List of Dacian names
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Around 1150 Dacian anthroponyms and 900 toponyms have been preserved in ancient sources.12 As far as the onomastic of Dacians and Thracians is concerned, opinions are divided. According to Crossland (1982), the evidence of names from the Dacian, Mysian and Thracian area seems to indicate divergence of a 'Thraco-Dacian' language into northern and southern groups of dialects, but not so different as to rank Thracian and Dacian as separate languages, There were also the development of special tendencies in word formation and of certain secondary phonetic features in each group.3 Mateescu (1923), Rosetti (1978) sustain that Thracian onomastic include elements that are common to Geto-Dacians and Bessians (a Thracian tribe).4 A part of researchers support that onomastically, Dacians are not different from the other Thracians in Roman Dacia’s inscriptions.5 But recently, D. Dana basing himself on new onomastic material recorded in Egyptian ostraka suggested criteria which would make possible to distinguish between closely related Thracian and Dacian-Moesian names and singled out certain specific elements for the latter.6
In Georgiev’s opinion (1960; 1977) Dacian placenames and personal names are "completely different" from their Thracian counterparts.7
Several Dacian names have also been identified with ostracons of Dacian cavalry recruited after the Roman conquest and stationed in East Egypt,8 i.e. Dadas and Dadazi9, Zoutoula,10 Dotos and Dotouzi,11 Dieri and Diernais,10 Diengis,10 Dida(s),10 Blaikisa,12 Blegissa,12 Diourdanos,12 Thiadicem,12 Avizina,12 Dourpokis,12 Kaigiza,13 Dardiolai,14 Denzibalos (see also Dacian king name Deki-balos),14 Denzi-balus (attested in Britain),14 Pouridour,15 Thiaper and Tiatitis,16 Dekinais,14 *Rolouzis,16 (See Ostraca from Krokodilo and Didymoi)
|No||Dacian name||Possible etymology||Attestation||Notes|
|1||Bikili(s)||Decebal's friend (Dio Cassius) 17|
|2||Brasus||Inscription at Apulum18 that reads: Mucatra, son of Brasus, had a son and heir Mucapor Mucatralis19||According to Mommsen (1887) the name formed by the compounds with –poris i.e. Mucaporis appear as Thracian and as Dacian in numerous cases20|
|3||Burebista||"Possessor of so much" cf Sanskrit bhuri "plenty, so much" and cf Ancient Iranian victa "possessor"21,22||King of Dacians (Strabo23, Jordanes and Decree of Dionysopolis)||See also: Buri, Buridavense, Buridava, Buricodava|
|4||Comosicus||Priest and king of Dacians (Jordanes24|
|5||Decaeneus||Probably PIE *dek ‘to meet, to honor’ Latin doceo, Greek δέκομαι dékomai25 or "The one who knows" (dak, dek cf Sanskrit dasa) or "The Dacian" 22||High priest and king of Dacians (Strabo26, Dio Cassius, Jordanes)|
|6||Cotiso||Cotiso 'loved' 27||king of Dacians 27||Tomaschek compared this name with the name Cotela of a Getian prince
and with the name Cotys, name of several princes of Thracian Odrysians and Sapaeans. Also, he compared with the name Kotys of the Thracian goddess worshipped by the Edonians, a tribe that lived around Pangaion Mountain. He sees here again, the letter "o" as an obscured indistinct, pronunciation of “a”. Therefore, he compared Cotiso with the Bactrian Kata "loved" 27
|7||Dapyx||king of Dacians 27|
|8||Decaeneus||"The one who knows" (dak, dek cf Sanskrit dasa) or "The Dacian" 22||High priest and king of Dacians (Strabo26, Dio Cassius, Jordanes)|
|9||Decebalus||Dacian word balas /balos is from PIE *bel 'strong, power' cf. Sanskrit bala "force" 28 and Dece from PIE *dek ‘to take, to honor’25
Also, it had been suggested Decebalus "The force of the Dacians" 22
|King of Dacians (Dio Cassius)||Originally named Diurpaneus, after his victory against Romans he was called Decebalus ("The brave one")29
Many interpretations are possible for the PIE root *dek that is found also with the name Decaeneus30
|10||Diegis||Diegis / Degis from *dhegh ‘ to burn’ 31||Dacian 27|
|11||Dicomes||king of Dacians 27|
|12||Diurpaneus||"admired from distance" cf. Sanskrit durepanya3022||Name of the king of Dacians (Dio Cassius) He was renamed to Decebalus after victory over Romans.||It is a "Royal" Dacian name found also with Thracians from south of the Danube i.e. Dorpanas (IGB, II, 771) and Dyrpanais (Olbia).32|
|13||Dromichaeta||Name of the king of Getae27 It appears this is a Hellenised form 27|
|14||Mucapor||Inscription at Apulum18 that reads: Mucatra, son of Brasus, had a son and heir Mucapor Mucatralis19||These names are Thracians and Dacians (as Mucapor is attested as Dacian and as Thracian name).20 The names containing Muca are found in Thracian but also in the proper Geto-Dacian names33|
|15||Mucatra||Inscription at Apulum18 that reads: Mucatra, son of Brasus, had a son and heir Mucapor Mucatralis19||These names are probably Thracian, not Dacian, as Mucapor is attested as an ethnic Thracian name (see refs above).citation needed|
|16||Natoporus||cf. Sanskrit nata 'bent', de nam 'bend' and cf. Nath 'lean, rely', 'seek for help'34||Dacian name of a prince from a Dacian royal family of the tribe of the Costoboci on a Roman inscription (II No. 1801) 3435||See also Dacian Natu-spardo (attested with Ammianus)34
NOTE: some scholars consider this a Thracian name.citation needed
|17||Orola, Oroles||From ar-, or- ‘eagle, big bird’ 31||Name of a Dacian prince (Justin) 36|
|18||Petoporus||Name of a Dacian prince 36 Variant Petipor|
|19||Pieporus||The first element Pie is analogue by initial and vocalism with the name Pie-figoi of a Dacian tribe mentioned by Ptolemy.36
The second element Porus is often met with Dacian and also with Bithynian (a Thracian tribe) names. It can be explain by the root *par ‘replenish’ nourish or *pa-la ‘king’36
|Name of a king of the Costoboci (inscription C.1 Rom. VI, No. 1801).3635||NOTE: some scholars consider this a Thracian name.citation needed|
|20||Rescuturme||The Dacian name Rescuturme can be related to the Aryan word rai "splendor, wealth" and raevant, revant "brilliant", if "-sk" is part of a derivation37.||Name of a Dacian woman. Inscription (CIL III 1195)19, 37||cf. names Resculum (a hamlet from Dacia) and Rascuporis / Rascupolis (name with Sapaean and Bithynian Thracian tribes)37|
|21||Scorylo||From root *sker ' to leap, spin' 38||Name of a Dacian general37 Also, the name Scoris||Also names: Scoris (Scorinis) It is a "Royal" Dacian name found also with Thracians from south of the Danube.32|
|22||Tarbus||"hard, strong, powerful" cf. Bactrian thaurva (de tarva)21||possibly a prince of the Free Dacians2139|
|23||Thiamarkos||Dacian king (inscription "Basileys Thiamarkos epoiei")40|
|24||Tsinna (Zinnas, Sinna)||
|25||Tsiru||Tsiru son of Bassus in ISM V 27, Capidava (Scythia Minor), 2nd century41|
|26||Vezina||'Active, vigorous, energetic ' PIE *ueg 42||Dacian name21|
|28||Zebeleizis||Other name of the Dacian god Zalmoxis 21|
|29||Zia||"mare" cf. Thracian Ziaka, Sanskrit hayaka "horse" (See Ziacatralis Thracian name, that is "who feeds the horses")21||Dacian name of a princess21 Variant Ziais|
|30||Zyraxes||"Powerful prince" cf. Bactrian Zura, Zavare "power" and cf. Khsaya "prince" ")43||Prince of the Getae 43||A similar name's form is found in the city name Zurobara where bara / vara="city" and zuro="fortified"43
