Dekopon (デコポン) is a seedless and very sweet citrus fruit, a hybrid between Kiyomi and ponkan (Nakano no.3), developed in Japan in 1972.12 Originally a brand name, Dekopon has become a genericized trademark and it is used to refer to all brands of the fruit; the generic name is shiranuhi or shiranui (不知火).12 Dekopon is distinctive due to its sweet taste, large size and the large protruding bump on the top of the fruit.
The name is most likely a portmanteau between the word deko (凸, デコ; meaning convex) as a reference to its bump, and the pon in ponkan (ポンカン; one of the fruits that it is derived from) to create dekopon (デコポン).3
There were many market names for dekopon during the time dekopon was a trademark of the product from Kumamoto. For instance, himepon was the market name for the fruits originating from Ehime prefecture. The ones grown in Hiroshima prefecture were marketed as hiropon. However after an agreement whereby anyone can use the name dekopon if they pay a fee and meet certain quality standards, the name "dekopon" is used for products from anywhere in Japan.3
Dekopon does not have an agricultural variety registration number (Nōrin Bangō)4 because of its bump, which at the time of its development was considered to be unsightly, and failure to reduce acidity in the fruit.5
The fruits are usually grown in large greenhouses to keep them at a constant temperature, and are harvested from December to February (winter in Japan), while in the case of garden farming, they are harvested from March to April.6 After harvesting, dekopon are usually left for a period of 20–40 days so that the levels of citric acid in the fruit lower while the sugar levels increase, to make a more appealing taste for the market. Only products with sugar level above 13°Bx and citric acid below 1.0% can be sold with the name dekopon.7
|2006 Area under cultivation of Citrus in Japan. (hectares)89
In Brazil, dekopon is marketed under the brand name of Kinsei which derived from the Japanese word for Venus.10 Brazilian farmers have succeeded in adapting the variety to tropical to temperate climate in the highlands of São Paulo state. The work is done by Unkichi Taniwaki, a farmer of Japanese origin.10 Kinsei is easily harvested from May to September. In the high season for kinsei, each fruit costs around 0.50 USD at the Brazilian street market and supermarkets.
The fruit was brought into the United States in 1998 by a California citrus grower, Brad Stark. The rights to the cleaned up budwood were purchased in 2005 by the Griffith family. It was released as a commercial product under the name "Sumo" in early 2011.11
In commemoration of the 15th anniversary of the first shipment of dekopon, Japan Fruit Growers Cooperative Association designated March 1 "Dekopon day" in 2006.13
- "Shiranuhi (不知火)" (in Japanese). National Institute of Fruit Tree Science.
- Matsumoto, Ryoji (2001). "'Shiranuhi', A late-maturing Citrus Cultivar". Bulletin of National Institute of Fruit Tree Science (in Japanese) (National Institute of Fruit Tree Science) 35: 115–120.
- "Dekopon". The Japan Times. Jan. 22, 2009.
- "Plant Variety Protection and Seed Act: Article 18 (Variety Registration)". Ministry of Justice.
- "NIFTS NEWS No.18" (in Japanese). National Institute of Fruit Tree Science. 2007.3. p. 2.
- "Dekopon" (in Japanese). Maruka-ishikawa.
- "Dekopon" (in Japanese). Zen-Noh (National Federation of Agricultural Cooperative Associations). January 2009. pp. 2–5.
- "2006 The area under cultivation of Mikan" (in Japanese). National Institute of Fruit Tree Science.
- "2006 The area under cultivation of Citrus (except for Mikan)" (in Japanese). National Institute of Fruit Tree Science.
- "Launching Ceremony Of Tangor Kinsei" (in Portuguese). Instituto de Pesquisas Técnica e Difusões Agropecuárias da JATAK. 24 October 2007.
- Karp, David (February 17, 2011). "The Dekopon arrives in California". Los Angeles Times.
- "『ハイチュウ＜デコポン＞』 新発売！" [Hi-Chew<Dekopon> Now on sale!] (in Japanese). Morinaga & Company. October 2005.
- "Dekopon day" (in Japanese). Japan Fruit Growers Cooperative Association.