Criticism of Hinduism
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Criticism of Hinduism refers to the practices and beliefs held by Hindus which have been criticized, both by Hindus and non-Hindus. Early Hindu reformers had pointed the on going misrepresentation of Hinduism, and later reformers did the same through their movements.12345
The caste system in India has been prevalent for centuries, it is described as a hierarchical system that assigned people different classes in society, similar to the 'middle class', 'upper class' system used in many western societies. Caste-based identification was not unique among Hindus,6 to this day it is also found among Muslims, Christians, and others. Neither caste system is limited with India, Songbun of North Korea,7 Hukou of China,8 and others are regarded as the caste system as well. The true essence of caste system was not by ones birth or by one's parents inheritance but it was by ones acts or by profession/heredity.9 i.e. A Shudra can become a Brahmin (Example: Valmiki Rushi who wrote Ramayana), or Kshtriya can be come Brahmin (Example: Vishwamitra Rushi, by whose grand son's name Bharata, India was named as Bharata centuries ago), or Kshtriya can be come Shudra or Vaishya or reversal. Which actually happened in a well known person born in Shudra family is called as Brahmin due to his profession of writing some highly scholarly writings.
Later, after the colonization of India, by British, the caste system was legally established.10 The land policy created new class of landlords, drove millions into the ranks of tenants and agricultural labors.11 Even though caste was actually based on one's deeds or works, afterwards it was generalized by birth.
- Axel Michaels, Hinduism: Past and Present 188-97 (Princeton 2004) ISBN 0-691-08953-1
- Nitin Mehta (2006-12-08). "Caste prejudice has nothing to do with the Hindu scriptures". The Guardian. Retrieved 2006-12-08.
- M V Nadkarni (2003-11-08). "Is Caste System Intrinsic to Hinduism? Demolishing a Myth". Economic and Political Weekly. Archived from the original on 2007-03-12. Retrieved 2006-12-08.
- "suttee." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2004 Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service.
- Euthanasia and Hinduism - ReligionFacts
- Ganguly, Rajat; Phadnis, Urmila (2001). Ethnicity and nation-building in South Asia. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. p. 88. ISBN 0-7619-9439-4.
- Barbara Demick, Nothing to Envy: Love, Life and Death in North Korea, Fourth Estate, London, 2010, pp 26-27.
- "China's New Confucianism: Politics and Everyday Life in a Changing Society" by Daniel A. Bell, p. 186, quote = "From a liberal democratic perspective, in other words, the hukou system is the functional equivalent of a caste system that marks a group of people as second-class citizens just because they were unlucky enough to be born in the countryside."
- "Caste System in India: A Historical Perspective", Ekta Singh, 2005, p. 25
- "Religion, Caste, and Politics in India", by Christophe Jaffrelot, p. 450
- "Identity and Genesis of Caste System in India", by Ramesh Chandra, p. 77
- Apte, Vaman Shivram. The Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary.
- Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43878-0.
- Keay, John (2000). India: A History. Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0.
Burns, John. "Once Widowed in India, Twice Scorned". NY Times articles. 1998 The New York Times Company. Retrieved 10/12/2012.