|Boron in the periodic table|
Boron, shown here in the form of its β-rhombohedral phase (its most thermodynamically stable allotrope)1
|Name, symbol, number||boron, B, 5|
|Group, period, block||13, 2, p|
|Standard atomic weight||10.81(1)|
|Electron configuration||[He] 2s2 2p1
|Liquid density at m.p.||2.08 g·cm−3|
|Melting point||2349 K, 2076 °C, 3769 °F|
|Boiling point||4200 K, 3927 °C, 7101 °F|
|Heat of fusion||50.2 kJ·mol−1|
|Heat of vaporization||508 kJ·mol−1|
|Molar heat capacity||11.087 J·mol−1·K−1|
|Oxidation states||3, 2, 12
(mildly acidic oxide)
|Electronegativity||2.04 (Pauling scale)|
|1st: 800.6 kJ·mol−1|
|2nd: 2427.1 kJ·mol−1|
|3rd: 3659.7 kJ·mol−1|
|Atomic radius||90 pm|
|Covalent radius||84±3 pm|
|Van der Waals radius||192 pm|
|Electrical resistivity||(20 °C) ~106 Ω·m|
|Thermal conductivity||27.4 W·m−1·K−1|
|Thermal expansion||(25 °C) (β form) 5–74 µm·m−1·K−1|
|Speed of sound (thin rod)||(20 °C) 16,200 m·s−1|
|CAS registry number||7440-42-8|
|Discovery||Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard5 (30 June 1808)|
|First isolation||Humphry Davy6 (9 July 1808)|
|Most stable isotopes|
|Main article: Isotopes of boron|
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5. Because boron is produced entirely by cosmic ray spallation and not by stellar nucleosynthesis,9 it is a low-abundance element in both the solar system and the Earth's crust. Boron is concentrated on Earth by the water-solubility of its more common naturally occurring compounds, the borate minerals. These are mined industrially as evaporites, such as borax and kernite.
Chemically uncombined boron, which is classed as a metalloid, is found in small amounts in meteoroids, but is not found naturally on Earth. Industrially, very pure boron is produced with difficulty, as boron tends to form refractory materials containing small amounts of carbon or other elements. Several allotropes of boron exist: amorphous boron is a brown powder, and crystalline boron is black, extremely hard (about 9.5 on the Mohs scale), and a poor conductor at room temperature. Elemental boron is used as a dopant in the semiconductor industry.
The major industrial-scale uses of boron compounds are in sodium perborate bleaches, and (Owens-Corning) Borosilicate glass which it trademarked as Pyrex, with greater strength and breakage resistance (thermal shock resistance) than ordinary soda lime glass. Boron polymers and ceramics play specialized roles as high-strength lightweight structural and refractory materials. Boron compounds are used in silica-based glasses and ceramics to give them resistance to thermal shock. Boron-containing reagents are used as intermediates in the synthesis of organic fine chemicals. A few boron-containing organic pharmaceuticals are used, or are in study. Natural boron is composed of two stable isotopes, one of which (boron-10) has a number of uses as a neutron-capturing agent.
In biology, borates have low toxicity in mammals (similar to table salt), but are more toxic to arthropods and are used as insecticides. Boric acid is mildly antimicrobial, and a natural boron-containing organic antibiotic is known.10 Boron is essential to life. Small amounts of boron compounds play a strengthening role in the cell walls of all plants, making boron necessary in soils. Experiments indicate a role for boron as an ultratrace element in animals, but its role in animal physiology is unknown.
- 1 History
- 2 Characteristics
- 2.1 Allotropes
- 2.2 Chemistry of the element
- 2.3 Isotopes
- 2.4 Occurrence
- 3 Production
- 4 Applications
- 4.1 Glass and ceramics
- 4.2 Detergent formulations and bleaching agents
- 4.3 Insecticides
- 4.4 Semiconductors
- 4.5 Magnets
- 4.6 High-hardness and abrasive compounds
- 4.7 Shielding in nuclear reactors
- 4.8 Other nonmedical uses
- 4.9 Pharmaceutical and biological applications
- 4.10 Research areas
- 5 Natural biological role
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The word boron was coined from borax, the mineral from which it was isolated, by analogy with carbon, which it resembles chemically. For the etymology of borax, see that article.
Borax glazes were used in China from AD 300, and some tincal (crude borax) reached the West, where the Persian alchemist Jābir ibn Hayyān seems to mention it in AD 700. Marco Polo brought some glazes back to Italy in the 13th century. Agricola, around 1600, reports the use of borax as a flux in metallurgy. In 1777, boric acid was recognized in the hot springs (soffioni) near Florence, Italy, and became known as sal sedativum, with mainly medical uses. The rare mineral is called sassolite, which is found at Sasso, Italy. Sasso was the main source of European borax from 1827 to 1872, at which date American sources replaced it.1112 Boron compounds were relatively rarely used chemicals until the late 1800s when Francis Marion Smith's Pacific Coast Borax Company first popularized these compounds and made them in volume and hence cheap.13
Boron was not recognized as an element until it was isolated by Sir Humphry Davy6 and by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis Jacques Thénard.5 In 1808 Davy observed that electric current sent through a solution of borates produced a brown precipitate on one of the electrodes. In his subsequent experiments he used potassium to reduce boric acid instead of electrolysis. He produced enough boron to confirm a new element and named the element boracium.6 Gay-Lussac and Thénard used iron to reduce boric acid at high temperatures. They showed by oxidizing boron with air that boric acid is an oxidation product of boron.514 Jöns Jakob Berzelius identified boron as an element in 1824.15 Pure boron was arguably first produced by the American chemist Ezekiel Weintraub in 1909.161718
Boron is similar to carbon in its capability to form stable covalently bonded molecular networks. Even nominally disordered (amorphous) boron contains regular boron icosahedra which are, however, bonded randomly to each other without long-range order.1920 Crystalline boron is a very hard, black material with a high melting point of above 2000 °C. It exists in four major polymorphs: α, β, γ and T. Whereas α, β and T phases are based on B12 icosahedra, the γ-phase can be described as a rocksalt-type arrangement of the icosahedra and B2 atomic pairs.21 It can be produced by compressing other boron phases to 12–20 GPa and heating to 1500–1800 °C; it remains stable after releasing the temperature and pressure. The T phase is produced at similar pressures, but higher temperatures of 1800–2200 °C. As to the α and β phases, they might both coexist at ambient conditions with the β phase being more stable.212223 Compressing boron above 160 GPa produces a boron phase with an as yet unknown structure, and this phase is a superconductor at temperatures 6–12 K.24
|Vickers hardness (GPa)2930||42||45||50–58|
|Bulk modulus (GPa)3031||185||224||227|
Elemental boron is rare and poorly studied because the material is extremely difficult to prepare. Most studies on "boron" involve samples that contain small amounts of carbon. Chemically, boron behaves more similarly to silicon than to aluminium. Crystalline boron is chemically inert and resistant to attack by boiling hydrofluoric or hydrochloric acid. When finely divided, it is attacked slowly by hot concentrated hydrogen peroxide, hot concentrated nitric acid, hot sulfuric acid or hot mixture of sulfuric and chromic acids.17
The rate of oxidation of boron depends upon the crystallinity, particle size, purity and temperature. Boron does not react with air at room temperature, but at higher temperatures it burns to form boron trioxide:33
- 4 B + 3 O2 → 2 B2O3
Boron undergoes halogenation to give trihalides, for example,
- 2 B + 3 Br2 → 2 BBr3
The trichloride in practice is usually made from the oxide.33
In its most familiar compounds, boron has the formal oxidation state III. These include oxides, sulfides, nitrides, and halides.33
The trihalides adopt a planar trigonal structure. These compounds are Lewis acids in that they readily form adducts with electron-pair donors, which are called Lewis bases. For example, fluoride (F−) and boron trifluoride (BF3) combined to give the tetrafluoroborate anion, BF4−. Boron trifluoride is used in the petrochemical industry as a catalyst. The halides react with water to form boric acid.33
Boron is found in nature on Earth entirely as various oxides of B(III), often associated with other elements. More than one hundred borate minerals contain boron in oxidation state +3. These minerals resemble silicates in some respect, although boron is often found not only in a tetrahedral coordination with oxygen, but also in a trigonal planar configuration. Unlike silicates, the boron minerals never contain boron with coordination number greater than four. A typical motif is exemplified by the tetraborate anions of the common mineral borax, shown at left. The formal negative charge of the tetrahedral borate centers is balanced by metal cations in the minerals, such as the sodium (Na+) in borax.33
Boranes are chemical compounds of boron and hydrogen, with the generic formula of BxHy. These compounds do not occur in nature. Many of the boranes readily oxidise on contact with air, some violently. The parent member BH3 is called borane, but it is known only in the gaseous state, and dimerises to form diborane, B2H6. The larger boranes all consist of boron clusters that are polyhedral, some of which exist as isomers. For example, isomers of B20H26 are based on the fusion of two 10-atom clusters.
The most important boranes are diborane B2H6 and two of its pyrolysis products, pentaborane B5H9 and decaborane B10H14. A large number of anionic boron hydrides are known, e.g. [B12H122−.
The formal oxidation number in boranes is positive, and is based on the assumption that hydrogen is counted as −1 as in active metal hydrides. The mean oxidation number for the borons is then simply the ratio of hydrogen to boron in the molecule. For example, in diborane B2H6, the boron oxidation state is +3, but in decaborane B10H14, it is 7/5 or +1.4. In these compounds the oxidation state of boron is often not a whole number.
The boron nitrides are notable for the variety of structures that they adopt. They adopt structures analogous to various allotropes of carbon, including graphite, diamond, and nanotubes. In the diamond-like structure called cubic boron nitride (tradename Borazon), boron atoms exist in the tetrahedral structure of carbons atoms in diamond, but one in every four B-N bonds can be viewed as a coordinate covalent bond, wherein two electrons are donated by the nitrogen atom which acts as the Lewis base to a bond to the Lewis acidic boron(III) centre. Cubic boron nitride, among other applications, is used as an abrasive, as it has a hardness comparable with diamond (the two substances are able to produce scratches on each other). In the BN compound analogue of graphite, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), the positively-charged boron and negatively-charged nitrogen atoms in each plane lie adjacent to the oppositely charged atom in the next plane. Consequently graphite and h-BN have very different properties, although both are lubricants, as these planes slip past each other easily. However, h-BN is a relatively poor electrical and thermal conductor in the planar directions.3435
A large number of organoboron compounds are known and many are useful in organic synthesis. Many are produced from hydroboration, which employs diborane, B2H6, a simple borane chemical. Organoboron(III) compounds are usually tetrahedral or trigonal planar, for example, tetraphenylborate, [B(C6H5)4- vs triphenylborane, B(C6H5)3. However, multiple boron atoms reacting with each other have a tendency to form novel dodecahedral (12-sided) and icosahedral (20-sided) structures composed completely of boron atoms, or with varying numbers of carbon heteroatoms.
Organoboron chemicals have been employed in uses as diverse as boron carbide (see below), a complex very hard ceramic composed of boron-carbon cluster anions and cations, to carboranes, carbon-boron cluster chemistry compounds that can be halogenated to form reactive structures including carborane acid, a superacid. As one example, carboranes form useful molecular moieties that add considerable amounts of boron to other biochemicals in order to synthesize boron-containing compounds for boron neutron capture therapy of cancer.
Although these are not found on Earth naturally, boron forms a variety of stable compounds with formal oxidation state less than three. As for many covalent compounds, formal oxidation states are often of little meaning in boron hydrides and metal borides. The halides also form derivatives of B(I) and B(II). BF, isoelectronic with N2, is not isolable in condensed form, but B2F4 and B4Cl4 are well characterized.36
Binary metal-boron compounds, the metal borides, contain boron in oxidation state less than III. Illustrative is magnesium diboride (MgB2). Each boron atom has a formal −1 charge and magnesium is assigned a formal charge of 2+. In this material, the boron centers are trigonal planar, with an extra double bond for each boron, with the boron atoms forming sheets akin to the carbon in graphite. However, unlike the case with hexagonal boron nitride which by comparison lacks electrons in the plane of the covalent atoms, the delocalized electrons in the plane of magnesium diboride allow it to conduct electricity similar to isoelectronic graphite. In addition, in 2001 this material was found to be a high-temperature superconductor.3738
Certain other metal borides find specialized applications as hard materials for cutting tools.39
From the structural perspective, the most distinctive chemical compounds of boron are the hydrides. Included in this series are the cluster compounds dodecaborate (B12H122-), decaborane (B10H14), and the carboranes such as C2B10H12. Characteristically such compounds contain boron with coordination numbers greater than four.33
Boron has two naturally occurring and stable isotopes, 11B (80.1%) and 10B (19.9%). The mass difference results in a wide range of δ11B values, which are defined as a fractional difference between the 11B and 10B and traditionally expressed in parts per thousand, in natural waters ranging from −16 to +59. There are 13 known isotopes of boron, the shortest-lived isotope is 7B which decays through proton emission and alpha decay. It has a half-life of 3.5×10−22 s. Isotopic fractionation of boron is controlled by the exchange reactions of the boron species B(OH)3 and [B(OH)4−. Boron isotopes are also fractionated during mineral crystallization, during H2O phase changes in hydrothermal systems, and during hydrothermal alteration of rock. The latter effect results in preferential removal of the 10B(OH)4− ion onto clays. It results in solutions enriched in 11B(OH)3 and therefore may be responsible for the large 11B enrichment in seawater relative to both oceanic crust and continental crust; this difference may act as an isotopic signature.40 The exotic 17B exhibits a nuclear halo, i.e. its radius is appreciably larger than that predicted by the liquid drop model.41
The 10B isotope is good at capturing thermal neutrons (see neutron cross section#Typical cross sections). Natural boron is about 20% 10B and 80% 11B. The nuclear industry enriches natural boron to nearly pure 10B. The less-valuable by-product, depleted boron, is nearly pure 11B.
