||This article is written like a personal reflection or opinion essay rather than an encyclopedic description of the subject. (June 2012)|
Lear in 1888
12 May 1812|
Holloway, Middlesex, England
|Died||29 January 1888
Sanremo, Liguria, Italy
|Occupation||Illustrator, Writer (poet)|
|Literary movement||Literary nonsense|
Edward Lear (12 May 1812 – 29 January 1888) was an English artist, illustrator, author and poet, and is known now mostly for his literary nonsense in poetry and prose and especially his limericks, a form he popularised. His principal areas of work as an artist were threefold: as a draughtsman employed to illustrate birds and animals; making coloured drawings during his journeys, which he reworked later, sometimes as plates for his travel books; as a (minor) illustrator of Alfred Tennyson's poems. As an author, he is known principally for his popular nonsense works, which use real and invented English words.
Edward Lear has been played in radio dramas by Andrew Sachs in The Need for Nonsense by Julia Blackburn (BBC Radio 4, 9 February 2009) and by Derek Jacobi in By the Coast of Coromandel by Lavinia Murray (BBC Radio 4, 21 December 2011).
Lear was born into a middle-class family in the village of Holloway near London, the penultimate of twenty-one children (and youngest to survive) of Ann Clark Skerrett and Jeremiah Lear.1 He was raised by his eldest sister, also named Ann, 21 years his senior. Owing to the family's limited finances, Lear and his sister were required to leave the family home and live together when he was aged four. Ann doted on Edward and continued to act as a mother for him until her death, when he was almost 50 years of age.2
Lear suffered from lifelong health afflictions. From the age of six he suffered frequent grand mal epileptic seizures, and bronchitis, asthma, and during later life, partial blindness. Lear experienced his first seizure at a fair near Highgate with his father. The event scared and embarrassed him. Lear felt lifelong guilt and shame for his epileptic condition. His adult diaries indicate that he always sensed the onset of a seizure in time to remove himself from public view. How Lear was able to anticipate them is not known, but many people with epilepsy report a ringing in their ears (tinnitus) or feeling an aura just before a seizure. When Lear was about seven years old he began to show signs of depression, possibly due to the instability of his childhood. He suffered from periods of severe melancholia which he referred to as "the Morbids." 3
Lear travelled widely throughout his life and eventually settled in Sanremo, on his beloved Mediterranean coast, in the 1870s, at a villa he named "Villa Tennyson." Lear’s most fervent and painful friendship involved Franklin Lushington. He met the young barrister in Malta in 1849 and then toured southern Greece with him. Lear developed an undoubtedly homosexual passion for him that Lushington did not reciprocate. Although they remained friends for almost forty years, until Lear’s death, the disparity of their feelings for one another constantly tormented Lear. Indeed, none of Lear's attempts at male companionship were successful; the very intensity of Lear's affections seemingly dooming the relationships.4
The closest he came to marriage with a woman was two proposals, both to the same person 46 years his junior, which were not accepted. For companions he relied instead on friends and correspondents, and especially, during later life, on his Albanian Souliote chef, Giorgis, a faithful friend and, as Lear complained, a thoroughly unsatisfactory chef.5 Another trusted companion in Sanremo was his cat, Foss, which died in 1886 and was buried with some ceremony in a garden at Villa Tennyson. After a long decline in his health, Lear died at his villa in 1888, of the heart disease from which he had suffered since at least 1870. Lear's funeral was said to be a sad, lonely affair by the wife of Dr. Hassall, Lear's physician, none of Lear's many lifelong friends being able to attend.6
Lear is buried in the Cemetery Foce in San Remo. On his headstone are inscribed these lines about Mount Tomohrit (in Albania) from Tennyson's poem To E.L. [Edward Lear], On His Travels in Greece:
- Tomohrit, Athos, all things fair.
- With such a pencil, such a pen.
