Buccinator outlined in red.
|Origin||from the alveolar processes of the maxillary bone and mandible, temporomandibular joint|
|Insertion||in the fibers of the orbicularis oris|
|Nerve||buccal branch of the facial nerve (VII cranial nerve)|
|Actions||The buccinator compresses the cheeks against the teeth and is used in acts such as blowing. It is an assistant muscle of mastication (chewing) and in neonates it is used to suckle.|
|Anatomical terms of muscle|
The buccinator (//12 ) is a thin quadrilateral muscle, occupying the interval between the maxilla and the mandible at the side of the face. It forms the anterior part of the cheek or the lateral wall of the oral cavity.3
It arises from the outer surfaces of the alveolar processes of the maxilla and mandible, corresponding to the three pairs of molar teeth; and behind, from the anterior border of the pterygomandibular raphé which separates it from the constrictor pharyngis superior.
The fibers converge toward the angle of the mouth, where the central fibers intersect each other, those from below being continuous with the upper segment of the orbicularis oris, and those from above with the lower segment; the upper and lower fibers are continued forward into the corresponding lip without decussation.
Motor innervation is from the buccal branch of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII). Sensory innervation is supplied by the buccal branch (one of the muscular branches) of the mandibular part of the trigeminal (cranial nerve V).
Its purpose is to pull back the angle of the mouth and to flatten the cheek area, which aids in holding the cheek to the teeth during chewing. This action causes the muscle to keep food pushed back on the occlusal surface of the posterior teeth, as when a person chews. By keeping the food in the correct position when chewing, the buccinator assists the muscles of mastication.3
The buccinator muscle is more properly written as bucinator muscle.4 A bucinator in classical Latin is a trumpeter,5 or more precisely, the person who blows the bucina.5 The name bucina could refer in Roman antiquity to a crooked horn or trumpet,5 a shepherd's horn5 or a war-trumpet.5 Despite it's similarity to the classical Latin name for cheek, i.e. bucca,5 the words bucinator, bucina and bucinere (to blow the bucina5) are not related to bucca,6 hence the disapproval of writing bucinator with two c's.6 Although the name bucinator is not derived from bucca, this muscle is also called musculus buccae 7 or musculus buccalis 4 in Latin and muscle of the cheek 7 in English.
The most recent official Latin anatomic nomenclature (Terminologia Anatomica),8 and preceding editions (Nomina Anatomica)910 1112 dictate the spelling musculus buccinator with double c, with the exception of the Jena Nomina Anatomica, authorized in 1935, that writes musculus bucinatorius 6 with a single c.
Bucinator is derived1314 from Ancient Latin bos, "ox/bull/cow"5 and canere, "to sing/sound".5 It may have started out as animal horn,14 and developed into something more intricate when used in the Roman army.14 Other compounds in Latin starting with bu, like busequa (herdsman5) and bucaeda (one who is whipped with thongs of ox-hide5) are similarly constructed from Latin bos.5
Ancient Greek βουκινάτωρ/βυκανητής/βυκανιστής (trumpeter 15), βυκανη (spiral trompet/horn 15) and βουκινίζειν/βυκινίζειν/βουινίζειν (blow the trumpet 15) can be seen as translations or derivations from classical Latin bucinator, bucina and bucinare14 and not the otherway around. In modern Greek the buccinator muscle is analogously called βυκανητής.16
- OED 2nd edition, 1989.
- Entry "buccinator" in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.
- Illustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck, Fehrenbach and Herring, Elsevier, 2012, page 91
- Foster, F.D. (1891-1893). An illustrated medical dictionary. Being a dictionary of the technical terms used by writers on medicine and the collateral sciences, in the Latin, English, French, and German languages. New York: D. Appleton and Company.
- Lewis, C.T. & Short, C. (1879). A Latin dictionary founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Stieve, H. (1949). Nomina Anatomica. Zusammengestellt von der im Jahre 1923 gewählten Nomenklatur-Kommission, unter Berücksichtigung der Vorschläge der Mitglieder der Anatomischen Gesellschaft, der Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland, sowie der American Association of Anatomists, überprüft und durch Beschluß der Anatomischen Gesellschaft auf der Tagung in Jena 1935 endgúltig angenommen. (4th edition). Jena: Verlag Gustav Fischer.
- Schreger, C.H.Th.(1805). Synonymia anatomica. Synonymik der anatomischen Nomenclatur. Fürth: im Bureau für Literatur.
- Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) (1998). Terminologia Anatomica. Stuttgart: Thieme
- International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee (1966). Nomina Anatomica (Derde uitgave). Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica Foundation.
- International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee (1977). Nomina Anatomica, together with Nomina Histologica and Nomina Embryologica. Amsterdam-Oxford: Excerpta Medica.
- International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee (1983). Nomina Anatomica, together with Nomina Histologica and Nomina Embryologica. Baltimore/London: Williams & Wilkins
- International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee (1989). Nomina Anatomica, together with Nomina Histologica and Nomina Embryologica. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.
- Triepel, H. & Stieve, H. (1936). Die anatomischen Namen. Ihre Ableitung und Aussprache. Anhang: Eigennamen, die früher in der Anatomie verwendet wurden.(Achtzehnte Auflage). Berlin/Heidelberg:Springer-Verlag.
- Ziolkowski, J. (2002). The Roman bucina: a distinct musical instrument? Historic Brass Society Journal, 14, 31-58.
- Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
- Schleifer, S.K. (Ed.) (2011). Corpus humanum, The human body, Le corps humain, Der menschliche Körper, Il corpo umano, El cuerpo humano, Ciało człowieka, Människokroppen, Menneskekroppen, Τό ανθρώπινο σῶμα, ЧЕЛОВЕК. FKG.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Buccinator muscles.|
- -845545395 at GPnotebook
- Origin, insertion and nerve supply of the muscle at Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine
- Anatomy diagram: 05287.011-1 at Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator, Elsevier
- Anatomy diagram: 25420.000-1 at Roche Lexicon - illustrated navigator, Elsevier
- An anatomical study of the buccinator muscle fibres that extend to the terminal portion of the parotid duct, and their functional roles in salivary secretion, Kang, et al., J Anat. 2006 May; 208(5): 601–607 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2100218/