Mun of Balhae
|Mun of Balhae|
|Revised Romanization||Mun wang|
|Revised Romanization||Dae Heum-mu|
|Monarchs of Korea
King Mun of Balhae (r. 737–793), also known as Dae Heum-mu, was the third and longest-reigning ruler of the Balhae, the successor state to Goguryeo. He succeeded his father King Mu, upon his death in 737.
During King Mun's reign, diplomatic ties with Tang Dynasty China were established, and many Balhae scholars went to China to study,1 extending the influence of Buddhism and Confucianism in Balhae's governance. He also strengthened relations with Silla, which unified the Korean peninsula to the south of Balhae, overseeing the development of the trade route called Silla-road (Hangul: 신라도, Hanja: 新羅道). Balhae also increased diplomacy and trade with Japan.
King Mun moved the capital of Balhae several times (Sanggyeong and Donggyeong), stabilizing and strengthening central rule over various ethnic tribes in his realm, which was expanded temporarily. He also authorized the creation of the Jujagam (Hangul: 주자감, Hanja: 胄子監), the national academy, based on the national academy of Tang.
Although China recognized him as a king, Balhae itself referred to him as the Daeheung Boryeok Hyogam Geumryun Seongbeop Daewang (Hangul: 대흥보력효감금륜성법대왕, 大興寶曆孝感金輪聖法大王), Gadokbu (Hangul: 가독부, Hanja: 可毒夫), Seongwang (Hangul: 성왕, Hanja: 聖王) and Giha (Hangul: 기하, Hanja: 基下),2 Some Korean historians referred to him as the posterity of heaven and an emperor.3
- Daeheung (대흥 大興 Great Happiness 737-774, ?-793)
- Boryeok (보력 寶曆, 774-?, at least until 781)
- Britannica Korea article (Korean)
- Balhae era poem and extensive historical background (Korean)
- KCNA article on the two tombs of Dae Heummu's daughters (Korean)
- The extension of Balhae Kingdom under King Mun (Korean)
|Emperor of Balhae
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