Because of its high neutron cross-section, boron-10 is often used to control fission in nuclear reactors as a neutron-capturing substance.42 Several industrial-scale enrichment processes have been developed, however only the fractionated vacuum distillation of the dimethyl ether adduct of boron trifluoride (DME-BF3) and column chromatography of borates are being used.4344
Enriched boron or 10B is used in both radiation shielding and is the primary nuclide used in neutron capture therapy of cancer. In the latter ("boron neutron capture therapy" or BNCT), a compound containing 10B is incorporated into a pharmaceutical which is selectively taken up by a malignant tumor and tissues near it. The patient is then treated with a beam of low energy neutrons at a relatively low neutron radiation dose. The neutrons, however, trigger energetic and short-range secondary alpha particle and lithium-7 heavy ion radiation that are products of the boron + neutron nuclear reaction, and this ion radiation additionally bombards the tumor, especially from inside the tumor cells.45464748
In nuclear reactors, 10B is used for reactivity control and in emergency shutdown systems. It can serve either function in the form of borosilicate control rods or as boric acid. In pressurized water reactors, boric acid is added to the reactor coolant when the plant is shut down for refueling. It is then slowly filtered out over many months as fissile material is used up and the fuel becomes less reactive.49
In future manned interplanetary spacecraft, 10B has a theoretical role as structural material (as boron fibers or BN nanotube material) which would also serve a special role in the radiation shield. One of the difficulties in dealing with cosmic rays, which are mostly high energy protons, is that some secondary radiation from interaction of cosmic rays and spacecraft materials is high energy spallation neutrons. Such neutrons can be moderated by materials high in light elements such as polyethylene, but the moderated neutrons continue to be a radiation hazard unless actively absorbed in the shielding. Among light elements that absorb thermal neutrons, 6Li and 10B appear as potential spacecraft structural materials which serve both for mechanical reinforcement and radiation protection.50
Cosmic radiation will produce secondary neutrons if it hits spacecraft structures. Those neutrons will be captured in 10B, if it is present in the spacecraft's semiconductors, producing a gamma ray, an alpha particle, and a lithium ion. These resultant decay products may then irradiate nearby semiconductor "chip" structures, causing data loss (bit flipping, or single event upset). In radiation-hardened semiconductor designs, one countermeasure is to use depleted boron, which is greatly enriched in 11B and contains almost no 10B. It is useful because 11B is largely immune to radiation damage. Depleted boron is a byproduct of the nuclear industry.49
11B is also a candidate as a fuel for aneutronic fusion. When struck by a proton with energy of about 500 keV, it produces three alpha particles and 8.7 MeV of energy. Most other fusion reactions involving hydrogen and helium produce penetrating neutron radiation, which weakens reactor structures and induces long term radioactivity thereby endangering operating personnel. Whereas, the alpha particles from 11B fusion can be turned directly into electric power, and all radiation stops as soon as the reactor is turned off.51
Both 10B and 11B possess nuclear spin. The nuclear spin of 10B is 3 and that of 11B is 3/2. These isotopes are, therefore, of use in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; and spectrometers specially adapted to detecting the boron-11 nuclei are available commercially. The 10B and 11B nuclei also cause splitting in the resonances of attached nuclei.52
Boron is rare in the Universe and solar system due to trace formation in the Big Bang and in stars. It is formed in minor amounts in cosmic ray spallation nucleosynthesis and may be found uncombined in cosmic dust and meteoroid materials. In the high oxygen environment of Earth, boron is always found fully oxidized to borate.
Although boron is a relatively rare element in the Earth's crust, representing only 0.001% of the crust mass, it can be highly concentrated by the action of water, in which many borates are soluble. The worldwide commercial borate deposits are estimated at 10 million tonnes.5354 Turkey and the United States are the world's largest producers of boron.5556 Turkey has 63% of the world’s boron reserves.57 Boron does not appear on Earth in elemental form but is found combined in borax, boric acid, colemanite, kernite, ulexite and borates. Boric acid is sometimes found in volcanic spring waters.
Economically important sources of boron are rasorite (kernite) and tincal (borax ore). They are both found in the Mojave Desert of California where the Rio Tinto Borax Mine (also known as the U.S. Borax Boron Mine) near Boron, California, is California's largest open-pit mine and the largest borax mine in the world, producing nearly half the world's borates from this single site.5960 However, the largest borax deposits known, many still untapped, are in Central and Western Turkey, including the provinces of Eskişehir, Kütahya and Balıkesir.616263
The production of boron compounds does not involve formation of elemental boron, but exploits the convenient availability of borates.
The earliest routes to elemental boron involved reduction of boric oxide with metals such as magnesium or aluminium. However the product is almost always contaminated with metal borides. Pure boron can be prepared by reducing volatile boron halides with hydrogen at high temperatures. Ultrapure boron for use in the semiconductor industry is produced by the decomposition of diborane at high temperatures and then further purified with the zone melting or Czochralski processes.64
Estimated global consumption of boron rose to a record 1.8 million tonnes of B2O3 in 2005, following a period of strong growth in demand from Asia, Europe and North America. Boron mining and refining capacities are considered to be adequate to meet expected levels of growth through the next decade.
The form in which boron is consumed has changed in recent years. The use of ores like colemanite has declined following concerns over arsenic content. Consumers have moved towards the use of refined borates and boric acid that have a lower pollutant content. The average cost of crystalline boron is $5/g.65
Increasing demand for boric acid has led a number of producers to invest in additional capacity. Turkey's state-owned Eti Mine Works opened a new boric acid plant with the production capacity of 100,000 tonnes per year at Emet in 2003. Rio Tinto Group increased the capacity of its boron plant from 260,000 tonnes per year in 2003 to 310,000 tonnes per year by May 2005, with plans to grow this to 366,000 tonnes per year in 2006. Chinese boron producers have been unable to meet rapidly growing demand for high quality borates. This has led to imports of sodium tetraborate (borax) growing by a hundredfold between 2000 and 2005 and boric acid imports increasing by 28% per year over the same period.6667
The rise in global demand has been driven by high growth rates in fiberglass and borosilicate production. A rapid increase in the manufacture of reinforcement-grade fiberglass in Asia with a consequent increase in demand for borates has offset the development of boron-free reinforcement-grade fiberglass in Europe and the USA. The recent rises in energy prices may lead to greater use of insulation-grade fiberglass, with consequent growth in the boron consumption. Roskill Consulting Group forecasts that world demand for boron will grow by 3.4% per year to reach 21 million tonnes by 2010. The highest growth in demand is expected to be in Asia where demand could rise by an average 5.7% per year.6668
Nearly all boron ore extracted from the Earth is destined for refinement into boric acid and sodium tetraborate pentahydrate. In the United States, 70% of the boron is used for the production of glass and ceramics.6970 The major global industrial-scale uses of boron compounds are in the borax component of cellulose based insulation (where it is an insecticide), and in sodium perborate bleaches.
