|Elevation||581 m (1,906 ft)|
The Berkeley Hills are a range of the Pacific Coast Ranges that overlook the northeast side of the valley that encompasses San Francisco Bay. They were previously called the "Contra Costa Range/Hills" (from the original Spanish Sierra de la Contra Costa), but with the establishment of Berkeley and the University of California, the current usage was applied by geographers and gazetteers.
Tectonically the Berkeley Hills are bounded by the major Hayward Fault along their western base, and the minor Wildcat Fault on their eastern side. The highest peaks are Vollmer Peak (elevation 1,905 feet/581m), Grizzly Peak (elevation 1,754 feet/535 m) and Round Top (elevation 1,761 feet/537m), an extinct volcano, and William Rust Summit 1,004 feet.
Vollmer Peak was named for the first police chief of the City of Berkeley, August Vollmer. It was formerly known as "Bald Peak".
Much of the west slope of the Berkeley Hills has residential neighborhoods of mostly single family homes, except on the land of the University of California. Most streets are narrow and tend to follow the contours of the land, although three streets, Marin Avenue, Moeser Lane, and Potrero Avenue, run directly toward the ridgeline. Other roads to the ridgeline wind their way up the canyons. Grizzly Peak and Skyline Blvds follow the top of the ridge.
The Berkeley Hills are pierced by several tunnels. Two are aqueducts of EBMUD; the Berkeley Hills Tunnel serves the Pittsburg-Baypoint line of the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system. The three bores (soon to be four) of the Caldecott Tunnel carry State Highway 24 between Oakland and Contra Costa County.
It is common to hear the term, "Oakland Hills" to refer to that section of the Berkeley Hills that runs along the east side of Oakland, but as a proper name or recognized toponym, it is technically incorrect. However, the exact south end of the usage "Berkeley Hills" is unclear. It does not, in any case, correspond to any political boundaries, only to a geographic feature (much as "San Francisco Bay" is not limited to that stretch of the Pacific inlet within the bounds of the City and County of San Francisco). The ridge extends south through Oakland and San Leandro to the drainage of San Leandro Creek called Castro Valley, and geologically, continues southward above the line of the Hayward Fault. In the section above East Oakland to Castro Valley, the ridge appears on most maps as the San Leandro Hills.
The northern extent of the proper name "Berkeley Hills" is less indefinite; most maps including those of the USGS apply the name along the entire ridge as it runs continuously right up to the shoreline of San Pablo Bay north of Richmond. The eastern slopes of the Berkeley Hills lie entirely outside of the city of Berkeley within Contra Costa County.
Another common usage is East Bay Hills, but its application to any particular range is unclear. It may refer to all of the ranges east of the Bay, from the Berkeley Hills to the Diablo Range and all the ranges between.
The Berkeley Hills affect the local climate by their elevation. The oceanic marine layer, which develops during the summer is usually less than 2,000 feet deep and thus is blocked by the range. This produces a "fog shadow" effect to the east which is warmer than areas west of the hills. The westerly wind that carries the marine layer through the Golden Gate typically splits its flow as it hits the Berkeley Hills producing a southerly wind from Berkeley northward and a northerly flow in the direction of Oakland.
In winter during spells of tule fog inland, a reverse situation occurs, with the fog usually confined to areas east of the hills, although occasionally, the inland fog will pour in from the north, around the hills by way of the Carquinez Strait.
The Berkeley Hills affect rainfall; when the wind is perpendicular to the hills (southwest wind) during rain, air is forced to rise, cooling and condensing additional moisture, increasing the precipitation on the western slopes and leaving areas east of the hills drier. An especially cold storm will occassionally deposit wet snow on the peaks.
In spring and fall, sinking air from aloft combining with inland high pressure periodically sends hot, dry, and gusty winds across the ridges of the Berkeley Hills, posing a fire danger, which in the 20th century produced several wildfires, two of which caused major damage to Berkeley and Oakland. (See 1923 Berkeley Fire and 1991 Oakland firestorm).
- The California Earthquake of April 18, 1906: Report of the State Earthquake Investigation Commission, Andrew C. Lawson, chairman, Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 87, 2 vols. (1908) - Available online at this USGS webpage.
- Map of Oakland-Berkeley, California State Automobile Association, March 2006 edition
- TopoZone Map