplanetary support station to be installed in Argentina. Buenos Aires Herald (23 June 2009). Retrieved on 25 October 2012.
- "Proyecciones provinciales de población por sexo y grupos de edad 2001–2015" (PDF). Gustavo Pérez (in Spanish). INDEC. p. 16.dead link
- "Censo 2010: Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas" (in Spanish). Censo2010.indec.gov.ar. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011.
- "Argentina". The World Factbook. CIA. Archived from the original on 30 August 2009.
- "PRB" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 April 2010.
- UN Demographic Yearbook, 2007.
- Forero, Juan (15 July 2010). "Argentina becomes second nation in Americas to legalize gay marriage". seattletimes.nwsource.com. Retrieved 15 July 2010.
- Fastenberg, Dan (22 July 2010). "International Gay Marriage". Time. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
- "Encuesta Complementaria de Pueblos Indígenas 2004–2005" (in Spanish). National Institute of Statistics and Census of Argentina. Archived from the original on 11 June 2008.
- Cruz-Coke, R.; Moreno, R. S. (1994). "Genetic epidemiology of single gene defects in Chile". Journal of medical genetics 31 (9): 702–706. doi:10.1136/jmg.31.9.702. PMC 1050080. PMID 7815439.
- "About Argentina". Government of Argentina. Archived from the original on 19 September 2009.
- Fernández, Francisco Lizcano (2007). Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI. ISBN 978-970-757-052-8.
- Cahoon, Ben. "Argentina". World Statesmen.org.
- − Capítulo VII. Inmigrantes. CELS – Informe 1998
- Sánchez, Gonzalo (27 September 2010). "La comunidad china en el país se duplicó en los últimos 5 años". Clarin.com.
- Inferring Continental Ancestry of Argentineans from Autosomal, Y-Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA - Corach - 2009 - Annals of Human Genetics - Wiley Online Library
- Medicina (B. Aires) vol.66 número2; Resumen: S0025-76802006000200004
- "El varieté de la calle Florida" (Editorial) – Clarín (Spanish)
- "Patria Grande". Patriagrande.gov.ar.
- "Alientan la mudanza de extranjeros hacia el interior – Sociedad –". Perfil.com.
- Lewis, Simons & Fennig 2014.
- Colantoni & Gurlekian 2004, pp. 107–119.
- DellaPergola 2013, pp. 25–26, 49–50.
- Aeberhard, Benson & Phillips 2000, p. 602.
- Constitution of Argentina, arts. 14, 20.
- Fayt 1985, p. 347; Bidart Campos 2005, p. 53.
- Constitution of Argentina, art. 2.
- "International Religious Freedom Report 2012 – Argentina". Washington, D. C.: US Department of State. 2012. Archived from the original on 12 April 2014.
- Mallimaci, Esquivel & Irrazábal 2008, p. 9.
- DellaPergola 2013, p. 50.
- Mallimaci, Esquivel & Irrazábal 2008, p. 21.
- Mallimaci, Esquivel & Irrazábal 2008, p. 24.
- Donadio, Rachel (13 March 2013). "Cardinals Pick Bergoglio, Who Will Be Pope Francis". The New York Times (New York, NY, USA). Archived from the original on 26 March 2014.
- "Argentina – Urbanization". Index Mundi – CIA World Factbook. 26 July 2012. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012.
- "About Argentina – Major Cities". Buenos Aires: Government of Argentina. 19 September 2009. Archived from the original on 19 September 2009.
- "República Argentina por provincia. Densidad de población. Año 2010" (in Spanish). INDEC. Retrieved 6 March 2015.
- "3218.0 - Instituto Nacional de Estadistica y Censos, Argentina, 2006-07" (PDF) (in Spanish). INDEC – Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos. 2008. Retrieved 6 June 2008.
- "El Sistema Educativo – Acerca del Sistema Educativo Argentino" (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Ministerio de Educación – Presidencia de la Nación. 2009. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014.