Borosilicate glass, which is typically 12–15% B2O3, 80% SiO2, and 2% Al2O3, has a low coefficient of thermal expansion giving it a good resistance to thermal shock. Duran and Pyrex are two major brand names for this glass, used both in laboratory glassware and in consumer cookware and bakeware, chiefly for this resistance.71
Boron filaments are high-strength, lightweight materials that are used chiefly for advanced aerospace structures as a component of composite materials, as well as limited production consumer and sporting goods such as golf clubs and fishing rods.7273 The fibers can be produced by chemical vapor deposition of boron on a tungsten filament.5574
Boron fibers and sub-millimeter sized crystalline boron springs are produced by laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition. Translation of the focused laser beam allows to produce even complex helical structures. Such structures show good mechanical properties (elastic modulus 450 GPa, fracture strain 3.7%, fracture stress 17 GPa) and can be applied as reinforcement of ceramics or in micromechanical systems.75
Borax is used in various household laundry and cleaning products,76 including the "20 Mule Team Borax" laundry booster and "Boraxo" powdered hand soap. It is also present in some tooth bleaching formulas.70
Sodium perborate serves as a source of active oxygen in many detergents, laundry detergents, cleaning products, and laundry bleaches. However, despite its name, "Borateem" laundry bleach no longer contains any boron compounds, using sodium percarbonate instead as a bleaching agent.77
Boric acid is used as an insecticide, notably against ants, fleas, and cockroaches.78
Boron is a useful dopant for such semiconductors as silicon, germanium, and silicon carbide. Having one fewer valence electron than the host atom, it donates a hole resulting in p-type conductivity. Traditional method of introducing boron into semiconductors is via its atomic diffusion at high temperatures. This process uses either solid (B2O3), liquid (BBr3), or gaseous boron sources (B2H6 or BF3). However, after the 1970s, it was mostly replaced by ion implantation, which relies mostly on BF3 as a boron source.79 Boron trichloride gas is also an important chemical in semiconductor industry, however not for doping but rather for plasma etching of metals and their oxides.80 Triethylborane is also injected into vapor deposition reactors as a boron source. Examples are the plasma deposition of boron-containing hard carbon films, silicon nitride-boron nitride films, and for doping of diamond film with boron.81
Boron is a component of neodymium magnets (Nd2Fe14B), which are among the strongest type of permanent magnet. These magnets are found in a variety of electromechanical and electronic devices, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) medical imaging systems, in compact and relatively small motors and actuators. As examples, computer HDDs (hard disk drives), CD (compact disk) and DVD (digital versatile disk) players rely on neodymium magnet motors to deliver intense rotary power in a remarkably compact package. In mobile phones 'Neo' magnets provide the magnetic field which allows tiny speakers to deliver appreciable audio power.3
Several boron compounds are known for their extreme hardness and toughness.
Boron carbide and cubic boron nitride powders are widely used as abrasives. Metal borides are used for coating tools through chemical vapor deposition or physical vapor deposition. Implantation of boron ions into metals and alloys, through ion implantation or ion beam deposition, results in a spectacular increase in surface resistance and microhardness. Laser alloying has also been successfully used for the same purpose. These borides are an alternative to diamond coated tools, and their (treated) surfaces have similar properties to those of the bulk boride.82
Boron carbide is a ceramic material which is obtained by decomposing B2O3 with carbon in the electric furnace:
- 2 B2O3 + 7 C → B4C + 6 CO
Boron carbide's structure is only approximately B4C, and it shows a clear depletion of carbon from this suggested stoichiometric ratio. This is due to its very complex structure. The substance can be seen with empirical formula B12C3 (i.e., with B12 dodecahedra being a motif), but with less carbon as the suggested C3 units are replaced with B-C chains, and there are smaller (B6) octahedra present as well. (See the article for structural analysis).
The repeating polymer plus semi-crystalline structure of boron carbide gives it great structural strength per weight. It is used in tank armor, bulletproof vests, and numerous other structural applications.
Boron carbide's ability to absorb neutrons without forming long-lived radionuclides (especially when doped with extra boron-10) makes the material attractive as an absorbent for neutron radiation arising in nuclear power plants. Nuclear applications of boron carbide include shielding, control rods and shut-down pellets. Within control rods, boron carbide is often powdered, to increase its surface area.83
|Vickers hardness (GPa)||115||76||71||62||38||22|
|Fracture toughness (MPa m1/2)||5.3||4.5||9.5||6.8||3.5|
- Heterodiamond (also called BCN);
- Boron nitride. This material is isoelectronic to carbon. Similar to carbon, it has both hexagonal (soft graphite-like h-BN) and cubic (hard, diamond-like c-BN) forms. h-BN is used as a high temperature component and lubricant. c-BN, also known under commercial name borazon,86 is a superior abrasive. Its hardness is only slightly smaller, but chemical stability is superior to that of diamond.
- Rhenium diboride can be produced at ambient pressures, but is rather expensive because of rhenium. The hardness of ReB2 exhibits considerable anisotropy because of its hexagonal layered structure. Its value is comparable to that of tungsten carbide, silicon carbide, titanium diboride or zirconium diboride.85
- AlMgB14 + TiB2 composites possess high hardness and wear resistance and are used in either bulk form or as coatings for components exposed to high temperatures and wear loads.87
- Because of its distinctive green flame, amorphous boron is used in pyrotechnic flares.89
- Starch and casein-based adhesives contain sodium tetraborate decahydrate (Na2B4O7·10 H2O)
- Some anti-corrosion systems contain borax.90
- Sodium borates are used as a flux for soldering silver and gold and with ammonium chloride for welding ferrous metals.91 They are also fire retarding additives to plastics and rubber articles.92
- Boric acid (also known as orthoboric acid) H3BO3 is used in the production of textile fiberglass and flat panel displays7093 and in many PVAc and PVOH based adhesives.
- Triethylborane is a substance which ignites the JP-7 fuel of the Pratt & Whitney J58 turbojet/ramjet engines powering the Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird.94 It was also used to ignite the F-1 Engines on the Saturn V Rocket utilized by NASA's Apollo and Skylab programs from 1967 until 1973. Triethylborane is suitable for this because of its pyrophoric properties, especially the fact that it burns with a very high temperature.95 Triethylborane is an industrial initiator in radical reactions, where it is effective even at low temperatures.
- Borates are used as environmentally benign wood preservatives.96
Boric acid has antiseptic, antifungal, and antiviral properties and for these reasons is applied as a water clarifier in swimming pool water treatment.97 Mild solutions of boric acid have been used as eye antiseptics.
Bortezomib (Velcade). Boron appears as an active element in its first-approved organic pharmaceutical in the novel pharmaceutical bortezomib, a new class of drug called the proteasome inhibitors, which are active in myeloma and one form of lymphoma (it is in currently in experimental trials against other types of lymphoma). The boron atom in bortezomib binds the catalytic site of the 26S proteasome98 with high affinity and specificity.
- A number of potential boronated pharmaceuticals using boron-10, have been prepared for use in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT).99
- Some boron compounds show promise in treating arthritis, though none have as yet been generally approved for the purpose.100
Magnesium diboride is an important superconducting material with the transition temperature of 39 K. MgB2 wires are produced with the powder-in-tube process and applied in superconducting magnets.101102
Amorphous boron is used as a melting point depressant in nickel-chromium braze alloys.103
Hexagonal boron nitride forms atomically thin layers, which have been used to enhance the electron mobility in graphene devices.104105 It also forms nanotubular structures (BNNTs), which have with high strength, high chemical stability, and high thermal conductivity, among its list of desirable properties.106
There is a boron-containing natural antibiotic, boromycin, isolated from streptomyces.107108 Boron is an essential plant nutrient, required primarily for maintaining the integrity of cell walls. Conversely, high soil concentrations of > 1.0 ppm can cause marginal and tip necrosis in leaves as well as poor overall growth performance. Levels as low as 0.8 ppm can cause these same symptoms to appear in plants particularly sensitive to boron in the soil. Nearly all plants, even those somewhat tolerant of boron in the soil, will show at least some symptoms of boron toxicity when boron content in the soil is greater than 1.8 ppm. When this content exceeds 2.0 ppm, few plants will perform well and some may not survive. When boron levels in plant tissue exceed 200 ppm symptoms of boron toxicity are likely to appear.109110111 In 2013, Steven Benner suggested it was possible that boron and molybdenum catalyzed the production of RNA on Mars with life being transported to Earth via a meteorite around 3 billion years ago.112
As an ultratrace element, boron is necessary for the optimal health of rats and a boron deficiency not easy to observe, although it is necessary in such small amounts that ultrapurified foods and dust filtration of air is necessary to induce boron deficiency, which manifest as poor coat or hair quality. Presumably, boron is necessary to other mammals. No deficiency syndrome in humans has been described. Small amounts of boron occur widely in the diet, and the amounts needed in the diet would, by analogy with rodent studies, be very small. The exact physiological role of boron in the animal kingdom is poorly understood.113
Boron occurs in all foods produced from plants. Since 1989 its nutritional value has been argued. It is thought that boron plays several biochemical roles in animals, including humans.114 The U.S. Department of agriculture conducted an experiment in which postmenopausal women took 3 mg of boron a day. The results showed that supplemental boron reduced excretion of calcium by 44%, and activated estrogen and vitamin D, suggesting a possible role in the suppression of osteoporosis. However, whether these effects were conventionally nutritional, or medicinal, could not be determined. The U.S. National Institutes of Health states that "Total daily boron intake in normal human diets ranges from 2.1–4.3 mg boron/day."115116
Congenital endothelial dystrophy type 2, a rare form of corneal dystrophy, is linked to mutations in SLC4A11 gene that encodes a transporter reportedly regulating the intracellular concentration of boron.117
For determination of boron content in food or materials the colorimetric curcumin method is used. Boron is converted to boric acid or borates and on reaction with curcumin in acidic solution, a red colored boron-chelate complex, rosocyanine, is formed.118
Elemental boron, boron oxide, boric acid, borates, and many organoboron compounds are non-toxic to humans and animals (approximately similar to table salt). The LD50 (dose at which there is 50% mortality) for animals is about 6 g per kg of body weight. Substances with LD50 above 2 g are considered non-toxic. The minimum lethal dose for humans has not been established. An intake of 4 g/day of boric acid was reported without incidents, but more than this is considered toxic for more than a few doses. Intakes of more than 0.5 grams per day for 50 days cause minor digestive and other problems suggestive of toxicity.119 Single medical doses of 20 g of boric acid for neutron capture therapy have been used without undue toxicity. Fish have survived for 30 min in a saturated boric acid solution and can survive longer in strong borax solutions.120 Boric acid is more toxic to insects than to mammals, and is routinely used as an insecticide.78
The boranes are toxic as well as highly flammable and require special care when handling. Sodium borohydride presents a fire hazard due to its reducing nature, and the liberation of hydrogen on contact with acid. Boron halides are corrosive.121
- Van Setten et al. 2007, pp. 2460–1
- Zhang, K.Q.; Guo, B.; Braun, V.; Dulick, M.; Bernath, P.F. (1995). "Infrared Emission Spectroscopy of BF and AIF". J. Molecular Spectroscopy 170: 82. Bibcode:1995JMoSp.170...82Z. doi:10.1006/jmsp.1995.1058.
- Lide, David R. (ed.) (2000). Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. CRC press. ISBN 0849304814.
- Holcombe Jr., C. E.; Smith, D. D.; Lorc, J. D.; Duerlesen, W. K.; Carpenter; D. A. (October 1973). "Physical-Chemical Properties of beta-Rhombohedral Boron". High Temp. Sci. 5 (5): 349–57.
- Gay Lussac, J.L. and Thenard, L.J. (1808) "Sur la décomposition et la recomposition de l'acide boracique," Annales de chimie [later: Annales de chemie et de physique], vol. 68, pp. 169–174.
- Davy H (1809). "An account of some new analytical researches on the nature of certain bodies, particularly the alkalies, phosphorus, sulphur, carbonaceous matter, and the acids hitherto undecomposed: with some general observations on chemical theory". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 99: 33–104.
- "Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions for All Elements". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
- Szegedi, S.; Váradi, M.; Buczkó, Cs. M.; Várnagy, M.; Sztaricskai, T. (1990). "Determination of boron in glass by neutron transmission method". Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry Letters 146 (3): 177. doi:10.1007/BF02165219.
- "Q & A: Where does the element Boron come from?". physics.illinois.edu. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
- "The tartrolons, new boron-containing antibiotics from a myxobacterium, Sorangium cellulosum.". Retrieved 2013-01-24.
- Garrett, Donald E. (1998). Borates: handbook of deposits, processing, properties, and use. Academic Press. pp. 102; 385–386. ISBN 0-12-276060-3.
- Calvert, J. B. "Boron". University of Denver. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- Hildebrand, G. H. (1982) "Borax Pioneer: Francis Marion Smith." San Diego: Howell-North Books. p. 267 ISBN 0-8310-7148-6
- Weeks, Mary Elvira (1933). "XII. Other Elements Isolated with the Aid of Potassium and Sodium: Beryllium, Boron, Silicon and Aluminum". The Discovery of the Elements. Easton, PA: Journal of Chemical Education. p. 156. ISBN 0-7661-3872-0.
- Berzelius produced boron by reducing a borofluoride salt; specifically, by heating potassium borofluoride with potassium metal. See: Berzelius, J. (1824) "Undersökning af flusspatssyran och dess märkvärdigaste föreningar" (Part 2) (Investigation of hydrofluoric acid and of its most noteworthy compounds), Kongliga Vetenskaps-Academiens Handlingar (Proceedings of the Royal Science Academy), vol. 12, pp. 46–98; see especially pp. 88ff. Reprinted in German as: Berzelius, J. J. (1824) "Untersuchungen über die Flußspathsäure und deren merkwürdigste Verbindungen", Poggendorff's Annalen der Physik und Chemie, vol. 78, pages 113–150.
- Weintraub, Ezekiel (1910). "Preparation and properties of pure boron". Transactions of the American Electrochemical Society 16: 165–184.
- Laubengayer, A. W.; Hurd, D. T.; Newkirk, A. E.; Hoard, J. L. (1943). "Boron. I. Preparation and Properties of Pure Crystalline Boron". Journal of the American Chemical Society 65 (10): 1924–1931. doi:10.1021/ja01250a036.
- Borchert, W. ; Dietz, W. ; Koelker, H. (1970). "Crystal Growth of Beta–Rhombohedrical Boron". Zeitschrift für Angewandte Physik 29: 277. OSTI 4098583.
- Delaplane, R.G.; Dahlborg, U; Graneli, B; Fischer, P; Lundstrom, T (1988). "A neutron diffraction study of amorphous boron". Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 104 (2–3): 249. Bibcode:1988JNCS..104..249D. doi:10.1016/0022-3093(88)90395-X.
- R.G. Delaplane; Dahlborg, U; Howells, W; Lundstrom, T (1988). "A neutron diffraction study of amorphous boron using a pulsed source". Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids 106: 66. Bibcode:1988JNCS..106...66D. doi:10.1016/0022-3093(88)90229-3.
- Oganov, A.R., Chen J., Gatti C., Ma Y.-M., Yu T., Liu Z., Glass C.W., Ma Y.-Z., Kurakevych O.O., Solozhenko V.L. (2009). "Ionic high-pressure form of elemental boron". Nature 457 (7231): 863–867. arXiv:0911.3192. Bibcode:2009Natur.457..863O. doi:10.1038/nature07736. PMID 19182772.
- van Setten M.J., Uijttewaal M.A., de Wijs G.A., de Groot R.A. (2007). "Thermodynamic stability of boron: The role of defects and zero point motion". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 (9): 2458–2465. doi:10.1021/ja0631246. PMID 17295480.
- Widom M., Mihalkovic M. (2008). "Symmetry-broken crystal structure of elemental boron at low temperature". Phys. Rev. B 77 (6): 064113. arXiv:0712.0530. Bibcode:2008PhRvB..77f4113W. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.77.064113.
- Eremets, M. I.; Struzhkin, VV; Mao, H; Hemley, RJ (2001). "Superconductivity in Boron". Science 293 (5528): 272–4. Bibcode:2001Sci...293..272E. doi:10.1126/science.1062286. PMID 11452118.
- Wentorf Jr, R. H. (1965). "Boron: Another Form". Science 147 (3653): 49–50 (Powder Diffraction File database (CAS number 7440–42–8)). Bibcode:1965Sci...147...49W. doi:10.1126/science.147.3653.49. PMID 17799779.
- Hoard, J. L.; Sullenger, D. B.; Kennard, C. H. L.; Hughes, R. E. (1970). "The structure analysis of β-rhombohedral boron". J. Solid State Chem. 1 (2): 268–277. Bibcode:1970JSSCh...1..268H. doi:10.1016/0022-4596(70)90022-8.
- Will, G.; Kiefer, B. (2001). "Electron Deformation Density in Rhombohedral a-Boron". Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie 627 (9): 2100. doi:10.1002/1521-3749(200109)627:9<2100::AID-ZAAC2100>3.0.CO;2-G.
- Talley, C. P.; LaPlaca, S.; Post, B. (1960). "A new polymorph of boron". Acta Crystallogr. 13 (3): 271. doi:10.1107/S0365110X60000613.
- Solozhenko, V. L.; Kurakevych, O. O.; Oganov, A. R. (2008). "On the hardness of a new boron phase, orthorhombic γ-B28". Journal of Superhard Materials 30 (6): 428–429. doi:10.3103/S1063457608060117.
- Zarechnaya, E. Yu.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Filinchuk, Y.; Chernyshov, D.; Dmitriev, V.; Miyajima, N.; El Goresy, A. et al. (2009). "Superhard Semiconducting Optically Transparent High Pressure Phase of Boron". Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 (18): 185501. Bibcode:2009PhRvL.102r5501Z. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.185501. PMID 19518885.
- Nelmes, R. J.; Loveday, J. S.; Allan, D. R.; Hull, S.; Hamel, G.; Grima, P.; Hull, S. (1993). "Neutron- and x-ray-diffraction measurements of the bulk modulus of boron". Phys. Rev. B 47 (13): 7668. Bibcode:1993PhRvB..47.7668N. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.47.7668.
- Madelung, O., ed. (1983). Landolt-Bornstein, New Series 17e. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
- Holleman, Arnold F.; Wiberg, Egon; Wiberg, Nils (1985). "Bor". Lehrbuch der Anorganischen Chemie (in German) (91–100 ed.). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 814–864. ISBN 3-11-007511-3.
- Engler, M. (2007). "Hexagonal Boron Nitride (hBN) – Applications from Metallurgy to Cosmetics". Cfi/Ber. DKG 84: D25. ISSN 0173-9913.
- Greim, Jochen and Schwetz, Karl A. (2005). Boron Carbide, Boron Nitride, and Metal Borides, in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH: Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a04_295.pub2.
- Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0080379419.
- Jones, Morton E. and Marsh, Richard E. (1954). "The Preparation and Structure of Magnesium Boride, MgB2". Journal of the American Chemical Society 76 (5): 1434. doi:10.1021/ja01634a089.
- Canfield, Paul C.; Crabtree, George W. (2003). "Magnesium Diboride: Better Late than Never". Physics Today 56 (3): 34. Bibcode:2003PhT....56c..34C. doi:10.1063/1.1570770.
- Cardarelli, François (2008). "Titanium Diboride". Materials handbook: A concise desktop reference. pp. 638–639. ISBN 978-1-84628-668-1.
- Barth, S. (1997). "Boron isotopic analysis of natural fresh and saline waters by negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry". Chemical Geology 143 (3–4): 255–261. doi:10.1016/S0009-2541(97)00107-1.
- Liu, Z. (2003). "Two-body and three-body halo nuclei". Science China Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy 46 (4): 441. Bibcode:2003ScChG..46..441L. doi:10.1360/03yw0027.
- Steinbrück, Martin (2004). "Results of the B4C Control Rod Test QUENCH-07". Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft.
- "Commissioning of Boron Enrichment Plant". Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research. Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-21.
- Aida, Masao; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Okamoto, Makoto (1986). "Chromatographic Enrichment of 10B by Using Weak-Base Anion-Exchange Resin". Separation Science and Technology 21 (6): 643–654. doi:10.1080/01496398608056140. showing an enrichment from 18% to above 94%.
- Barth, Rolf F. (2003). "A Critical Assessment of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy: An Overview". Journal of Neuro-Oncology 62 (1): 1–5. doi:10.1023/A:1023262817500.
- Coderre, Jeffrey A.; Morris, GM (1999). "The Radiation Biology of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy". Radiation Research 151 (1): 1–18. doi:10.2307/3579742. JSTOR 3579742. PMID 9973079.
- Barth, Rolf F.; S; F (1990). "Boron Neutron Capture Therapy of Cancer". Cancer Research 50 (4): 1061–1070. PMID 2404588.
- "Boron Neutron Capture Therapy – An Overview". Pharmainfo.net. 22 August 2006. Retrieved 2011-11-07.
- Duderstadt, James J.; Hamilton, Louis J. (1976). Nuclear Reactor Analysis. Wiley-Interscience. p. 245. ISBN 0-471-22363-8.
- Yu, J.; Chen, Y.; Elliman, R. G.; Petravic, M. (2006). "Isotopically Enriched 10BN Nanotubes". Advanced Materials 18 (16): 2157. doi:10.1002/adma.200600231. Archived from the original on 3 August 2008.
- Nevins, W. M. (1998). "A Review of Confinement Requirements for Advanced Fuels". Journal of Fusion Energy 17 (1): 25–32. Bibcode:1998JFuE...17...25N. doi:10.1023/A:1022513215080.
- "Boron NMR". BRUKER Biospin. Archived from the original on 2 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- Argust, Peter (1998). "Distribution of boron in the environment". Biological Trace Element Research 66 (1–3): 131–143. doi:10.1007/BF02783133. PMID 10050915.
- Woods, William G. (1994). "An introduction to boron: history, sources, uses, and chemistry". Environmental Health Perspectives. 102, Supplement 7 (Suppl 7): 5–11. PMC 1566642. PMID 7889881.
- Kostick, Dennis S. (2006). "Mineral Yearbook: Boron" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-09-20.
- "Mineral Commodity Summaries: Boron" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-20.
- "Developments in the Economic Sector (of Turkey)". Turkish government. Archived from the original on 19 December 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-21.
- Simmons, R.; Ahsian, N.; Raven, H. (2007). The Book of Stones: Who They Are and What They Teach. North Atlantic Books. pp. 421–422. ISBN 1-55643-668-8.
- "U.S. Borax Boron Mine". The Center for Land Use Interpretation, Ludb.clui.org. Retrieved 2013-04-26.
- "Boras". Rio Tinto. 10 April 2012. Retrieved 2013-04-26.
- Kistler, R. B. (1994). "Boron and Borates". Industrial Minerals and Rocks (6 ed.) (Society of Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration, Inc.): 171–186.
- Zbayolu, G.; Poslu, K. (1992). "Mining and Processing of Borates in Turkey". Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy Review 9 (1–4): 245–254. doi:10.1080/08827509208952709.
- Kar, Y.; Şen, Nejdet; Demİrbaş, Ayhan (2006). "Boron Minerals in Turkey, Their Application Areas and Importance for the Country's Economy". Minerals & Energy – Raw Materials Report 20 (3–4): 2–10. doi:10.1080/14041040500504293.
- Berger, L. I. (1996). Semiconductor materials. CRC Press. pp. 37–43. ISBN 0-8493-8912-7.
- "Boron Properties". Los Alamos National Laboratory. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
- The Economics of Boron, 11th edition. Roskill Information Services, Ltd. 2006. ISBN 0-86214-516-3.
- "Raw and Manufactured Materials 2006 Overview". Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- "Roskill reports: boron". Roskill. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- "Boron: Statistics and Information". USGS. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- Hammond, C. R. (2004). The Elements, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition. CRC press. ISBN 0-8493-0485-7.
- Pfaender, H. G. (1996). Schott guide to glass (2 ed.). Springer. p. 122. ISBN 0-412-62060-X.
- Herring, H. W. (1966). "Selected Mechanical and Physical Properties of Boron Filaments". NASA. Retrieved 2008-09-20.
- Layden, G. K. (1973). "Fracture behaviour of boron filaments". Journal of Materials Science 8 (11): 1581–1589. Bibcode:1973JMatS...8.1581L. doi:10.1007/BF00754893.
- Cooke, Theodore F. (1991). "Inorganic Fibers—A Literature Review". Journal of the American Ceramic Society 74 (12): 2959–2978. doi:10.1111/j.1151-2916.1991.tb04289.x.
- Johansson, S.; Schweitz, Jan-Åke; Westberg, Helena; Boman, Mats (1992). "Microfabrication of three-dimensional boron structures by laser chemical processing". Journal Applied Physics 72 (12): 5956–5963. Bibcode:1992JAP....72.5956J. doi:10.1063/1.351904.
- Record in the Household Products Database of NLM
- Thompson, R. (1974). "Industrial applications of boron compounds". Pure and Applied Chemistry 39 (4): 547. doi:10.1351/pac197439040547.
- Klotz, J. H.; Moss, JI; Zhao, R; Davis Jr, LR; Patterson, RS (1994). "Oral toxicity of boric acid and other boron compounds to immature cat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae)". J. Econ. Entomol. 87 (6): 1534–1536. PMID 7836612.
- May, Gary S.; Spanos, Costas J. (2006). Fundamentals of semiconductor manufacturing and process control. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 51–54. ISBN 0-471-78406-0.
- Sherer, J. Michael (2005). Semiconductor industry: wafer fab exhaust management. CRC Press. pp. 39–60. ISBN 1-57444-720-3.
- Zschech, Ehrenfried; Whelan, Caroline and Mikolajick, Thomas (2005). Materials for information technology: devices, interconnects and packaging. Birkhäuser. p. 44. ISBN 1-85233-941-1.
- Gogotsi, Y. G. and Andrievski, R.A. (1999). Materials Science of Carbides, Nitrides and Borides. Springer. pp. 270–270. ISBN 0-7923-5707-8.
- Weimer, Alan W. (1997). Carbide, Nitride and Boride Materials Synthesis and Processing. Chapman & Hall (London, New York). ISBN 0-412-54060-6.
- Solozhenko, V. L.; Kurakevych, Oleksandr O.; Le Godec, Yann; Mezouar, Mohamed; Mezouar, Mohamed (2009). "Ultimate Metastable Solubility of Boron in Diamond: Synthesis of Superhard Diamondlike BC5". Phys. Rev. Lett. 102 (1): 015506. Bibcode:2009PhRvL.102a5506S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.015506. PMID 19257210.
- Qin, Jiaqian; He, Duanwei; Wang, Jianghua; Fang, Leiming; Lei, Li; Li, Yongjun; Hu, Juan; Kou, Zili; Bi, Yan (2008). "Is Rhenium Diboride a Superhard Material?". Advanced Materials 20 (24): 4780–4783. doi:10.1002/adma.200801471.
- Wentorf, R. H. (1957). "Cubic form of boron nitride". J. Chem Phys. 26 (4): 956. Bibcode:1957JChPh..26..956W. doi:10.1063/1.1745964.
- Schmidt, Jürgen; Boehling, Marian; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Grin, Yuri (2007). "Preparation of titanium diboride TiB2 by spark plasma sintering at slow heating rate". Science and Technology of Advanced Materials 8 (5): 376. Bibcode:2007STAdM...8..376S. doi:10.1016/j.stam.2007.06.009.
- Martin, James E (2008). Physics for Radiation Protection: A Handbook. pp. 660–661. ISBN 978-3-527-61880-4.
- Kosanke, B. J. et al. (2004). Pyrotechnic Chemistry. Journal of Pyrotechnics. p. 419. ISBN 978-1-889526-15-7.
- "Borax Decahydrate". Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- Davies, A. C. (1992). The Science and Practice of Welding: Welding science and technology. Cambridge University Press. p. 56. ISBN 0-521-43565-X.
- Horrocks, A.R. and Price, D. (2001). Fire Retardant Materials. Woodhead Publishing Ltd. p. 55. ISBN 1-85573-419-2.
- Ide, F. (2003). "Information technology and polymers. Flat panel display". Engineering Materials 51: 84.
- "Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird". March Field Air Museum. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- Young, A. (2008). The Saturn V F-1 Engine: Powering Apollo Into History. Springer. p. 86. ISBN 0-387-09629-9.
- Carr, J. M.; Duggan, P. J.; Humphrey, D. G.; Platts, J. A.; Tyndall, E. M. (2010). "Wood Protection Properties of Quaternary Ammonium Arylspiroborate Esters Derived from Naphthalene 2,3-Diol, 2,2'-Biphenol and 3-Hydroxy-2-naphthoic Acid". Australian Journal of Chemistry 63 (10): 1423. doi:10.1071/CH10132.
- "Boric acid". chemicalland21.com.
- Bonvini P, Zorzi E, Basso G, Rosolen A (2007). "Bortezomib-mediated 26S proteasome inhibition causes cell-cycle arrest and induces apoptosis in CD-30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma". Leukemia 21 (4): 838–42. doi:10.1038/sj.leu.2404528. PMID 17268529.
- "Overview of neutron capture therapy pharmaceuticals". Pharmainfo.net. 22 August 2006. Retrieved 2013-04-26.
- Travers, Richard L.; Rennie, George; Newnham, Rex (1990). "Boron and Arthritis: The Results of a Double-blind Pilot Study". Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine 1 (2): 127–132. doi:10.3109/13590849009003147.
- Canfield,, Paul C.; Crabtree, George W. (2003). "Magnesium Diboride: Better Late than Never". Physics Today 56 (3): 34–41. Bibcode:2003PhT....56c..34C. doi:10.1063/1.1570770.
- Braccini, Valeria; Nardelli, D; Penco, R; Grasso, G (2007). "Development of ex situ processed MgB2 wires and their applications to magnets". Physica C: Superconductivity 456 (1–2): 209–217. Bibcode:2007PhyC..456..209B. doi:10.1016/j.physc.2007.01.030.
- Wu, Xiaowei; Chandel, R. S.; Li, Hang (2001). "Evaluation of transient liquid phase bonding between nickel-based superalloys". Journal of Materials Science 36 (6): 1539–1546. Bibcode:2001JMatS..36.1539W. doi:10.1023/A:1017513200502.
- Dean, C.R.; Young, A.F.; Meric, I.; Lee, C.; Wang, L.; Sorgenfrei, S.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Kim, P.; Shepard, K. L.; Hone, J. (2010). "Boron nitride substrates for high-quality graphene electronics". Nature Nanotechnology 5 (10): 722–726. arXiv:1005.4917. Bibcode:2010NatNa...5..722D. doi:10.1038/nnano.2010.172. PMID 20729834.
- Gannett, W.; Regan, W.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Crommie, M. F.; Zettl, A. (2010). "Boron nitride substrates for high mobility chemical vapor deposited graphene". Applied Physics Letters 98 (24): 242105. arXiv:1105.4938. Bibcode:2011ApPhL..98x2105G. doi:10.1063/1.3599708.
- Zettl, Alex; Cohen, Marvin (2010). "The physics of boron nitride nanotubes". Physics Today 63 (11): 34–38. Bibcode:2010PhT....63k..34C. doi:10.1063/1.3518210.
- Hütter, R.; Keller-Schien, W.; Knüsel, F.; Prelog, V.; Rodgers Jr., G. C.; Suter, P.; Vogel, G.; Voser, W.; Zähner, H. (1967). "Stoffwechselprodukte von Mikroorganismen. 57. Mitteilung. Boromycin". Helvetica Chimica Acta 50 (6): 1533–1539. doi:10.1002/hlca.19670500612. PMID 6081908.
- Dunitz, J. D.; Hawley, D. M.; Miklos, D.; White, D. N. J.; Berlin, Y.; Marusić, R.; Prelog, V. (1971). "Structure of boromycin". Helvetica Chimica Acta 54 (6): 1709–1713. doi:10.1002/hlca.19710540624. PMID 5131791.
- Mahler, R. L. "Essential Plant Micronutrients. Boron in Idaho". University of Idaho. Archived from the original on 1 October 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- "Functions of Boron in Plant Nutrition" (PDF). U.S. Borax Inc. Archived from the original on 20 March 2009.
- Blevins, Dale G.; Lukaszewski, KM (1998). "Functions of Boron in Plant Nutrition". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 49: 481–500. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.49.1.481. PMID 15012243.
- "Primordial broth of life was a dry Martian cup-a-soup". New Scientist. 29 August 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-29.
- Nielsen, Forrest H. (1998). "Ultratrace elements in nutrition: Current knowledge and speculation". The Journal of Trace Elements in Experimental Medicine 11 (2–3): 251–274. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-670X(1998)11:2/3<251::AID-JTRA15>3.0.CO;2-Q.
- "Boron". PDRhealth. Archived from the original on 24 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-18.
- Zook, E. G. (1965). "Total boron". J. Assoc. Off Agric. Chem 48: 850.
- United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency Staff (1993). Health advisories for drinking water contaminants: United States Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water health advisories. CRC Press. p. 84. ISBN 0-87371-931-X.
- Vithana, En; Morgan, P; Sundaresan, P; Ebenezer, Nd; Tan, Dt; Mohamed, Md; Anand, S; Khine, Ko; Venkataraman, D; Yong, Vh; Salto-Tellez, M; Venkatraman, A; Guo, K; Hemadevi, B; Srinivasan, M; Prajna, V; Khine, M; Casey, Jr; Inglehearn, Cf; Aung, T (July 2006). "Mutations in sodium-borate cotransporter SLC4A11 cause recessive congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED2)". Nature Genetics 38 (7): 755–7. doi:10.1038/ng1824. ISSN 1061-4036. PMID 16767101.
- Silverman, L.; Trego, Katherine (1953). "Corrections-Colorimetric Microdetermination of Boron By The Curcumin-Acetone Solution Method". Anal. Chem. 25 (11): 1639. doi:10.1021/ac60083a061.
- Nielsen, Forrest H. (1997). Plant and Soil 193 (2): 199. doi:10.1023/A:1004276311956.
- Garrett, Donald E. (1998). Borates. Academic Press. p. 385. ISBN 0-12-276060-3.
- "Environmental Health Criteria 204: Boron". the IPCS. 1998. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
|Periodic table (Large version)|