- You shadow forth to distant men,
- I read and felt that I was there.7
Edward Lear was known to introduce himself with a long pseudonym: "Mr Abebika kratoponoko Prizzikalo Kattefello Ablegorabalus Ableborinto phashyph" or "Chakonoton the Cozovex Dossi Fossi Sini Tomentilla Coronilla Polentilla Battledore & Shuttlecock Derry down Derry Dumps" which he based on Aldiborontiphoskyphorniostikos.8
The centenary of his death was marked in Britain with a set of Royal Mail stamps in1988 and an exhibition at the Royal Academy. Lear's birthplace area is now marked with a plaque at Bowman's Mews, Islington in London and his bicentenary during 2012 was celebrated with a variety of events, exhibitions and lectures in venues across the world including an International Owl and Pussycat Day on his birthday.9
Lear was already drawing "for bread and cheese" by the time he was aged 16 and soon developed into a serious "ornithological draughtsman" employed by the Zoological Society and then from 1832 to 1836 by the Earl of Derby, who kept a private menagerie at his estate Knowsley Hall. Lear's first publication, published when he was 19 years old, was Illustrations of the Family of Psittacidae, or Parrots in 1830. His paintings were well received and he was compared favourably with the naturalist John James Audubon.
Among other travels, he visited Greece and Egypt during 1848–49, and toured India and Ceylon (Sri Lanka) during 1873–75. While travelling he produced large quantities of coloured wash drawings in a distinctive style, which he converted later in his studio into oil and watercolour paintings, as well as prints for his books.10 His landscape style often shows views with strong sunlight, with intense contrasts of colour.
Throughout his life he continued to paint seriously. He had a lifelong ambition to illustrate Tennyson's poems; near the end of his life a volume with a small number of illustrations was published.
In 1846 Lear published A Book of Nonsense, a volume of limericks that went through three editions and helped popularise the form. In 1865 The History of the Seven Families of the Lake Pipple-Popple was published, and in 1867 his most famous piece of nonsense, The Owl and the Pussycat, which he wrote for the children of his patron Edward Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby. Many other works followed.
Lear's nonsense books were quite popular during his lifetime, but a rumour developed that "Edward Lear" was merely a pseudonym, and the books' true author was the man to whom Lear had dedicated the works, his patron the Earl of Derby. Promoters of this rumour offered as evidence the facts that both men were named Edward, and that "Lear" is an anagram of "Earl".11
Lear's nonsense works are distinguished by a facility of verbal invention and a poet's delight in the sounds of words, both real and imaginary. A stuffed rhinoceros becomes a "diaphanous doorscraper". A "blue Boss-Woss" plunges into "a perpendicular, spicular, orbicular, quadrangular, circular depth of soft mud". His heroes are Quangle-Wangles, Pobbles, and Jumblies. His most famous piece of verbal invention, the phrase "runcible spoon", occurs in the closing lines of The Owl and the Pussycat, and is now found in many English dictionaries:
- They dined on mince, and slices of quince
- Which they ate with a runcible spoon;
- And hand in hand, on the edge of the sand,
- They danced by the light of the moon,
- The moon,
- The moon,
- They danced by the light of the moon,
- They danced by the light of the moon.
Though famous for his neologisms, Lear used a number of other devices in his works in order to defy reader expectations. For example, "Cold Are The Crabs",12 conforms to the sonnet tradition until the dramatically foreshortened last line.
Limericks are invariably typeset as four plus one lines presently, but Lear's limericks were published in a variety of formats. It appears that Lear wrote them in manuscript in as many lines as there was room for beneath the picture. For the first three editions most are typeset as, respectively, two, five, and three lines. The cover of one edition13 bears an entire limerick typeset in two lines:
- There was an Old Derry down Derry, who loved to see little folks merry;
- So he made them a book, and with laughter they shook at the fun of that Derry down Derry.
In Lear's limericks the first and last lines usually end with the same word rather than rhyming. For the most part they are truly nonsensical and devoid of any punch line or point. They are completely free of the bawdyness with which the verse form is now associated. A typical thematic element is the presence of a callous and critical "they". An example of a typical Lear limerick:
- There was an Old Man of Aôsta,
- Who possessed a large Cow, but he lost her;
- But they said, 'Don't you see,
- she has rushed up a tree?