- "Población de 10 años y más por condición de alfabetismo y sexo, según provincia. Año 2010" (XLS). Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2010 (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: INDEC – Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos. 2010. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014.
- "Total del país. Población de 5 años y más que asistió a un establecimiento educativo por nivel de educación alcanzado y completud del nivel, según sexo y grupo de edad. Año 2010" (XLS). Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2010 (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: INDEC – Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos. 2010. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014.
- "Sistema Universitario" (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Ministerio de Educación – Presidencia de la Nación. 2011. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014.
- "AMA". Ama-med.org.ar. Archived from the original on 13 April 2010.
- "IADB" (PDF). IADB.
- ESTADISTICAS VITALES – INFORMACION BASICA AÑO 2008. Ministry of Health (December 2009)
- UN Demographic Yearbook. 1957.
- UN Demographic Yearbook. Historical Statistics. 1997.
- Luongo, Michael. Frommer's Argentina. Wiley Publishing, 2007.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 91.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 123.
- Sabato, Ernesto (1976). La cultura en la encrucijada nacional, Buenos Aires: Sudamericana, p. 17-18.
- Rivas 1989, p. 11.
- Foster, Lockhart & Lockhart 1998, p. 99.
- Foster, Lockhart & Lockhart 1998, pp. 13, 101; Young & Cisneros 2010, p. 51.
- Young & Cisneros 2010, pp. 51–52.
- Foster, Lockhart & Lockhart 1998, pp. 104, 107–109; Young & Cisneros 2010, p. 223.
- Bloom 1994, p. 2.
- Young & Cisneros 2010, pp. 52, 80.
- Young & Cisneros 2010, pp. 79, 144.
- Young & Cisneros 2010, pp. 3, 144.
- Foster, Lockhart & Lockhart 1998, pp. 66, 85, 97–121; McCloskey & Burford 2006; Díaz 2010, p. 43; Young & Cisneros 2010, pp. 51–54.
- Miller 2004, p. 86.
- Foster, Lockhart & Lockhart 1998, p. 121.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 43.
- "Eclectic dramatic mix to grace Shanghai stages". China Daily. 17 October 2005. Archived from the original on 19 April 2014.
- "Buenos Aires – A Passionate City". Radar Magazine. 10 February 2013. Archived from the original on 3 May 2013.
- Foster, Lockhart & Lockhart 1998, p. 48.
- Long 2009, pp. 21–25.
- Carl J. Mora, "Mexican cinema: reflections of a society, 1896-1980" (1982) ISBN 0520043049
- Argentina - Cultura - Cinedead link (Spanish) by Argentina.ar, October 16, 2011
- King 2000, p. 36.
- Bendazzi, Giannalberto (1996). "Quirino Cristiani, The Untold Story of Argentina's Pioneer Animator". Animation World Network. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013.
- "Cannes Film Festival: Awards 2013". Cannes. 26 May 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
- "Market Study – Argentina" (PDF). Munich, Germany: German Films. August 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 June 2014.
- Stewart, Jennifer (16 July 2006). "Lively, playful geometric works of art for fun". St. Petersburg Times (St. Petersburg, FL).
- Martínez-Carter, Karina (14 March 2013). "Preserving history in Buenos Aires". BBC Travel. Archived from the original on 23 January 2014.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, pp. 79, 199, 221.
- Steiger, Carlos (2006). "Modern Beef Production in Brazil and Argentina". Milwaukee, WI, USA: Choices Magazine. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, p. 79.
- Aeberhard, Benson & Phillips 2000, p. 31; McCloskey, Burford & 2006, pp. 80, 143.
- Cannavan, Tom. "About Argentine wine". Wine Pages. Archived from the original on 11 December 2012.
- McCloskey & Burford 2006, pp. 230, 252, 261–262, 265.
- Decreto No. 17468/1953, 25 de septiembre de 1953, B.O., (17490) (in Spanish)
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 124–125.
- "Pato, Argentina's national sport". Argentina – Portal público de noticias de la República Argentina. Buenos Aires: Secretaría de Medios de Comunicación – Presidencia de la Nación. 18 November 2008. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011.
In 1610, thirty years after Buenos Aires' second foundation and two hundred years before the May Revolution, a document drafted by the military anthropologist Félix de Azara described a pato sport scene taking place in the city.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, pp. 14–23.
- Friedman 2007, pp. 56, 127.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 98; Dougall 2013, pp. 170–171.
- Arbena 1999, p. 147; Dougall 2013, pp. 170–171, 195.
- "Argentina – Profile". Mies, Switzerland: FIBA – Fédération Internationale de Basket-ball [International Basketball Federation]. 2014. Archived from the original on 16 June 2014.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 11.
- Fischer, Doug (30 September 2011). "10: Best middleweight titleholders of the last 50 years". Blue Bell, PA, USA: The Ring. Archived from the original on 15 June 2014.
- Rodríguez 2009, pp. 164–165.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 144.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 135.
- "Hall of Fame Members". Newport, RI, USA: International Tennis Hall of Fame and Museum. 2014. Archived from the original on 14 February 2014.
- "Meet Luciana Aymar – Las Leonas (Argentina)". Nieuwegein, The Netherlands: Rabobank Hockey World Cup 2014. 2014. Archived from the original on 16 June 2014.
- "Amazing Aymar lands eighth FIH Player of the Year crown". Lausanne, Switzerland: FIH – Fédération Internationale de Hockey sur Gazon [International Hockey Federation]. 8 December 2013. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013.
- Aeberhard, Benson & Phillips 2000, pp. 50–51.
- Nauright & Parrish 2012, p. 128.
- "Datos generales de Argentina" (in Spanish). Folklore del Norte Argentino. 2004. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011.
- Decreto No. 1650/2010 – Símbolos Nacionales, 23 de noviembre de 2010, B.O., (32033), 5 (in Spanish)
- Ferro 1991, pp. 234–235.
- Decreto No. 10302/1944 – Símbolos Nacionales, 10 de mayo de 1944, B.O., (14894), 4 (in Spanish)
- Calvo 1864, pp. 20ff.
- "Nuestra Señora de Luján" (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Ministerio de Educación de la Nación – Efemérides Culturales Argentinas.
- "El Hornero" (in Spanish). Carlos Casares, Argentina: Red Argentina. 24 September 2009. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013.
- Decreto No. 138974/1942, 25 de enero de 1943, B.O., (14519), 5 (in Spanish)
- Decreto No. 15190/1956, 5 de septiembre de 1956
- "Piedra nacional: la Rodocrosita" (in Spanish). Bogotá: Embajada de la República Argentina en la República de Colombia. 2013. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013.
- Ley No. 26870 – Declárase al Vino Argentino como bebida nacional, 2 de agosto de 2013, B.O., (32693), 1 (in Spanish)
- Ley No. 26871 – Declárase al Mate como infusión nacional, 2 de agosto de 2013, B.O., (32693), 1 (in Spanish)
- "El asado". Via Restó (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Grupo Clarín. 28 April 2010. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013.
- "Argentina–Gastronomia" (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Argentina – Portal oficial de promoción de la República Argentina. 6 June 2008. Archived from the original on 27 July 2008.
- Legal documents
- National Constituent Convention (22 August 1994), Constitution of the Argentine Nation, Santa Fe
- Bolt, Jutta; Van Zanden, Jan Luiten (2013). "The First Update of the Maddison Project; Re-estimating Growth Before 1820" (XLS). Maddison Project Working Paper 4.
- Colantoni, Laura; Gurlekian, Jorge (August 2004). "Convergence and intonation. Historical evidence from Buenos Aires Spanish". Bilingualism: Language and Cognition (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press) 7 (2): 107–119. doi:10.1017/S1366728904001488.
- Cruz, Jr., Arturo (6 August 1990). "Glory Past but Not Forgotten". Insight on the News (New York, NY, USA: News World Communications) 6 (32): 8.
- DellaPergola, Sergio (2013). Dashefsky, Arnold; Sheskin, Ira, eds. "World Jewish Population, 2013" (PDF). The American Jewish Year Book, 2013 (Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer) 113: 279–358. ISBN 978-3319016580.
- Long, Marshall (April 2009). "What is So Special About Shoebox Halls? Envelopment, Envelopment, Envelopment" (PDF). Acoustics Today (ASA – Acoustical Society of America) 5 (2): 21–25. doi:10.1121/1.3182843.
- Malamud, Andrés (2011). "A Leader Without Followers? The Growing Divergence Between the Regional and Global Performance of Brazilian Foreign Policy". Latin American Politics and Society (Lisbon: Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Lisbon) 53 (3): 1–24.
- Mallimaci, Fortunato; Esquivel, Juan Cruz; Irrazábal, Gabriela (26 August 2008). "Primera Encuesta Sobre Creencias y Actitudes Religiosas En Argentina" (PDF) (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: CONICET – Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas.
- Moore, Don (January 1995). "Argentina: Radio with a Past". Monitoring Times (Brasstown, NC, USA: Grove Enterprises).
- Solomon, Hussein (1997). "South African Foreign Policy, Middle Power Leadership and Preventive Diplomacy" (PDF). Pretoria, South Africa: Centre for International Political Studies.
- Abad de Santillán, Diego (1971). Historia Argentina (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Tipográfica Editora Argentina.
- Adler, Emanuel; Greve, Patricia (2009). "When security community meets balance of power: overlapping regional mechanisms of security governance". In Fawn, Rick. Globalising the Regional, Regionalising the Global. Review of International Studies 35. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 59–84. ISBN 978-0521759885.
- Aeberhard, Danny; Benson, Andrew; Phillips, Lucy (2000). The rough guide to Argentina. London: Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1858285696.
- Akstinat, Björn (2013). Handbuch der deutschsprachigen Presse im Ausland (in German). Berlin: IMH–Verlag. ISBN 978-3981515817.
- Arbena, Joseph (2002). "In Search of the Latin American Female Athlete". In Arbena, Joseph; LaFrance, David Gerald. Sport in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lanham, MD, USA: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 219–232. ISBN 978-0842028219.
- Arbena, Joseph; LaFrance, David Gerald, eds. (2002). Sport in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lanham, MD, USA: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0842028219.
- Barnes, John (1978). Evita, First Lady: A Biography of Eva Perón. New York, NY, USA: Grove Press. ISBN 978-0802134790.
- Bidart Campos, Germán J. (2005). Manual de la Constitución Reformada (in Spanish) I. Buenos Aires: Ediar. ISBN 950-5741219.
- Bloom, Harold (1994). The Western Canon: The Books and School of the Ages. New York, NY, USA: Harcourt Brace & Company. ISBN 978-1573225144.
- Boughton, James M. (2012). Tearing Down Walls. The International Monetary Fund 1990–1999. Washington, D. C.: International Monetary Fund. ISBN 978-1616350840.
- Calvo, Carlos (1864). Anales históricos de la revolucion de la América latina, acompañados de los documentos en su apoyo. Desde el año 1808 hasta el reconocimiento de la independencia de ese extenso continente (in Spanish) 2. Paris: A. Durand.
- Crooker, Richard A. (2009). Argentina. New York, NY, USA: Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1438104812.
- Crow, John A. (1992). The Epic of Latin America (4th ed.). Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520077232.
- Díaz Alejandro, Carlos F. (1970). Essays on the Economic History of the Argentine Republic. New Haven, CT, USA: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300011937.
- Dougall, Angus (2013). The Greatest Racing Driver. Bloomington, IN, USA: Balboa Press. ISBN 978-1452510965.
- Edwards, Todd L. (2008). Argentina: A Global Studies Handbook. Santa Barbara, CA, USA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1851099863.
- Epstein, Edward; Pion-Berlin, David (2006). "The Crisis of 2001 and Argentine Democracy". In Epstein, Edward; Pion-Berlin, David. Broken Promises?: The Argentine Crisis and Argentine Democracy. Lanham, MD, USA: Lexington Books. pp. 3–26. ISBN 978-0739109281.
- Fayt, Carlos S. (1985). Derecho Político (in Spanish) I (6th ed.). Buenos Aires: Depalma. ISBN 978-9501402766.
- Fearns, Les; Fearns, Daisy (2005). Argentina. London: Evans Brothers. ISBN 978-0237527594.
- Ferro, Carlos A. (1991). Historia de la Bandera Argentina (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Ediciones Depalma. ISBN 978-9501406108.
- Foster, David W.; Lockhart, Melissa F.; Lockhart, Darrell B. (1998). Culture and Customs of Argentina. Westport, CT, USA: Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0313303197.
- Friedman, Ian C. (2007). Latino Athletes. New York, NY, USA: Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1438107844.
- Galasso, Norberto (2011). Historia de la Argentina, vol. I&II (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Colihue. ISBN 978-9505634781.
- Huntington, Samuel P. (2000). "Culture, Power, and Democracy". In Plattner, Marc; Smolar, Aleksander. Globalization, Power, and Democracy. Baltimore, MD, USA: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 3–13. ISBN 978-0801865688.
- King, John (2000). Magical Reels: A History of Cinema in Latin America. Critical Studies in Latin American & Iberian Cultures. London: Verso. ISBN 978-1859842331.
- Kopka, Deborah (2011). Central & South America. Dayton, OH, USA: Lorenz Educational Press. ISBN 978-1429122511.
- Lake, David (2009). "Regional Hierarchies: Authority and Local International Order". In Fawn, Rick. Globalising the Regional, Regionalising the Global. Review of International Studies 35. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 35–58. ISBN 978-0521759885.
- Levene, Ricardo (1948). Desde la Revolución de Mayo a la Asamblea de 1813–15. Historia del Derecho Argentino (in Spanish) IV. Buenos Aires: Editorial G. Kraf.
- Lewis, Daniel K. (2003). The History of Argentina. Palgrave Essential Histories Series. New York. NY, USA: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-1403962546.
- Lewis, M. Paul; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2014). Ethnologue: Languages of the World (17th ed.). Dallas, TX, USA: Summer Institute of Linguistics International.
- Lewis, Paul (1990). The Crisis of Argentine Capitalism. Chapel Hill, NC, USA: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0807843567.
- Maddison, Angus (1995). Monitoring the World Economy 1820–1992. Paris: OECD Publishing. ISBN 978-9264145498.
- Maddison, Angus (2001). The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective. OECD Publishing. ISBN 978-9264186545.
- Maldifassi, José O.; Abetti, Pier A. (1994). Defense industries in Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. Praeger. ISBN 978-0275947293.
- Margheritis, Ana (2010). Argentina's foreign policy: domestic politics and democracy promotion in the Americas. Boulder, CO, USA: FirstForumPress. ISBN 978-1935049197.
- McCloskey, Erin; Burford, Tim (2006). Argentina. Guilford, CT, USA: Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 978-1841621388.
- McKinney, Kevin (1993). Everyday geography. New York, NY, USA: GuildAmerica Books. ISBN 978-1568650326.
- Menutti, Adela; Menutti, María Mercedes (1980). Geografía Argentina y Universal (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Edil.
- Morris, Michael (1988). Mangone, Gerard, ed. The Strait of Magellan. International Straits of the World 11. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishes. ISBN 978-0792301813.
- Mosk, Sanford A. (1990). "Latin America and the World Economy, 1850–1914". In Hanke, Lewis; Rausch, Jane M. People and Issues in Latin American History. II: From Independence to the Present. New York, NY, USA: Markus Wiener Publishing. pp. 86–96. ISBN 978-1558760189.
- Nauright, John; Parrish, Charles, eds. (2012). Sports around the World: History, Culture, and Practice 3. Santa Barbara, CA, USA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1598843019.
- Nierop, Tom (2001). "The Clash of Civilisations". In Dijkink, Gertjan; Knippenberg, Hans. The Territorial Factor. Amsterdam: Vossiuspers UvA – Amsterdam University Press. pp. 51–76. ISBN 978-9056291884.
- Papadopoulos, Anestis (2010). The International Dimension of EU Competition Law and Policy. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521196468.
- Rey Balmaceda, Raúl (1995). Mi país, la Argentina (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Arte Gráfico Editorial Argentino. ISBN 84-599-3442-X.
- Rivas, José Andrés (1989). Santiago en sus letras: antología criticotemática de las letras santiagueñas (in Spanish). Santiago del Estero, SE, Argentina: Universidad Nacional de Santiago del Estero.
- Robben, Antonius C. G. M. (2011). Political Violence and Trauma in Argentina. Philadelphia, PA, USA: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0812203318.
- Rock, David (1987). Argentina, 1516–1987: From Spanish Colonization to the Falklands War. Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520061781.
- Rodríguez, Robert G. (2009). The Regulation of Boxing: A History and Comparative Analysis of Policies Among American States. Jefferson, NC, USA: McFarland. ISBN 978-0786452842.
- Rosenblat, Ángel (1964). El nombre de la Argentina (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: EUDEBA – Editorial Universitaria de Buenos Aires.
- Ruiz-Dana, Alejandra; Goldschag, Peter; Claro, Edmundo; Blanco, Hernán (2009). "Regional Integration, Trade and Conflicts in Latin America". In Khan, Shaheen Rafi. Regional Trade Integration and Conflict Resolution. New York, NY, USA: Routledge. pp. 15–44. ISBN 978-0415476737.
- Sánchez Viamonte, Carlos (1948). Historia Institucional Argentina (in Spanish) (2nd ed.). Mexico D. F.: Fondo de Cultura Económica.
- Traba, Juan (1985). Origen de la palabra "¿¡Argentina!?" (in Spanish). Rosario, SF, Argentina: Escuela de Artes Gráficas del Colegio San José.
- Vanossi, Jorge R. (1964). Situación actual del federalismo: aspectos institucionales y económicos, en particular sobre la realidad argentina. Cuadernos de ciencia política de la Asociación Argentina de Ciencia Política (in Spanish) 2. Buenos Aires: Ediciones Depalma.
- Wood, Bernard (1988). The middle powers and the general interest. Ottawa: North–South Institute. ISBN 978-0920494813.
- Young, Richard; Cisneros, Odile (2010). Historical Dictionary of Latin American Literature and Theater. Lanham, MD, USA: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0810874985.
- Young, Ronald (2005). "Argentina". In McColl, Robert W. Encyclopedia of World Geography I. New York, NY, USA: Golson Books. pp. 51–53. ISBN 978-0816072293.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Travel guide from Wikivoyage|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
- Argentina (official website, in Spanish)
- Travel & tourism
- Argentina Ministry of Tourism (official website)
- National Institute of Tourism Promotion (official website)
- Argentina entry at The World Factbook
- Argentina at DMOZ
- Argentina at Latin American Network Information Center
- Argentina at University Libraries – University of Colorado Boulder
- Key Development Forecasts for Argentina at International Futures
- Geographic data related to Argentina at OpenStreetMap
- Argentina – Wikipedia book
- Wikimedia Atlas of Argentina