See also Zurobara
|31||Dardanos||‘Darda-‘ appears as both Daco-Mysian and Thracian.44)|
|32||Bastiza||Name frequently found at Mons Claudianus i.e. two persons have this name on a list of Dacian names but also this name is the patronyme of the soldier named Diernaios.45||The name ‘’bast’’ is found in Thrace (cf. Decev) but never as Bastiza.45)|
|33||Komakiza||Koma-kiza / Koma-kissa is a name attested at Didymoi.9||The endings term correspond to the Dacian king name Komosicus.9|
|34||Damanais||Damanais attested at Mons Claudianus as the father of the Dacian soldier Dida from Krokodilo.14|
|35||Daizus||Thraco-Getian name Daizus Comozoi, interfectus a Castabocis.46 Daizus Comozoi is a "Royal" Dacian name found also with Thracians from south of the Danube.32|
|36||Drilgisa||With the inscription CIL VI 1801 as Natopor's brother at Rome.9||Note also the followings names: Drigissa in Superior Moesia and Dia-giza, slave at Rome, CIL XV 2445.9|
|37||Tiati||With the inscription CIL VI 1801 at Rome.9|
|38||Dablosa||He is attested at Mons Claudianus(O. Claud. II 402 and 403).9|
|40||Komozoi||Father of Daizus.46 Daizus Comozoi is a "Royal" Dacian name found also with Thracians from south of the Danube.32|
|No||Dacian name||Etymology||Modern city/Location||Attestation||Notes|
|1||Acidava (Acidaua)||Enoşeşti, Olt County, Romania||Tabula Peutingeriana48|
|2||Amutria (Amutrion, Amutrium, Admutrium49, Ad Mutrium, Ad Mutriam, Ancient Greek: Ἀμούτριον50)||Hypothetically located at one of the following sites in Oltenia (Southwestern Romania):||Ptolemy's Geographia, Tabula Peutingeriana53|
|3||Apula (Apulon)||Piatra Craivii, 20 km North of Alba-Iulia, Romania||Tabula Peutingeriana48||Apulum in Latin, see also Apuli|
|4||Bersobis (Berzobim)||"White, shine" including birch-tree from root *bhereg > ber(e)z 54||Modern Berzovia village in Caras-Severin county, on the bank of river Bârzava, Romania||The sole surviving sentence from Trajan's campaign journal in the Latin grammar work of Priscian, Institutiones grammaticae 55|
|5||Napoca (Napuca)||The followings are the most important hypotheses regarding Napoca's etymology:
||Cluj-Napoca, Romania59||Tabula Peutingeriana48 59|
|No||Dacian name||Etymology||Modern name/Location||Attestation||Notes|
|1||Donaris (Τάναις)||The name Dānuvius is presumably a loan from Celtic (Gaulish), or possibly Iranic. It is one of a number of river names derived from an Indo-European word *dānu, apparently a term for "river", but possibly also of a primeval cosmic river, and of a river goddess (see Danu (Asura)), perhaps from a root *dā "to flow/wift, rapid, violent, undisciplined."
Other river names with the same etymology include Don, Donets, Dnieper and Dniestr. Dniepr and Dniestr, from Danapris and Danastius, are from Scythian Iranic *Dānu apara "posterior river" and *Dānu nazdya- "anterior river", respectively.60
|2||Istros||The Ancient Greek Istros was a borrowing from Thracian/Dacian meaning "strong, swift", akin to Sanskrit is.iras "swift".61||Danube (lower)61|
|3||Naparis||a) According to Russu 'Flow' / 'moisture' It has probably the same root with Napoca (Nowadays Cluj-Napoca) 62
b) According to Parvan, after Tomaschek the meaning is similar with Lith. Napras in which there is a high probability of the root nebh-“to spring”. 63 c) According to Bogrea, 'spring' compared with Old Persian napas ‘spring’ 63
|Ialomita||Herodotus (IV 48) 62, 64|
- Dacian language
- List of Dacian plant names
- List of Romanian words of possible Dacian origin
- List of Dacian towns
- List of Dacian tribes
- List of Dacian kings
- List of historical monuments in Romania
- Nandris 1976, p. 730.
- Petrescu-Dîmbovița 1978, p. 130.
- Crossland 1982, p. 839.
- Rosetti 1978, p. 208.
- Oltean 2009, p. 95.
- Pogorelets & et. al. 2007, p. 258.
- Georgiev 1977, p. 298.
- Dana 2003, p. 166.
- Dana 2003, p. 174.
- Dana 2003, p. 185.
- Dana 2003, p. 177.
- Dana 2003, p. 183.
- Dana 2003, p. 174 and p=183.
- Dana 2003, p. 175.
- Dana 2003, p. 176.
- Dana 2003, p. 179.
- Tomaschek 1883, p. 402.
- Piso 2001, p. 425.
- Kugener & Herrman 1977, p. 516.
- Mommsen 1887, p. 225.
- Tomaschek 1883, p. 409.
- Van Den Gheyn 1885, p. 177.
- Strabo 20 AD, VII 3,12.
- Tomaschek 1883, p. 403.
- Russu 1967, p. 101.
- Strabo 20 AD, VII 3,5.
- Tomaschek 1883, p. 404.
- Russu 1969, p. 163 and 109.
- "De Imperatoribus Romanis" (Assorted Imperial Battle Descriptions). An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors. Retrieved 2007-11-08. "Battle of Sarmizegetusa (Sarmizegetuza), A.D. 105. During Trajan"s reign one of the most important Roman successes was the victory over the Dacians. The first important confrontation between the Romans and the Dacians took place in the year 87 and was initiated by Domitian. The praetorian prefect Cornelius led five or six legions across the Danube on a bridge of ships and advanced towards Banat (in Romania). The Romans were surprised by a Dacian attack at Tapae (near the village of Bucova, in Romania). Legion V Alaude was crushed and Cornelius Fuscus was killed. The victorious general was originally known as Diurpaneus (see Manea, p.109), but after this victory he was called Decebalus (the brave one)."
- Tomaschek 1883, p. 405.
- Russu 1967, p. 133.
- Petolescu 1985, p. 646.
- Dumistracel 1988, p. 395.
- Tomaschek 1883, p. 406.
- Dana 2006, p. 117.
- Tomaschek 1883, p. 407.
- Tomaschek 1883, p. 408.
- Russu 1967, p. 136.
- Batty, Roger (2007): Rome and the Nomads: the Pontic-Danubian realm in antiquity, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-814936-0, ISBN 978-0-19-814936-1, page 366
- Berciu 1981, p. 139-140.
- Dana 2001-2003, p. 88.
- Russu 1969, p. 145, 154 and 160.
- Tomaschek 1883, p. 410.
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- Dana 2003, p. 173.
- Protase 2001, p. 299.
- Russu 1967, p. 156.
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- Priscian 520, VI 13.
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- Julius Pokorny (1959): dā- "fluid, to flow", dānu- f. "river"; Mallory, J.P. and D.Q. Adams. The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London: Fitzroy and Dearborn, 1997: 486.
- Katičić & Križman 1976, p. 144.
- Russu 1969, p. 130 and 154.
- Brugmann et al. 2009, p. 324.
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- About Berzovia http://www.net4u.ro/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=227%3Abersobis&Itemid=59&lang=ro
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Dacia and Dacians|
- Ostraca de Krokodilo and full list of names Ostraca de Krokodilo
- inscription on costoboc funeral stone in Rome
- Dacian Onomastics
- Dacian Toponyms
- Vasile Pârvan, Cetatea Tropaeum. Consideraţii istorice