- You invidious Old Man of Aôsta!'
Lear's self-description in verse, How Pleasant to know Mr. Lear, ends with this stanza, a reference to his own mortality:
- He reads but he cannot speak Spanish,
- He cannot abide ginger-beer;
- Ere the days of his pilgrimage vanish,
- How pleasant to know Mr. Lear!
- Mount Timohorit, Albania (1848)
- Illustrations of the Family of the Psittacidae, or Parrots (1832)
- Tortoises, Terrapins, and Turtles by J.E. Gray
- Views in Rome and its Environs (1841)
- Gleanings from the Menagerie at Knowsley Hall (1846)
- Book of Nonsense (1846)
- Journal of a Landscape Painter in Greece and Albania (1851)
- Journal of a Landscape Painter in Southern Calabria (1852)
- Journal of a Landscape Painter in Corsica (1870)
- Nonsense Songs and Stories (1870, dated 1871)14
- More Nonsense Songs, Pictures, etc. (1872)15
- Laughable Lyrics (1877)
- Nonsense Alphabets
- Nonsense Botany (1888)
- Tennyson's Poems, illustrated by Lear (1889)
- Facsimile of a Nonsense Alphabet (1849, but not published until 1926)
- The Scroobious Pip, unfinished at his death, but completed by Ogden Nash and illustrated by Nancy Ekholm Burkert (1968)
- The Quangle-Wangle's Hat (unknown)
- Edward Lear's Parrots by Brian Reade, Duckworth (1949), including 12 coloured plates from Lear's Psittacidae
- The 1970 Saturday morning cartoon Tomfoolery, based on the works of Lear and Lewis Carroll
- A Beach Full of Shells, the 20th album by Musician Al Stewart pays tribute in the song “Mr. Lear”, celebrating Foss and many events from Lear’s life.
- Paperback Writer by The Beatles refers to "A novel by a man named Lear", though no such novel exists.
- Lear's Macaw
- List of wildlife artists
- Holbrook, Jackson (ed). The Complete Nonsense of Edward Lear. Dover Publications, 1951. Page xii.
- Lear, Edward (2002). The Complete Verse and Other Nonsense. New York: Penguin Books. pp. 19–20. ISBN 0-14-200227-5.
- Susan Chitty, That Singular Person Called Lear, Atheneum, 1989
- Levi, Peter. Edward Lear, a Biography.
- Strachie, Lady Constance Braham. Later Letters of Edward Lear: Author of "The Book of Nonsense." 1911: Duffield and Company. P. 332
- Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Subscription required.
- Pendlebury, Kathleen Sarah (November 2007). "Reading Nonsense: A Journey through the writing of Edward Lear". A thesis submitted in fulfilment of the Requirements for the degree of MASTERS OF ARTS of RHODES UNIVERSITY. RHODES UNIVERSITY. pp. 20–21. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- "International Owl & Pussycat Day, 12 May | Just another WordPress.com site". Teachingnonsenseinschools.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
- Andrew Wilton & Anne Lyles, The Great Age of British Watercolours (1750–1880), p. 318, 1993, Prestel, ISBN 3-7913-1254-5
- Lear, Edward (1894). "Introduction". More Nonsense Pictures, Rhymes, Botany, etc.
- "Cold Are The Crabs". Ingeb.org. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
- "Edward Lear, A Book of Nonsense". Nonsenselit.org. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
- Cox, Michael, ed. (2004). The Concise Oxford Chronology of English Literature. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-860634-6.
- Happy Birthday Edward Lear. Oxford: Ashmolean Museum. 2012. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-85444-273-4.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Edward Lear|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Edward Lear|
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:
- Works by Edward Lear at Project Gutenberg
- Edward Lear's Books of Nonsense
- Android app of Edward Lear limericks
- Scans of illustrations from the Nonsense series of books
- Full text, images, and covers of several of Lear's books available as Open Access from the Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature