|Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ
ye-Ītyōṗṗyā Fēdēralāwī Dēmōkrāsīyāwī
March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages|
|Government||Federal parliamentary republic|
|-||Prime Minister||Hailemariam Desalegn|
|Legislature||Federal Parliamentary Assembly|
|-||Upper house||House of Federation|
|-||Lower house||House of Peoples' Representatives|
|-||Dʿmt||c. 980 BC|
|-||Kingdom of Aksum||c. 100 AD|
|-||Current constitution||August 1995|
|-||Total||1,104,300 km2 (27th)
426,371 sq mi
|-||2015 estimate||90,076,0122 (14th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2014 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2014 estimate|
|HDI (2013)|| 0.4357
low · 173rd
|Time zone||EAT (UTC+3)|
|-||Summer (DST)||not observed (UTC+3)|
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||ET|
Ethiopia (//; Amharic: ኢትዮጵያ?, ʾĪtyōṗṗyā, listen (help·info)), officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Eritrea to the north and northeast, Djibouti and Somalia to the east, Sudan and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south. With over 90 million inhabitants,2 Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world, as well as the second-most populous nation on the African continent after Nigeria. It occupies a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres (420,000 sq mi), and its capital and largest city is Addis Ababa.8
Some of the oldest evidence for anatomically modern humans has been found in Ethiopia,9 which is widely considered the region from which Homo sapiens first set out for the Middle East and points beyond.101112 According to linguists, the first Afro-Asiatic-speaking populations settled in the Horn region during the ensuing Neolithic era.13 Tracing its roots to the 2nd millennium BC, Ethiopia was a monarchy for most of its history. During the first centuries AD the Kingdom of Aksum maintained a unified civilization in the region.14151617 followed by Abyssinia circa 1137.
Ethiopia derived prestige with its uniquely successful military resistance during the late 19th-century Scramble for Africa, becoming the only African country to defeat a European colonial power and retain its sovereignty. Subsequently, many African nations adopted the colors of Ethiopia's flag following their independence. It was the first independent African member of the 20th-century League of Nations and the United Nations.18 In 1974, at the end of Haile Selassie's reign, power fell to a communist military junta known as the Derg, backed by the Soviet Union, until it was defeated by the EPRDF, which has ruled since about the time of the collapse of the USSR in 1991.
Ethiopia is a multilingual nation with around 80 ethnolinguistic groups, the three largest of which are the Tigray, Oromo and Amhara. Most people in the country speak Afro-Asiatic languages of the Cushitic or Semitic branches. Additionally, Omotic languages are spoken by Omotic ethnic minority groups inhabiting the southern regions, and languages from the Nilo-Saharan phylum are also spoken by the nation's Nilotic ethnic minorities. Ethiopia is the origin of the coffee bean. It is a land of natural contrasts, with its vast fertile West, jungles, and numerous rivers, the world's hottest settlement of Dallol in its north, Africa's largest continuous mountain ranges and the largest cave in Africa at Sof Omar. Ethiopia has the most UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa.19self-published source? Ethiopia's ancient Ge'ez script, also known as Ethiopic, is one of the oldest alphabets still in use in the world.20 The Ethiopian calendar, which is seven years and around three months behind the Gregorian calendar, co-exists alongside the Oromo calendar. A slight majority of the population adheres to Christianity (mainly the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and Pentay), while around a third follows Islam (primarily the Sunni denomination). The country is the site of the Hijrah to Abyssinia and the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa at Negash. A substantial population of Ethiopian Jews, known as Beta Israel, resided in Ethiopia until the 1980s but most of them have since gradually emigrated to Israel.2122
Ethiopia is one of the founding members of the UN, the Group of 24 (G-24), the Non-Aligned Movement, G-77 and the Organisation of African Unity, with Addis Ababa serving as the headquarters of the African Union, the Pan African Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the UNECA, African Aviation Training HQ, the African Standby Force and much of global NGOs focused on Africa. Despite being the main source of the Nile, the longest river on earth, Ethiopia underwent a series of famines in the 1980s, exacerbated by civil wars and adverse geopolitics. The country has begun to recover recently and now has the largest economy (by GDP) in East Africa and Central Africa.232425 According to Global Fire Power, Ethiopia has the 46th most powerful military in the world.26
- 1 Names
- 2 History
- 3 Politics
- 4 Administrative divisions
- 5 Geography
- 6 Environment
- 7 Economy
- 8 Demographics
- 9 Health
- 10 Education
- 11 Culture
- 12 World Heritage Sites in Ethiopia
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 Bibliography
- 16 Further reading
- 17 External links
The Greek name Αἰθιοπία (from Αἰθίοψ, Aithiops, 'an Ethiopian') appears twice in the Iliad and three times in the Odyssey.27 The Greek historian Herodotus specifically uses it for all the lands south of Egypt,28 including Sudan and modern Ethiopia. Pliny the Elder says the country's name comes from a son of Hephaestus (aka Vulcan) named 'Aethiops'.29
Similarly, in the 15th century Ge'ez Book of Aksum, the name is ascribed to a legendary individual called Ityopp'is, an extrabiblical son of Cush, son of Ham, said to have founded the city of Axum. In addition to this Cushite figure, two of the earliest Semitic kings are also said to have borne the name Ityopp'is according to traditional Ethiopian king lists. At least as early as c. 850,30 European scholars considered the name to be derived from the Greek words aitho "I burn" + ops "face".3132
The name Ethiopia also occurs in many translations of the Old Testament, but the Hebrew texts have Kush, which refers principally to Nubia.33 In the New Testament, however, the Greek term Aithiops, 'an Ethiopian', does occur,34 referring to a servant of Candace or Kentakes, possibly an inhabitant of Meroe which was later conquered and destroyed by the Kingdom of Axum. The earliest attested use of the name Ityopya in the region itself is as a name for the Kingdom of Aksum in the 4th century, in stone inscriptions of King Ezana, who first Christianized the entire apparatus of the kingdom.
In English, and generally outside of Ethiopia, the country was also once historically known as Abyssinia, derived from Habesh, an early Arabic form of the Ethiosemitic name "Ḥabaśāt" (unvocalized "ḤBŚT"). The modern form Habesha is the native name for the country's inhabitants (while the country has been called "Ityopp'ya"). In a few languages, Ethiopia is still referred to by names cognate with "Abyssinia", e.g., modern Arabic Al-Ḥabashah.
Ethiopia is widely considered the site of the emergence of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens, in the Middle Paleolithic about 200,000 years ago. The earliest known modern human bones were found in Southwestern Ethiopia, and are called the Omo remains.35 Additionally, skeletal remains of Homo sapiens idaltu were found at a site in the Middle Awash in Ethiopia. Dated to around 160,000 years ago, they may represent an extinct subspecies of Homo sapiens, or the immediate ancestors of anatomically modern humans.36
According to linguists, the first Afro-Asiatic-speaking populations arrived in the region during the ensuing Neolithic era from the family's proposed urheimat ("original homeland") in the Nile Valley,13 or the Near East.37 Other scholars propose that the Afro-Asiatic family developed in situ in the Horn, with its speakers subsequently dispersing from there.38
Around the 8th century BC, a kingdom known as Dʿmt was established in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea. The polity's capital was located near the town of Yeha in northern Ethiopia. Most modern historians consider this civilization to be a native Ethiopian one, although Sabaean-influenced because of the latter's hegemony of the Red Sea.15
Other scholars regard Dʿmt as the result of a union of Afro-Asiatic cultures of the Cushitic and Semitic branches; namely, local Agaw peoples and Sabaeans from Southern Arabia. However, Ge'ez, the ancient Semitic language of Ethiopia, is thought to have developed independently from Sabaean (also South Semitic). As early as 2000 BC, other Semitic speakers were living in Ethiopia and Eritrea, where Ge'ez developed.3940 Sabaean influence is now thought to have been minor, limited to a few localities, and disappearing after a few decades or a century. It may have been a trading or military colony in alliance with the Ethiopian civilization of Dʿmt or some other proto-Aksumite state.15
After the fall of Dʿmt in the 4th century BC, the plateau came to be dominated by smaller successor kingdoms. In the first century AD the Aksumite Empire emerged in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea. According to the medieval Liber Axumae (Book of Aksum), the kingdom's first capital, Mazaber, was built by Itiyopis, son of Cush.41 Aksum would later at times extend its rule into Yemen on the other side of the Red Sea.42 The Persian religious figure Mani listed Aksum with Rome, Persia, and China as one of the four great powers of his time in the 3rd century.43
Around 316 AD, Frumentius and his brother Edesius from Tyre accompanied their uncle on a voyage to Ethiopia. When the vessel stopped at a Red Sea port, the natives killed all the travellers except the two brothers, who were taken to the court as slaves. They were given positions of trust by the monarch, and converted members of the royal court to Christianity. Frumentius became the first bishop of Aksum.44 A coin dated to 324 shows that Ethiopia was the second country to officially adopt Christianity (after Armenia), although the religion may have been at first confined to court circles; it was the first major power to do so.
The first interaction that the Islamic Prophet Muhammad had with Ethiopia was during the reign of Aṣḥama ibn Abjar, who was at the time the Emperor of Aksum and gave refuge to several Muslims in the Kingdom of Aksum in 614 AD.45 According to other authors, Ashama may have been the same person as king Armah, or his father or son.46 Taddesse Tamrat records that the inhabitants of Wiqro, where the ruler is known as Ashamat al-Negashi, claim that his tomb is located in their village.4748
Muhammad's second interaction with Ethiopia was during the Expedition of Zaid ibn Haritha, when he sent Amr bin Umayyah al-Damri to the King of Ethiopia (then Abyssinia).49 In a letter from Muhammad to the King (Negus) of Axum, Muhammad invites the ruler and his men to follow his message and believe in Allah.50 When this letter was presented to the King, he took the parchment and allegedly placed it on his eye, descended to the floor and confessed his faith in Islam.51
The Zagwe dynasty ruled many parts of present-day Ethiopia and Eritrea from approximately 1137 to 1270 AD. The name of the dynasty is derived from the Cushitic-speaking Agaw of northern Ethiopia. From 1270 AD until the Zemene Mesafint (Age of Princes), the Solomonic dynasty governed the Ethiopian Empire.
In the early 15th century, Ethiopia sought to make diplomatic contact with European kingdoms for the first time since the Aksumite era. A letter from King Henry IV of England to the Emperor of Abyssinia survives.52 In 1428, the Emperor Yeshaq sent two emissaries to Alfonso V of Aragon, who sent return emissaries. They failed to complete the return trip.53 The first continuous relations with a European country began in 1508 with Portugal under Emperor Dawit II (Lebna Dengel), who had just inherited the throne from his father.54
This proved to be an important development, for when the Empire was subjected to the attacks of the Adal Sultanate General and Imam, Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (called "Grañ", or "the Left-handed"), Portugal assisted the Ethiopian emperor by sending weapons and four hundred men, who helped his son Gelawdewos defeat Ahmad and re-establish his rule.55 This Abyssinian–Adal War was also one of the first proxy wars in the region, as the Ottoman Empire and Portugal took sides in the conflict.
When Emperor Susenyos I converted to Roman Catholicism in 1624, years of revolt and civil unrest followed, resulting in thousands of deaths.56 The Jesuit missionaries had offended the Orthodox faith of the local Ethiopians. On 25 June 1632 Emperor Fasilides, Susenyos's son, declared the state religion again to be Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity. He expelled the Jesuit missionaries and other Europeans.5758
The Sultanate of Aussa (Afar Sultanate) succeeded the earlier Imamate of Aussa (Imamate of Awsa). The latter polity had come into existence in 1577, when Muhammed Jasa moved his capital from Harar to Aussa (Asaita), with the split of the Adal Sultanate into the Sultanate of Aussa and the Sultanate of Harar. At some point after 1672, the Sultanate of Aussa declined and temporarily came to an end in conjunction with Imam Umar Din bin Adam's recorded ascension to the throne.59
The Sultanate was subsequently re-established by Kedafu around the year 1734. It was thereafter ruled by his Mudaito Dynasty.60 The primary symbol of the Sultan was a silver baton, which was considered to have magical properties.61
Between 1755 to 1855, Ethiopia experienced a period of isolation referred to as the Zemene Mesafint or "Age of Princes". The Emperors became figureheads, controlled by warlords like Ras Mikael Sehul of Tigray, Ras Wolde Selassie of Tigray, and by the Oromo Yejju dynasty, such as Ras Gugsa of Begemder, which later led to 17th-century Oromo rule of Gondar, changing the language of the court from Amharic to Afaan Oromo.6263
Ethiopian isolationism ended following a British mission that concluded an alliance between the two nations; but, it was not until 1855 that Ethiopia was completely united and the power in the Emperor restored, beginning with the reign of Emperor Tewodros II. Upon his ascent, he began modernizing Ethiopia and recentralizing power in the Emperor. Ethiopia began to take part in world affairs once again.
But Tewodros suffered several rebellions inside his empire. Northern Oromo militias, Tigrayan rebellion, and the constant incursion of Ottoman Empire and Egyptian forces near the Red Sea brought the weakening and the final downfall of Emperor Tewodros II. He committed suicide in 1868 after his last battle with a British expeditionary force.
After Tewodros' death, Tekle Giyorgis II was proclaimed Emperor. He was defeated in the Battles of Zulawu (21 June 1871) and Adua (11 July 1871). Kassai was subsequently declared Emperor Yohannes IV on 21 January 1872. In 1875 and 1876, Turkish/Egyptian forces, accompanied by many European and American 'advisors', twice invaded Abyssinia but were initially defeated at the Battle of Gundet losing 800 men, and then following the second invasion, decisively defeated by Emperor Yohannes IV at the Battle of Gura on 7 March 1875, losing at least 3000 killed or captured.64 From 1885 to 1889, Ethiopia joined the Mahdist War allied to Britain, Turkey and Egypt against the Sudanese Mahdist State. On 10 March 1889, Yonannes IV was killed by the Sudanese Khalifah Abdullah's army whilst leading his army in the Battle of Gallabat (also called Battle of Metemma).
Ethiopia in its roughly current form began under the reign of Menelik II, who was Emperor from 1889 until his death in 1913. From his base in the central province of Shoa, Menelik set out to annex territories to the south, east and west,65 areas inhabited by the Oromo, Sidama, Gurage, Wolayta and other groups.66 He did this with the help of Ras Gobena's Shewan Oromo militia, which occupied lands that had not been held since Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi (Ahmed Gragn)'s Conquest of Abyssinia (Futuh al-Habash), as well as other areas that had never been under Abyssinian sovereignty.67 Menelik's campaign against Oromos outside his army was largely in retaliation for centuries of Oromo expansionism and the Zemene Mesafint ("Era of the Princes"), a period during which a succession of Oromo feudal rulers dominated the highlanders.68 Chief among these was the Yejju dynasty, which included Aligaz of Yejju and his brother Ali I of Yejju. Ali I founded the town of Debre Tabor in the Amhara Region, which became the dynasty's capital.69
During his reign, Menelik II made advances in road construction, electricity and education; the development of a central taxation system; and the foundation and building of the city of Addis Ababa – which became capital of Shoa province in 1881. After he ascended to the throne in 1889, it was renamed as Addis Ababa, the new capital of Abyssinia. Menelik had signed the Treaty of Wichale with Italy in May 1889 in which Italy would recognize Ethiopia's sovereignty so long as Italy could control an area north of Ethiopia (part of modern Eritrea). In return Italy was to provide Menelik with arms and support him as emperor. The Italians used the time between the signing of the treaty and its ratification by the Italian government to expand their territorial claims. This conflict erupted in the Battle of Adwa on 1 March 1896 in which Italy's colonial forces were defeated by the Ethiopians.6670
The early 20th century was marked by the reign of Emperor Haile Selassie I, who came to power after Iyasu V was deposed. He undertook a nationwide modernization campaign from 1916, when he was made a Ras and Regent (Inderase) for Zewditu I and became the de facto ruler of the Ethiopian Empire. Following Zewditu's death on 2 November 1930, he succeeded her as Emperor.
The independence of Ethiopia was interrupted by the Second Italo-Abyssinian War and Italian occupation (1936–1941).73 During this time, Haile Selassie appealed to the League of Nations in 1935, delivering an address that made him a worldwide figure, and the 1935 Time magazine Man of the Year.74 Also in this period, 1937, was the Italian massacre of Yekatit 12. Following the entry of Italy into World War II, British Empire forces, together with patriot Ethiopian fighters, officially liberated Ethiopia in the course of the East African Campaign in 1941. An Italian guerrilla campaign continued until 1943. This was followed by British recognition of Ethiopia's full sovereignty, (i.e. without any special British privileges), with the signing of the Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement in December 1944.75 On 26 August 1942 Haile Selassie I issued a proclamation abolishing slavery.7677 Ethiopia had between two and four million slaves in the early 20th century, out of a total population of about eleven million.78
In 1952, Haile Selassie orchestrated the federation with Eritrea. He dissolved this in 1962 and annexed Eritrea, which resisted and finally won its Eritrean War of Independence. Haile Selassie played a leading role in the formation of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) in 1963.
Opinion within Ethiopia turned against Haile Selassie I owing to the worldwide oil crisis of 1973, which caused a sharp increase in gasoline prices starting on 13 February 1974; food shortages; uncertainty regarding the succession; border wars, and discontent in the middle class created through modernization.79 The high gasoline prices caused the taxi drivers and teachers to go on strike on 18 February 1974. Students and workers in Addis Ababa began demonstrating against the government on 20 February 1974.80 The feudal oligarchial cabinet of Akilou Habte Wolde was toppled. A new government was formed with Endelkachew Makonnen serving as Prime Minister.81
Haile Selassie's reign came to an end on 12 September 1974, when a Soviet-backed Marxist–Leninist military junta, the "Derg" led by Mengistu Haile Mariam, deposed him.82 The new Provisional Military Administrative Council established a one-party communist state which was called People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in March 1975.
The ensuing regime suffered several coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and a huge refugee problem. In 1977, the Ogaden War resulted in Somalia capturing part of the Ogaden region. Ethiopia recovered it after receiving massive military aid from the USSR, Cuba, South Yemen, East Germany83 and North Korea. This included around 15,000 Cuban combat troops.
Up to 500,000 were killed as a result of the Red Terror,84 from forced deportations, or from the use of hunger as a weapon under Mengistu's rule.79 The Red Terror was carried out in response to what the government termed "White Terror", supposedly a chain of violent events, assassinations and killings carried out by the opposition.84
In 2006, after a trial that lasted 12 years, Ethiopia's Federal High Court in Addis Ababa found Mengistu guilty in absentia of genocide.85 Numerous other top leaders of his were also found guilty of war crimes. He and others who had fled the country were tried and sentenced in absentia. Numerous former officials received the death sentence and tens of others spent the next 20 years in jail, before being pardoned from life sentences.
In the beginning of the 1980s, a series of famines hit Ethiopia that affected around 8 million people, resulting in 1 million dead. Insurrections against Communist rule sprang up, particularly in the northern regions of Tigray and Eritrea. In 1989, the Tigrayan Peoples' Liberation Front (TPLF) merged with other ethnically based opposition movements to form the coalition known as the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF).
Concurrently the Soviet Union began to retreat from building world communism under Mikhail Gorbachev's glasnost and perestroika policies, marking a dramatic reduction in aid to Ethiopia from Socialist Bloc countries. This resulted in more economic hardship and the collapse of the military in the face of determined onslaughts by guerrilla forces in the north. The collapse of communism in general, and in Eastern Europe during the Revolutions of 1989, coincided with the Soviet Union stopping aid to Ethiopia altogether in 1990. The strategic outlook for Mengistu quickly deteriorated.
In May 1991, EPRDF forces advanced on Addis Ababa and the Soviet Union did not intervene to save the government side. Mengistu fled the country to asylum in Zimbabwe, where he still resides. The Transitional Government of Ethiopia, composed of an 87-member Council of Representatives and guided by a national charter that functioned as a transitional constitution, was set up. In June 1992, the Oromo Liberation Front withdrew from the government; in March 1993, members of the Southern Ethiopia Peoples' Democratic Coalition also left the government. In 1994, a new constitution was written that formed a bicameral legislature and a judicial system. The first formally multi-party election took place in May 1995, in which Meles Zenawi was elected the Prime Minister and Negasso Gidada was elected President.
In 1994, a constitution was adopted that led to Ethiopia's first multiparty election the following year. In May 1998, a border dispute with Eritrea led to the Eritrean–Ethiopian War, which lasted until June 2000 and cost both countries an estimated $1 million a day.86 This hurt Ethiopia's economy, but strengthened the ruling coalition.
On 15 May 2005, Ethiopia held a third multiparty election, which was highly disputed, with some opposition groups claiming fraud. Though the Carter Center approved the pre-election conditions, it expressed its dissatisfaction with post-election matters. European Union election observers continued to accuse the ruling party of vote rigging. The opposition parties gained more than 200 parliamentary seats, compared with just 12 in the 2000 elections. Despite most opposition representatives joining the parliament, certain leaders of the CUD party, some of whom refused to take up their parliamentary seats, were accused of inciting the post-election violence that ensued and were imprisoned. Amnesty International considered them "prisoners of conscience" and they were subsequently released.
A coalition of opposition parties and some individuals was established in 2009 to oust the regime of the EPRDF in legislative elections of 2010. Meles Zenawi's party that has been in power since 1991, published its 65-page manifesto in Addis Ababa on 10 October 2009. The opposition won most votes in Addis Ababa, but the EPRDF halted counting of votes for several days. After it ensued, it claimed the election, amidst charges of fraud and intimidation.
Some of the eight member parties of this Ethiopian Forum for Democratic Dialogue (FDD or Medrek in Amharic) include the Oromo Federalist Congress (organized by the Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement and the Oromo People's Congress), the Arena Tigray (organized by former members of the ruling party TPLF), the Unity for Democracy and Justice (UDJ, whose leader is imprisoned), and the Coalition of Somali Democratic Forces.
In mid-2011, two consecutive missed rainy seasons precipitated the worst drought in East Africa seen in 60 years. Full recovery from the drought's effects are not expected until 2012needs update, with long-term strategies by the national government in conjunction with development agencies believed to offer the most sustainable results.87
Prime Minister Meles Zenawi died on 20 August 2012 in Brussels, where he was being treated for an unspecified illness.88 Deputy Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn was appointed as a new prime minister until the 2015 elections,89 and remained so afterwards with his party in control of every parliamentary seat.90 In 2013, the mass deportation from Saudi Arabia of Ethiopian migrant workers has caused tensions.91
The politics of Ethiopia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament. On the basis of Article 78 of the 1994 Ethiopian Constitution, the Judiciary is completely independent of the executive and the legislature.92 The current realities of this provision are questioned in a report prepared by Freedom House.citation needed
According to the Democracy Index published by the United Kingdom-based Economist Intelligence Unit in late 2010, Ethiopia is an "authoritarian regime", ranking as the 118th-most democratic out of 167 countries.93 Ethiopia has dropped 12 places on the list since 2006, and the latest report attributes the drop to the government's crackdown on opposition activities, media and civil society before the 2010 parliamentary election, which the report argues has made Ethiopia a de facto one-party state.
The election of Ethiopia's 547-member constituent assembly was held in June 1994. This assembly adopted the constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in December 1994. The elections for Ethiopia's first popularly chosen national parliament and regional legislatures were held in May and June 1995 . Most opposition parties chose to boycott these elections. There was a landslide victory for the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). International and non-governmental observers concluded that opposition parties would have been able to participate had they chosen to do so.
The current government of Ethiopia was installed in August 1995. The first President was Negasso Gidada. The EPRDF-led government of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi promoted a policy of ethnic federalism, devolving significant powers to regional, ethnically based authorities. Ethiopia today has nine semi-autonomous administrative regions that have the power to raise and spend their own revenues. Under the present government, some fundamental freedoms, including freedom of the press, are circumscribed.95
Citizens have little access to media other than the state-owned networks, and most private newspapers struggle to remain open and suffer periodic harassment from the government.95 At least 18 journalists who had written articles critical of the government were arrested following the 2005 elections on genocide and treason charges. The government uses press laws governing libel to intimidate journalists who are critical of its policies.96
Zenawi's government was elected in 2000 in Ethiopia's first-ever multiparty elections; however, the results were heavily criticized by international observers and denounced by the opposition as fraudulent. The EPRDF also won the 2005 election returning Zenawi to power. Although the opposition vote increased in the election, both the opposition and observers from the European Union and elsewhere stated that the vote did not meet international standards for fair and free elections.95 Ethiopian police are said to have massacred 193 protesters, mostly in the capital Addis Ababa, in the violence following the May 2005 elections in the Ethiopian police massacre.97
The government initiated a crackdown in the provinces as well; in Oromia state the authorities used concerns over insurgency and terrorism to use torture, imprisonment, and other repressive methods to silence critics following the election, particularly people sympathetic to the registered opposition party Oromo National Congress (ONC).96 The government has been engaged in a conflict with rebels in the Ogaden region since 2007. The biggest opposition party in 2005 was the Coalition for Unity and Democracy (CUD). After various internal divisions, most of the CUD party leaders have established the new Unity for Democracy and Justice party led by Judge Birtukan Mideksa. A member of the country's Oromo ethnic group, Ms. Birtukan Mideksa is the first woman to lead a political party in Ethiopia.
In 2008, the top five opposition parties were the Unity for Democracy and Justice led by Judge Birtukan Mideksa, United Ethiopian Democratic Forces led by Dr.Beyene Petros, Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement led by Dr. Bulcha Demeksa, Oromo People's Congress led by Dr. Merera Gudina, and United Ethiopian Democratic Party-Medhin Party led by Lidetu Ayalew. After the 2015 elections, Ethiopia lost its single remaining opposition MP;98 there are now no opposition MPs in the Ethiopian parliament.99
According to surveys in 2003 by the National Committee on Traditional Practices in Ethiopia, marriage by abduction accounts for 69% of the nation's marriages, with around 80% in the largest region, Oromiya, and as high as 92% in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region.100101
Among the Omotic-speaking Karo and Hamar tribes in southern Ethiopia, adults and children with physical abnormalities are considered to be ritually impure or mingi. The latter are believed to exert an evil influence upon others, so disabled infants have traditionally been disposed of without a proper burial.102 The Karo officially banned the practice in July 2012.103
Before 1996, Ethiopia was divided into thirteen provinces, many derived from historical regions. The nation now has a tiered governmental system consisting of a federal government overseeing ethnically based regional states, zones, districts (woreda) and neighborhoods (kebele).
Since 1996, Ethiopia has been divided into nine ethnically based and politically autonomous regional states (kililoch, singular kilil) and two chartered cities (astedader akababiwoch, singular astedader akababi), the latter being Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa. The kililoch are subdivided into sixty-eight zones, and then further into 550 woredas and several special woredas.
The constitution assigns extensive power to regional states, which can establish their own government and democracy according to the federal government's constitution. Each region has at its apex a regional council where members are directly elected to represent the districts and the council has legislative and executive power to direct internal affairs of the regions.
Article 39 of the Ethiopian Constitution further gives every regional state the right to secede from Ethiopia. There is debate, however, as to how much of the power guaranteed in the constitution is actually given to the states. The councils implement their mandate through an executive committee and regional sectoral bureaus. Such elaborate structure of council, executive, and sectoral public institutions is replicated to the next level (woreda).
|Region or city (ክልል/የከተማ አስተዳድር)||Capital||Area (km2)||Population104|
|Oct 1994 census||May 2007 census||Jul 2012 estimate|
|Addis Ababa (አዲስ አበባ)||astedader||Addis Ababa||526.99||2,100,031||2,738,248||3,041,002|
|Amhara (አማራ)||kilil||Bahir Dar||154,708.96||13,270,898||17,214,056||18,866,002|
|Dire Dawa (ድሬዳዋ)||astedader||Dire Dawa||1,558.61||248,549||342,827||387,000|
|Southern Nations, Nationalities,
and People's Region (ደቡብ ብ/ብ/ሕ)
|Special enumerated zones||96,570||112,999|
The major portion of Ethiopia lies on the Horn of Africa, which is the easternmost part of the African landmass. Bordering Ethiopia are Sudan and South Sudan to the west, Djibouti and Eritrea to the north, Somalia to the east and Kenya to the south. Within Ethiopia is a vast highland complex of mountains and dissected plateaus divided by the Great Rift Valley, which runs generally southwest to northeast and is surrounded by lowlands, steppes, or semi-desert. The great diversity of terrain determines wide variations in climate, soils, natural vegetation, and settlement patterns.
Ethiopia is an ecologically diverse country, ranging from the deserts along the eastern border to the tropical forests in the south to extensive Afromontane in the northern and southwestern parts. Lake Tana in the north is the source of the Blue Nile. It also has a large number of endemic species, notably the Gelada Baboon, the Walia Ibex and the Ethiopian wolf (or Simien fox). The wide range of altitude has given the country a variety of ecologically distinct areas, this has helped to encourage the evolution of endemic species in ecological isolation.
The predominant climate type is tropical monsoon, with wide topographic-induced variation. The Ethiopian Highlands cover most of the country and have a climate which is generally considerably cooler than other regions at similar proximity to the Equator. Most of the country's major cities are located at elevations of around 2,000–2,500 m (6,562–8,202 ft) above sea level, including historic capitals such as Gondar and Axum.
The modern capital Addis Ababa is situated on the foothills of Mount Entoto, at an elevation of around 2,400 m (7,874 ft). It experiences a mild climate year round. With fairly uniform year round temperatures, the seasons in Addis Ababa are largely defined by rainfall, with a dry season from October–February, a light rainy season from March–May, and a heavy rainy season from June–September. The average annual rainfall is around 1,200 mm (47.2 in).
There are on average 7 hours of sunshine per day. The dry season is the sunniest time of the year, though even at the height of the rainy season in July and August there are still usually several hours per day of bright sunshine. The average annual temperature in Addis Ababa is 16 °C (60.8 °F), with daily maximum temperatures averaging 20–25 °C (68.0–77.0 °F) throughout the year, and overnight lows averaging 5–10 °C (41.0–50.0 °F).
Most major cities and tourist sites in Ethiopia lie at a similar elevation to Addis Ababa and have a comparable climate. In less elevated regions, particularly the lower lying Ethiopian xeric grasslands and shrublands in the east of the country, the climate can be significantly hotter and drier. Dallol, in the Danakil Depression in this eastern zone, has the world's highest average annual temperature of 34 °C (93.2 °F).
Ethiopia has 31 endemic species of mammals.106 The African Wild Dog prehistorically had widespread distribution in the territory. However, with last sightings at Fincha, this canid is thought to be potentially extirpated within Ethiopia. The Ethiopian wolf is perhaps the most researched of all the endangered species within Ethiopia.
Ethiopia is a global center of avian diversity. To date more than 856 bird species have been recorded in Ethiopia, 20 of which are endemic to the country.107 Sixteen species are endangered or critically endangered. A large number of these birds feed on butterflies, like the Bicyclus anynana.108
Historically, throughout the African continent, wildlife populations have been rapidly declining owing to logging, civil wars, pollution, poaching and other human interference.109 A 17-year-long civil war, along with severe drought, negatively impacted Ethiopia's environmental conditions leading to even greater habitat degradation.110 Habitat destruction is a factor that leads to endangerment. When changes to a habitat occur rapidly, animals do not have time to adjust. Human impact threatens many species, with greater threats expected as a result of climate change induced by greenhouse gas emissions.111 With carbon dioxide emissions in 2010 of 6,494,000 tonnes, Ethiopia contributes just 0.02% to the annual human-caused release of greenhouse gases.112
Ethiopia has a large number of species listed as critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable to global extinction. The threatened species in Ethiopia can be broken down into three categories (based on IUCN ratings): Critically Endangered, Endangered, and Vulnerable.106
Deforestation is a major concern for Ethiopia as studies suggest loss of forest contributes to soil erosion, loss of nutrients in the soil, loss of animal habitats and reduction in biodiversity. At the beginning of the 20th century around 420 000 km² or 35% of Ethiopia's land was covered by trees but recent research indicates that forest cover is now approximately 11.9% of the area.114 Ethiopia is one of the seven fundamental and independent centers of origin of cultivated plants of the world.citation needed
Ethiopia loses an estimated 1 410 km² of natural forests each year. Between 1990 and 2005 the country lost approximately 21 000 km².citation needed
Current government programs to control deforestation consist of education, promoting reforestation programs and providing alternate raw material to timber. In rural areas the government also provides non-timber fuel sources and access to non-forested land to promote agriculture without destroying forest habitat.
Organizations such as SOS and Farm Africa are working with the federal government and local governments to create a system of forest management.115 Working with a grant of approximately 2.3 million euros the Ethiopian government recently began training people on reducing erosion and using proper irrigation techniques that do not contribute to deforestation. This project is assisting more than 80 communities.
According to the IMF, Ethiopia was one of the fastest growing economies in the world, registering over 10% economic growth from 2004 through 2009.116 It was the fastest-growing non-oil-dependent African economy in the years 2007 and 2008.117 Growth has decelerated moderately in 2012 to 7%118 and is projected to be 6.5% in the future – reflecting weaker external demand and an increasingly constrained environment for private sector activity.116
Ethiopia's growth performance and considerable development gains came under threat during 2008 and 2011 with the emergence of twin macroeconomic challenges of high inflation and a difficult balance of payments situation. Inflation surged to 40% in August 2011 because of loose monetary policy, large civil service wage increase in early 2011, and high food prices.119 For 2011/12, end-year inflation was projected to be about at about 22 percent and single digit inflation is projected in 2012/13 with the implementation of tight monetary and fiscal policies.118
In spite of fast growth in recent years, GDP per capita is one of the lowest in the world, and the economy faces a number of serious structural problems. Agricultural productivity remains low, and frequent droughts still beset the country.120 Ethiopia is often ironically referred to as the "water tower" of Eastern Africa because of the 14 major rivers that pour off the high tableland, including the Nile. It also has the greatest water reserves in Africa, but few irrigation systems in place to use it. Just 1% is used for power production and 1.5% for irrigation.121
Provision of telecommunications services is left to a state-owned monopoly. It is the view of the current government that maintaining state ownership in this vital sector is essential to ensure that telecommunication infrastructures and services are extended to rural Ethiopia, which would not be attractive to private enterprises.
The Ethiopian constitution defines the right to own land as belonging only to "the state and the people", but citizens may lease land (up to 99 years), and are unable to mortgage or sell. Renting of land for a maximum of twenty years is allowed and this is expected to ensure that land goes to the most productive user. Land distribution and administration is considered an area where corruption is institutionalized, and facilitation payments as well as bribes are often demanded when dealing with land-related issues.122
Agriculture accounts for almost 41% of the gross domestic product (GDP), 80% of exports, and 80% of the labor force.citation needed Many other economic activities depend on agriculture, including marketing, processing, and export of agricultural products. Production is overwhelmingly by small-scale farmers and enterprises and a large part of commodity exports are provided by the small agricultural cash-crop sector. Principal crops include coffee, pulses (e.g., beans), oilseeds, cereals, potatoes, sugarcane, and vegetables.
Exports are almost entirely agricultural commodities, and coffee is the largest foreign exchange earner. Ethiopia is Africa's second biggest maize producer.123 According to UN estimations the per capita GDP of Ethiopia has reached $357 as of 2011.124 The same report indicated that the life expectancy had improved substantially in recent years. The life expectancy of men is reported to be 56 years and for women 60 years.
Ethiopia is also the 10th largest producer of livestock in the world. Other main export commodities are khat, gold, leather products, and oilseeds. Recent development of the floriculture sector means Ethiopia is poised to become one of the top flower and plant exporters in the world.127
Cross-border trade by pastoralists is often informal and beyond state control and regulation. In East Africa, over 95% of cross-border trade is through unofficial channels and the unofficial trade of live cattle, camels, sheep and goats from Ethiopia sold to Somalia, Djibouti and Kenya generates an estimated total value of between US$250 and US$300 million annually (100 times more than the official figure).128
This trade helps lower food prices, increase food security, relieve border tensions and promote regional integration.128 However, there are also risks as the unregulated and undocumented nature of this trade runs risks, such as allowing disease to spread more easily across national borders. Furthermore, the government of Ethiopia is purportedly unhappy with lost tax revenue and foreign exchange revenues.128 Recent initiatives have sought to document and regulate this trade.128
With the private sector growing slowly, designer leather products like bags are becoming a big export business, with Taytu becoming the first luxury designer label in the country.129 Additional small-scale export products include cereals, pulses, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes and hides. With the construction of various new dams and growing hydroelectric power projects around the country, Ethiopia also plans to export electric power to its neighbors.130131
Coffee remains its most important export product and with new trademark deals around the world, including recent deals with Starbucks, the country plans to increase its revenue from coffee.132 Most regard Ethiopia's large water resources and potential as its "white oil" and its coffee resources as "black gold".133134
The country also has large mineral resources and oil potential in some of the less inhabited regions. Political instability in those regions, however, has inhibited development. Ethiopian geologists were implicated in a major gold swindle in 2008. Four chemists and geologists from the Ethiopian Geological Survey were arrested in connection with a fake gold scandal, following complaints from buyers in South Africa. Gold bars from the National Bank of Ethiopia were found to be gilded metal by police, costing the state around US$17 million, according to the Science and Development Network website.135
Ethiopia has 681 km of railway, which mainly consists of the Addis Ababa – Djibouti Railway, with a 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) narrow gauge. At present the railway is under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia, but negotiations are underway to privatize this transport utility. The railroad is currently being rebuilt and electrified by Chinese and Turkish companies and is scheduled to be completed by September 2015. The new railroad will be 756 km-long and is expected to reduce the travel time from Addis Ababa to Djibouti by half to less than ten hours with a designated speed of 120 km/hour.136
As the first part of a ten-year Road Sector Development Program, between 1997 and 2002 the Ethiopian government began a sustained effort to improve its infrastructure of roads. As a result, as of 2002 Ethiopia has a total (Federal and Regional) 33,297 km of roads, both paved and gravel.
Ethiopia has 58 airports as of 2012.8 Among these, the Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa and the Aba Tenna Dejazmach Yilma International Airport in Dire Dawa accommodate international flights. Ethiopian Airlines is the country's flag carrier, and is wholly owned by the Government of Ethiopia.137 From its hub at the Bole International Airport, the airline serves a network of 62 international destinations and 16 domestic ones.138139 It is also one of the fastest-growing carriers in the industry140 and one of Africa's largest airlines.
|Population in Ethiopia141|
Ethiopia's population has grown from 33.5 million in 1983 to 87.9 million in 2014.2 The population was only about 9 million in the 19th century.142 The 2007 Population and Housing Census results show that the population of Ethiopia grew at an average annual rate of 2.6% between 1994 and 2007, down from 2.8% during the period 1983–1994. Currently, the population growth rate is among the top ten countries in the world. The population is forecast to grow to over 210 million by 2060, which would be an increase from 2011 estimates by a factor of about 2.5.143
The country's population is highly diverse, containing over 80 different ethnic groups. According to the Ethiopian national census of 2007, the Oromo are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia, at 34.4% of the nation's population. The Amhara represent 27.0% of the country's inhabitants, while the Somali and Tigray represent 6.22% and 6.08% of the population, respectively. Other prominent ethnic groups are as follows: Sidama 4.00%, Gurage 2.52%, Welayta 2.27%, Afar 1.73%, Hadiya 1.72%, Gamo 1.49% and others 12.6%.3
Afro-Asiatic communities make up the majority of the population. Among these, Semitic speakers often collectively refer to themselves as Habesha or Abesha. The Arabic form of this term (Al-Habasha) is the etymological basis of "Abyssinia," the former name of Ethiopia in English and other European languages.144 Additionally, Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities inhabit the southern regions of the country; particularly in areas of the Gambela Region which borders South Sudan. The largest ethnic groups among these include the Nuer and Anuak.
In 2009, Ethiopia hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 135,200. The majority of this population came from Somalia (approximately 64,300 persons), Eritrea (41,700) and Sudan (25,900). The Ethiopian government required nearly all refugees to live in refugee camps.145
According to Ethnologue, there are ninety individual languages spoken in Ethiopia.146 Most people in the country speak Afro-Asiatic languages of the Cushitic or Semitic branches. The former includes Oromiffa, spoken by the Oromo people, and Somali, spoken by the Somali people; the latter includes Amharic, spoken by the Amhara people, and Tigrinya, spoken by the Tigray-Tigrinya people. Together, these four groups make up about three-quarters of Ethiopia's population. Other Afro-Asiatic languages with a significant number of speakers include the Cushitic Sidamo, Afar, Hadiyya and Agaw languages, as well as the Semitic Gurage, Harari, Silt'e and Argobba tongues.3
Additionally, Omotic languages are spoken by Omotic ethnic minority groups inhabiting the southern regions. Among these idioms are Aari, Bench, Dawro, Dime, Dizi, Gamo, Gofa, Maale, Hamer and Wolaytta.3
Languages from the Nilo-Saharan phylum are also spoken by the nation's Nilotic ethnic minorities, who are concentrated in the southwestern parts of the country. These languages include Nuer, Anuak, Nyangatom, Majang, Surma, Me'en and Mursi.3
English is the most widely spoken foreign language and is the medium of instruction in secondary schools. Amharic was the language of primary school instruction, but has been replaced in many areas by regional languages such as Oromiffa, Somali or Tigrinya.147 While all languages enjoy equal state recognition in the 1995 Constitution of Ethiopia, Amharic is recognized as the official working language of the Federal Government. The various regions of Ethiopia are free to determine their own working languages,1 with Oromiffa, Somali and Tigrinya recognized as official working languages in their respective regions.147
In terms of writing systems, Ethiopia's principal orthography is Ge'ez or Ethiopic. Employed as an abugida for several of the country's languages, it first came into usage in the 6th and 5th centuries BC as an abjad to transcribe the Semitic Ge'ez language.148 Ge'ez now serves as the liturgical language of the Ethiopian and Eritrean Orthodox Churches. During the 1980s, the Ethiopic character set was computerized. It is today part of the Unicode standard as Ethiopic, Ethiopic Extended, Ethiopic Supplement and Ethiopic Extended-A.
Ethiopia has close historical ties with all three of the world's major Abrahamic religions. In the 4th century, the region was one of the first in the world to officially adopt Christianity as the state religion. In AD 451 as a result of the resolutions of the Council of Chalcedon, the believers in the one nature of Christ, monophysites, which included the majority of Christians in Egypt and Ethiopia, were designated as heretics under the common name of Coptic Christians. While no longer distinguished as a state religion, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church remains the majority Christian denomination. There is also a substantial Muslim demographic, representing around a third of the population. Ethiopia is also the site of the first Hijra in Islamic history. A town in the Tigray Region, Negash is the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa. Until the 1980s, a substantial population of Ethiopian Jews (Beta Israel) resided in Ethiopia.150151
According to the 2007 National Census, Christians make up 62.8% of the country's population (43.5% Ethiopian Orthodox, 19.3% other denominations), Muslims 33.9%, practitioners of traditional faiths 2.6%, and other religions 0.6%152 This is in agreement with the updated CIA World Factbook, which states that Christianity is the most widely practiced religion in Ethiopia. According to the latest CIA factbook figure, Muslims constitute 33.9% of the population.8 Sunnis form the majority of Muslims with non-denominational Muslims being the second largest group of Muslims, and Shias and Ahmadi Muslims are a minority. Sunnis are largely Shafi'is or Salafis, and there are also many Sufi Muslims there.153 The large Muslim population in the northern Afar region has resulted in a Muslim separatist movement called the Islamic State of Afaria seeking a sharia-compliant constitution.154
The Kingdom of Aksum was one of the first nations to officially accept Christianity, when St. Frumentius of Tyre, called Fremnatos or Abba Selama ("Father of Peace") in Ethiopia, converted Emperor Ezana during the 4th century AD.44150 According to the New Testament, Christianity had entered Ethiopia even earlier, when an official in the Ethiopian royal treasury was baptized by Philip the Evangelist.155
Today, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, part of Oriental Orthodoxy, is by far the largest denomination, though a number of Protestant (Pentay) churches have recently gained ground. Since the 18th century there has existed a relatively small Ethiopian Catholic Church in full communion with Rome, with adherents making up less than 1% of the total population.152
Islam in Ethiopia dates back to the founding of the religion in 615, when a group of Muslims were counseled by the Prophet Muhammad to escape persecution in Mecca. The disciples subsequently migrated to Ethiopia via modern-day Eritrea, which was at the time ruled by Sahama, a pious Christian emperor.150 Also, the largest single ethnic group of non-Arab Companions of Muhammad was that of the Ethiopians.citation needed
A small ancient group of Jews, the Beta Israel, live in northwestern Ethiopia, though most immigrated to Israel in the last decades of the 20th century as part of the Israeli government's rescue missions: Operation Moses and Operation Solomon.156157
While followers of all religions can be found in each region, they tend to be concentrated in certain parts of the country. Christians predominantly live in the northern Amhara and Tigray regions, and are largely members of the non-Chalcedonian Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. Those belonging to the Protestant or Pentay denomination are centered in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNP) and Oromia. Muslims in Ethiopia predominantly adhere to the Sunni branch, and generally inhabit eastern and northeastern areas; particularly the Somali, Afar, Dire Dawa and Harari regions. Practitioners of traditional religions mainly reside in the nation's far southwestern and western rural borderlands, in the SNNP, Benishangul-Gumuz and Gambela regions.3150
Human rights groups have regularly accused the government of arresting activists, journalists and bloggers to stamp out dissent among some religious communities. Lengthy prison terms were handed to 17 Muslim activists on 3 August, 2015 ranging from seven to 22 years. They were charged with trying to create an Islamic state in the majority Christian country. All the defendants denied the charges and were merely protesting in defence of their rights.158159160
Population growth, migration, and urbanization are all straining both governments' and ecosystems' capacity to provide people with basic services.161 Urbanization has steadily been increasing in Ethiopia, with two periods of significantly rapid growth. First, in 1936–1941 during the Italian occupation of Mussolini's fascist regime, and from 1967 to 1975 when the populations of urban centers tripled.162
In 1936, Italy annexed Ethiopia, building infrastructure to connect major cities, and a dam providing power and water.163 This along with the influx of Italians and laborers was the major cause of rapid growth during this period. The second period of growth was from 1967 to 1975 when rural populations migrated to urban centers seeking work and better living conditions.162
This pattern slowed due to the 1975 Land Reform program instituted by the government, which provided incentives for people to stay in rural areas. As people moved from rural areas to the cities, there were fewer people to grow food for the population. The Land Reform Act was meant to increase agriculture since food production was not keeping up with population growth over the period of 1970–1983. This program proliferated the formation of peasant associations, large villages based on agriculture. The act did lead to an increase in food production, although there is debate over the cause; it may be related to weather conditions more than the reform act.164 Urban populations have continued to grow with an 8.1% increase from 1975 to 2000.165
Largest cities or towns in Ethiopia
CSA (Urban population projection values of 2015)
|1||Addis Ababa||Addis Ababa||3,273,000||11||Shashamane||Oromia||147,774||
|7||Dire Dawa||Dire Dawa||277,000||17||Dila||SNNPR||112,874|
Migration to urban areas is usually motivated by the hope of better lives. In peasant associations daily life is a struggle to survive. About 16% of the population in Ethiopia are living on less than 1 dollar per day (2008). Only 65% of rural households in Ethiopia consume the World Health Organization's minimum standard of food per day (2,200 kilocalories), with 42% of children under 5 years old being underweight.166
Most poor families (75%) share their sleeping quarters with livestock, and 40% of children sleep on the floor, where nighttime temperatures average 5 degrees Celsius in the cold season.166 The average family size is six or seven, living in a 30-square-meter mud and thatch hut, with less than two hectares of land to cultivate.166 These living conditions are deplorable, but are the daily lives of peasant associations.
The peasant associations face a cycle of poverty. Since the landholdings are so small, farmers cannot allow the land to lie fallow, which reduces soil fertility.166 This land degradation reduces the production of fodder for livestock, which causes low milk yields.166 Since the community burns livestock manure as fuel, rather than plowing the nutrients back into the land, the crop production is reduced.166 The low productivity of agriculture leads to inadequate incomes for farmers, hunger, malnutrition and disease. These unhealthy farmers have a hard time working the land and the productivity drops further.166
Although conditions are drastically better in cities, all of Ethiopia suffers from poverty, and poor sanitation. In the capital city of Addis Ababa, 55% of the population lives in slums.163 Although there are some wealthy neighborhoods with mansions, most people make their houses using whatever materials are available, with walls made of mud or wood. Only 12% of homes have cement tiles or floors.163 Sanitation is the most pressing need in the city, with most of the population lacking access to waste treatment facilities. This contributes to the spread of illness through unhealthy water.163
Despite the living conditions in the cities, the people of Addis Ababa are much better off than people living in the peasant associations owing to their educational opportunities. Unlike rural children, 69% of urban children are enrolled in primary school, and 35% of those eligible for secondary school attend.163 Addis Ababa has its own university as well as many other secondary schools. The literacy rate is 82%.163
Many NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations) are working to solve this problem; however, most are far apart, uncoordinated, and working in isolation.165 The Sub-Saharan Africa NGO Consortium is attempting to coordinate efforts.165
According to the head of the World Bank's Global HIV/AIDS Program, Ethiopia has only 1 medical doctor per 100,000 people.167 However, the World Health Organization's 2006 World Health Report gives a figure of 1,936 physicians (for 2003),168 which comes to about 2.6 per 100,000. Globalization is said to affect the country, with many educated professionals leaving Ethiopia for better economic opportunities in the West.
Ethiopia's main health problems are said to be communicable (contagious) diseases worsened by poor sanitation and malnutrition. Over 44m people (more than half the population) do not have access to clean water.169 These problems are exacerbated by the shortage of trained doctors and nurses and health facilities.170
The state of public health is considerably better in the cities. Birth rates, infant mortality rates, and death rates are lower in cities than in rural areas owing to better access to education, medicines and hospitals.163 Life expectancy is higher at 53, compared to 48 in rural areas.163 Despite sanitation being a problem, use of improved water sources is also on the rise; 81% in cities compared to 11% in rural areas.165 As in other parts of Africa, there has been a steady migration of people towards the cities in hopes of better living conditions.
There are 119 hospitals (12 in Addis Ababa alone) and 412 health centers in Ethiopia.171 Ethiopia has a relatively low average life expectancy of 58 years.172 Infant mortality rates are relatively very high, as over 8% of infants die during or shortly after childbirth,172 (although this is a dramatic decrease from 16% in 1965) while birth-related complications such as obstetric fistula affect many of the nation's women.
As of 2012, Ethiopia's prevalence of HIV/AIDS for adults aged 15–49 was estimated at 1.30%.173 The most affected are poor communities and women, due to lack of health education, empowerment, awareness and lack of social well-being. The government of Ethiopia and many private organizations like World Health Organization (WHO), and the United Nations, are launching campaigns and are working aggressively to improve Ethiopia's health conditions and promote health awareness on AIDS and other communicable diseases (Dugassa, 2005). Many believe that sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea result from touching a stone after a female dog urinates on it and there is a general belief that these diseases are caused by bad spirits and supernatural causes. Others believe that eating the reproductive organs of a black goat will help expel the diseases from those same organ in their body (Kater, 2000).
Ethiopia has high infant and maternal mortality rate. Only a minority of Ethiopians are born in hospitals; most of them are born in rural households. Those who are expected to give birth at home have elderly women serve as midwives assist with the delivery (Kater, 2000) The increase in infant and maternal mortality rate is believed to be due to lack of women's involvement in household decision-making, immunization and social capital (Fantahun, Berhane, Wall, Byass, & Hogberg, 2007). On the other hand, the "WHO estimates that a majority of maternal fatalities and disabilities could be prevented if deliveries were to take place at well-equipped health centers, with adequately trained staff" (Dorman et al., 2009, p. 622).
The low availability of health care professionals with modern medical training, together with lack of funds for medical services, leads to the preponderancy of less reliable traditional healers that use home-based therapies to heal common ailments.
One common cultural practice, irrespective of religion or economic status, is female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting (FGC), a procedure that involves partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.174 The practice has been made illegal in Ethiopia in 2004.175 FGM is a pre-marital custom mainly endemic to Northeast Africa and parts of the Near East that has its ultimate origins in Ancient Egypt.176177 Encouraged by women in the community, it is primarily intended to deter promiscuity and to offer protection from assault.178
The country has a high prevalence of FGM, but prevalence is lower among young girls. Ethiopia's 2005 Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) noted that the national prevalence rate is 74% among women ages 15–49.179 The practice is almost universal in the regions of Dire Dawa, Somali and Afar; in the Oromo and Harari regions, more than 80% of girls and women undergo the procedure. FGC is least prevalent in the regions of Tigray and Gambela, where 29% and 27% of girls and women, respectively, are affected.180 According to a 2010 study performed by the Population Reference Bureau, Ethiopia has a prevalence rate of 81% among women ages 35 to 39 and 62% among women ages 15–19.181 A 2014 UNICEF report found that only 24% of girls under 14 had undergone FGM.182
The Government of the Federal Republic of Ethiopia is signatory to various international conventions and treaties that protect the rights of women and children. Its constitution provides for the fundamental rights and freedoms for women. There is an attempt being made to raise the social and economic status of women through eliminating all legal and customary practices, which hinder women's equal participation in society and undermine their social status.
Education in Ethiopia had been dominated by the Orthodox Church for many centuries until secular education was adopted in the early 1900s.The current system follows very similar school expansion schemes to the rural areas as the previous 1980s system with an addition of deeper regionalization giving rural education in their own languages starting at the elementary level and with more budget allocated to the education sector. The sequence of general education in Ethiopia is six years of primary school, four years of lower secondary school and two years of higher secondary school.184
Access to education in Ethiopia has improved significantly. Approximately 3 million people were in primary school in 1994/95, and by 2008/09, primary enrollment had risen to 15.5 million – an increase of over 500%.185
The literacy rate has increased in recent years: according to the 1994 census, the literacy rate in Ethiopia was 23.4%,146 while it was 39% (male 49.1% and female 28.9%) according to 2007 estimates.186
Ethiopians have a different naming system to the family name-based Western system. Children add the given names of their father and paternal grandfather consecutively to their own given name. For compatibility purposes, as is done in passports, the grandfather's given name is taken as a family surname, and a person's given name and his/her father's given name form the first name.
Everyone is addressed by his/her given name. In official situations, the prefixes Ato (ኣቶ), also Ayte (ኣይተ), is used for men; Weizero (ወይዘሮ) for married women; and Weizerit (ወይዘሪት) for unmarried women.
Ethiopia has several local calendars. The most widely known is the Ethiopian calendar, also known as the Ge'ez calendar. It is based on the older Alexandrian or Coptic calendar, which in turn derives from the Egyptian calendar. Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopian calendar has twelve months of exactly 30 days each plus five or six epagomenal days, which comprise a thirteenth month. The Ethiopian months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but their names are in Ge'ez.
Like the Julian calendar, the sixth epagomenal day — which in essence is a leap day — is added every four years without exception on 29 August of the Julian calendar, six months before the Julian leap day. Thus the first day of the Ethiopian year, 1 Mäskäräm, for years between 1901 and 2099 (inclusive), is usually 11 September (Gregorian), but falls on 12 September in years before the Gregorian leap year. Also a seven- to eight-year gap between the Ethiopian and Gregorian calendars results from an alternate calculation in determining the date of the Annunciation of Jesus.
Another prominent calendrical system was developed around 300 BC by the Oromo. A lunar-stellar calendar, this Oromo calendar relies on astronomical observations of the moon in conjunction with seven particular stars or constellations. Oromo months (stars/lunar phases) are Bittottessa (Iangulum), Camsa (Pleiades), Bufa (Aldebarran), Waxabajjii (Belletrix), Obora Gudda (Central Orion-Saiph), Obora Dikka (Sirius), Birra (full moon), Cikawa (gibbous moon), Sadasaa (quarter moon), Abrasa (large crescent), Ammaji (medium crescent) and Gurrandala (small crescent).187
Time in Ethiopia is counted differently from in many Western countries. The Ethiopian day is reckoned as beginning at 6 AM as opposed to 12 AM, concurrently with sunrise throughout the year. To convert between the Ethiopian clock and Western clocks, one must add (or subtract) 6 hours to the Western time. For example, 2 AM local Addis Ababa time is called "8 at night" in Ethiopia, while 8 PM is called "2 in the evening".
The best-known Ethiopian cuisine consists of various thick meat stews, known as wat in Ethiopian culture, and vegetable side dishes served atop injera, a large sourdough flatbread made of teff flour. This is not eaten with utensils, but instead one uses the injera to scoop up the entrées and side dishes. Almost universally in Ethiopia, it is common to eat from the same dish in the center of the table with a group of people. It is also a common custom to feed others in your group with your own hands – a tradition referred to as "gursha."188 Traditional Ethiopian cuisine employs no pork or shellfish of any kind, as they are forbidden in the Islamic, Jewish, and Ethiopian Orthodox Christian faiths.
Chechebsa (ጨጨብሣ), marqa, chukko, michirra and dhanga are the most popular dishes from the Oromo. Kitfo (ክትፎ), which originated from the Gurage is one of the widely accepted and favorite foods in Ethiopia. Tihlo (ጥሕሎ)—which is a type of dumpling— is prepared from roasted barley flour. It originated in Tigray Region and is now very popular in Amhara and spreading further south.189
The music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse, with each of the country's 80 ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds. Ethiopian music uses a distinct modal system that is pentatonic, with characteristically long intervals between some notes. As with many other aspects of Ethiopian culture and tradition, tastes in music and lyrics are strongly linked with those in neighboring Eritrea, Somalia, Djibouti and Sudan.190191 Traditional singing in Ethiopia presents diverse styles of polyphony (heterophony, drone, imitation and counterpoint). Traditionally, lyricism in Ethiopian song writing is strongly associated with views of patriotism or national pride, romance, friendship and most uniquely memoire known as 'Tissita'.
The main sports in Ethiopia are athletics (particularly long distance running) and football (soccer). Ethiopian athletes have won many Olympic gold medals in track and field, most of them in long distance running.192 Haile Gebrselassie is a world-renowned long distance runner with several world record in his belt. Another sportsman, Kenenisa Bekele, is also a dominant runner, particularly in the 5,000 and 10,000 meters in which he holds the world records.
Other notable Ethiopian athletes are Abebe Bikila, Mamo Wolde, Miruts Yifter, Derartu Tulu, Tirunesh Dibaba, Meseret Defar, Birhane Adere, Tiki Gelana, Genzebe Dibaba and Gelete Burka. As of 2012 going into 2013 the current national Ethiopian football team (Walayia Antelopes) has made itself history by qualifying for the 2012 African Cup of Nations (CAF) and more recently by reaching the last 10 African football teams in the last stage of qualification for the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Noted players include captain Adane Girma and top scorer Saladin Said.
- Outline of Ethiopia
- Index of Ethiopia-related articles
- Aethiopia (Classical Greek term)
- Archaeology in Ethiopia
- Link Ethiopia
- Military of Ethiopia
- Military history of Ethiopia
- Water supply and sanitation in Ethiopia
- "Article 5" (PDF). Ethiopian Constitution. WIPO. Retrieved 2 July 2015.
- "Federal Demographic Republic of Ethiopia Central Statistical Agency – Population Projection of Ethiopia for All Regions At Wereda Level from 2014 – 2017". 2014 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia. CSA. 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- "Country Level". 2007 Population and Housing Census of Ethiopia. CSA. 13 July 2010. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- "Ethiopia". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- "Ethiopia". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "2014 Human Development Report Summary" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- "Ethiopia". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- Hopkin, Michael (16 February 2005). "Ethiopia is top choice for cradle of Homo sapiens". Nature. doi:10.1038/news050214-10.
- Li, J. Z.; Absher, D. M.; Tang, H.; Southwick, A. M.; Casto, A. M.; Ramachandran, S.; Cann, H. M.; Barsh, G. S.; Feldman, M.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. L.; Myers, R. M. (2008). "Worldwide Human Relationships Inferred from Genome-Wide Patterns of Variation". Science 319 (5866): 1100–1104. Bibcode:2008Sci...319.1100L. doi:10.1126/science.1153717. PMID 18292342.
- "Humans Moved From Africa Across Globe, DNA Study Says". Bloomberg.com. 21 February 2008. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
- Kaplan, Karen (21 February 2008). "Around the world from Addis Ababa". Los Angeles Times. Startribune.com. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
- Zarins, Juris (1990). "Early Pastoral Nomadism and the Settlement of Lower Mesopotamia". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 280: 31–65. JSTOR 1357309.
- Ancient India, A History Textbook for Class XI, Ram Sharan Sharma, National Council of Educational Research and Training, India
- Munro-Hay, p. 57
- Henze, Paul B. (2005) Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia, ISBN 1-85065-522-7.
- Smaller nations that have claimed a prior official adoption of Christianity include Osroene, the Silures, San Marino, Armenia and Caucasian Albania. See Timeline of official adoptions of Christianity
- Contributor. "The Reporter – English Edition". thereporterethiopia.com.
- "Ethiopia: Most World Heritage Sites in Africa | Deep from an Ethiopian – An Ethiopian blog". deepethiopian.com.
- Page, Willie F. (2001). Encyclopedia of African history and culture: African kingdoms (500 to 1500), Volume 2. Facts on File. p. 230. ISBN 0-8160-4472-4.
- Weil, Shalva (2008) "Jews in Ethiopia", pp. 467–475 in Encyclopaedia of the Jewish Diaspora, Vol. 2. M.A. Erlich (ed.). Santa Barbara, USA: ABC CLIO.
- Weil, Shalva (2011) "Ethiopian Jews", pp. 165–166 in Cambridge Dictionary of Judaism and Jewish Culture. Judith Baskin (ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.
- "Ethiopia surpasses Kenya to become East Africa's Biggest Economy". Nazret.com. 6 February 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
- Ethiopia GDP purchasing power 2010: 86 billion. Imf.org (14 September 2006). Retrieved on 3 March 2012.
- Kenya GDP purchasing power 2010: 66 Billion. Imf.org (14 September 2006). Retrieved on 3 March 2012.
- "Countries Ranked by Military Strength (2014)". Global Fire Power. Retrieved 12 November 2014.
- Histories, book 2, chapters 29 and 146; book 3 chapter 17 Odyssey, book 1, lines 22–23; book 4, line 84
- Histories, II, 29–30; III, 114; IV, 197
- Nat. Hist. 6.184–187; son of Hephaestus was also a general Greek epithet meaning "blacksmith" .
- Etymologicum Genuinum s.v. Αἰθιοπία; see also Aethiopia
- "Aithiops, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, ''A Greek-English Lexicon'', at Perseus". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
- Allahar, Anton L. (2001). "When Black First Became Worth Less". International Journal of Comparative Sociology 34 (1–2). ISBN 9781446224175.
- Cp. Ezekiel 29:10
- Acts 8:27
- Mcdougall, I.; Brown, H.; Fleagle, G. (Feb 2005). "Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia". Nature 433 (7027): 733–736. Bibcode:2005Natur.433..733M. doi:10.1038/nature03258. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 15716951.
- White, T. D.; Asfaw, B.; Degusta, D.; Gilbert, H.; Richards, G. D.; Suwa, G.; Clark Howell, F. (2003). "Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia". Nature 423 (6941): 742–7. Bibcode:2003Natur.423..742W. doi:10.1038/nature01669. PMID 12802332.
- Diamond, J.; Bellwood, P. (2003). "Farmers and Their Languages: The First Expansions". Science 300 (5619): 597–603. Bibcode:2003Sci...300..597D. doi:10.1126/science.1078208. PMID 12714734.
- Blench, R. (2006). Archaeology, Language, and the African Past. Rowman Altamira. pp. 143–144. ISBN 0759104662.
- Tamrat, Taddesse (1972) Church and State in Ethiopia: 1270–1527. London: Oxford University Press, pp. 5–13.
- Uhlig, Siegbert (ed.) (2005) Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, "Ge'ez". Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, p. 732.
- Africa Geoscience Review, Volume 10. Rock View International. 2003. p. 366. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- Phillipson, David W. (1998). Ancient Ethiopia. Aksum: Its Antecedents and Successors. The British Museum Press. pp. 7, 48–50. ISBN 0-7141-2763-9.
- Munro-Hay, p. 13
- Adejumobi, Saheed A. (2007). The history of Ethiopia. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. p. 171. ISBN 0-313-32273-2.
- Fiaccadori, Gianfranco (2005) "Ellä Säham" in Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, vol. 2, Wiesbaden
- Hable Sellassie, Sergew (1972). Ancient and Medieval Ethiopian History to 1270. Addis Ababa: United Printers, p. 185.
- Tamrat, Taddesse (1972) Church and State in Ethiopia (1270–1527). Oxford: Clarendon Press, p. 34.
- Zakaria, Rafiq (1991) Muhammad and The Quran, New Delhi: Penguin Books, pp. 403–4. ISBN 0-14-014423-4
- Al-Mubarakpuri, Safiur-Rahman (2002). الرحيق المختوم: بحث في السيرة النبوية على صاحبها افضل الصلاة و السلام. ideas4islam. p. 221.
- Ibn al-Qayyim – Zad al-Ma'ad 3/60.
- Ibn al-Qayyim – Zad al-Ma'ad 3/61
- Mortimer, Ian (2007) The Fears of Henry IV, p.111. ISBN 1-84413-529-2
- Beshah, pp. 13–4.
- Beshah, p. 25.
- Beshah, pp. 45–52.
- Beshah, pp. 91, 97–104.
- Beshah, p. 105.
- van Donzel, Emeri, "Fasilädäs" in Siegbert von Uhlig, ed., Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha (Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005), p. 500.
- Abir, p. 23 n.1.
- Abir, pp. 23–26.
- Trimingham, p. 262.
- Pankhurst, Richard, The Ethiopian Royal Chronicles, (London:Oxford University Press, 1967), pp. 139–43.
- "POLITICAL PROGRAM OF THE OROMO PEOPLE'S CONGRESS (OPC)". Gargaaraoromopc.org. 23 April 1996. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
- The Egyptians in Abyssinia. Vislardica.com. Retrieved on 3 March 2012.
- Young, J. (1998). "Regionalism and democracy in Ethiopia". Third World Quarterly 19 (2): 191. doi:10.1080/01436599814415.
- International Crisis Group, "Ethnic Federalism and its Discontents". Issue 153 of ICG Africa report (4 September 2009) p. 2; Italy lost over 4.600 nationals in this battle.
- Keefer, Edward C. (1973). "Great Britain and Ethiopia 1897–1910: Competition for Empire". International Journal of African Studies 6 (3): 470. JSTOR 216612.
- Martial (de Salviac, père.), Ayalew Kanno (2005). An Ancient People in the State of Menelik: The Oromo (said to be of Gallic Origin) Great African Nation. Ayalew Kanno. p. 8. ISBN 1599751895.
- Abir, p. 30
- Negash, Tekeste. Eritrea and Ethiopia : The Federal Experience. Uppsala, Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet (2005) ISBN 1-56000-992-6 pp. 13–14
- Famine Hunger stalks Ethiopia once again – and aid groups fear the worst. Time. 21 December 1987
- Pankhurst, R. (1966). "The Great Ethiopian Famine of 1888–1892: A New Assessment". Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences (2): 95. doi:10.1093/jhmas/XXI.2.95.
- Clapham, Christopher, "Ḫaylä Śəllase" in Siegbert von Uhlig, ed., Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha (Wiesbaden:Harrassowitz Verlag, 2005), pp. 1062–3.
- "Man of the Year". TIME. 6 January 1936. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
- Clapham, "Ḫaylä Śəllase", Encyclopaedia Aethiopica, p. 1063.
- "Ethiopia" (PDF). globalmarch.org. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
- "Chronology of slavery". MertSahinoglu.com. 23 February 1994. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
- Gwyn Campbell, Suzanne Miers, Joseph Calder Miller Women and Slavery: Africa, the Indian Ocean World, and the Medieval North Atlantic. (2007). Ohio University Press. p.219. ISBN 0-8214-1724-X
- Black Book of Communism pp. 687–695
- Valdes Vivo, p. 115.
- Valdes Vivo, p. 21.
- Valdes Vivo, p. 25.
- Dagne, Haile Gabriel (2006). The commitment of the German Democratic Republic in Ethiopia: a study based on Ethiopian sources. Münster, London: Lit; Global. ISBN 978-3-8258-9535-8.
- "US admits helping Mengistu escape", BBC, 22 December 1999
- "Mengistu found guilty of genocide". BBC. 12 December 2006. Retrieved 21 July 2007.
Ethiopia's Marxist ex-ruler, Mengistu Haile Mariam, has been found guilty of genocide after a 12-year trial.
- Will arms ban slow war? BBC. (18 May 2000)
- "The worst drought in 60 years in Horn Africa". Africa and Europe in Partnership. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
- "Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles has died: state television". Reuters. 21 August 2012.
- Lough, Richard (22 August 2012). "Ethiopia acting PM to remain at helm until 2015". Reuters.
- Malone, Barry (27 May 2015). "Profile: Ethiopia's 'placeholder' PM quietly holds on". aljazeera.com. Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 28 July 2015.
- Vaughan, Jenny (12 December 2013). "Ethiopia's colossal human airlift from Saudi Arabia". Yahoo News.
- Constitution of Ethiopia – 8 December 1994dead link
- The Economist Intelligence Unit's Index of Democracy 2010. (PDF) . Retrieved on 3 March 2012.
- Onyulo, Tonny (26 July 2015). "Obama visit highlights Ethiopia's role in fighting Islamic terrorists". USA Today.
- "Map of Freedom 2007". Freedom House. 2007. Retrieved 25 December 2007.
- "Essential Background: Overview of human rights issues in Ethiopia". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 25 December 2007.
- "Ethiopian probe team criticises judge over report.". Reuters. 11 September 2006. Retrieved 21 July 2007.
- "Ethiopia election: No seat in parliament for opposition". aljazeera.com. 23 June 2015. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
- "Obama in Ethiopia for key talks with regional leaders". BBC News. 27 July 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2015.
- "Youth in Crisis: Coming of age in the 21st century". Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 23 February 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
- "UNICEF supports fight to end marriage by abduction in Ethiopia". reliefweb.int. 9 November 2004. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
- Petros, Gezahegn (2000). The Karo of the lower Omo Valley: subsistence, social organisation and relations with neighbouring groups. Dept. of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Administration, Addis Ababa University. p. 57.
- "Lale Labuko". nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
- Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, 2005 – 2013
- "CIA World Factbook – Rank Order – Area". Retrieved 2 February 2008.
- Massicot, Paul (2005). Animal Info-Ethiopia.
- Lepage, Denis. "Bird Checklists of the World". Avibase. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
- Bicyclus, Site of Markku Savela
- Bakerova, Katarina et al. (1991) Wildlife Parks Animals Africa. Retrieved 24 May 2008, from the African Cultural Center.
- Encyclopedia of Nations. Ethiopia Environment.
- Kurpis, Lauren (2002). How to Help Endangered Species. Endageredspecie.com
- United Nations Statistics Division, Millennium Development Goals indicators: Carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), thousand tonnes of CO2 (collected by CDIAC) Human-produced, direct emissions of carbon dioxide only. Excludes other greenhouse gases; land-use, land-use-change and forestry (LULUCF); and natural background flows of CO2 (See also: Carbon cycle)
- IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. iucnredlist.org
- Mongabay.com Ethiopia statistics. (n.d). Retrieved 18 November 2006, from Rainforests.mongabay.com
- Parry, J (2003). Tree choppers become tree planters. Appropriate Technology, 30(4), 38–39. Retrieved 22 November 2006, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 538367341).
- "World Economic Outlook" (PDF). IMF. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
- "Ethiopia: IMF Positive on Country's Growth Outlook". allAfrica. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
- "Statement by an IMF Staff Mission on the 2012 Article IV Consultation with Ethiopia". IMF. 14 June 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
- "Ethiopia Overview". World Bank. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
- "Six million children threatened by Ethiopia drought: UN". Terradaily.com. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
- "Water tower of east africa". BBC News. 9 January 2004. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
- "Business Corruption in Ethiopia". Business Anti-Corruption Portal. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- "Get the gangsters out of the food chain". The Economist. 7 June 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2008.
- "National Accounts Estimates of Main Aggregates". The United Nations Statistics Division. Retrieved 12 November 2013.
- The Economist 22 May 2010, page 49
- "Starbucks in Ethiopia coffee vow". BBC. 21 June 2007. Retrieved 21 June 2007.
- "Ethiopia's flower trade in full bloom". Mail & Guardian. 19 February 2006. Retrieved 21 June 2007.
Floriculture has become a flourishing business in Ethiopia in the past five years, with the industry's exports earnings set to grow to $100-million by 2007, a five-fold increase on the $20-million earned in 2005. Ethiopian flower exports could generate an estimated $300-million within two to three years, according to the head of the government export-promotion department, Melaku Legesse.
- Pavanello, Sara 2010. Working across borders – Harnessing the potential of cross-border activities to improve livelihood security in the Horn of Africa drylands. London: Overseas Development Institute
- Averill, Victoria (31 May 2007). "Ethiopia's designs on leather trade". BBC. Retrieved 21 June 2007.
The label inside the luxuriously soft black leather handbag reads Taytu: Made In Ethiopia. But the embroidered print on the outside, the chunky bronze rings attached to the fashionably short straps and the oversized "it" bag status all scream designer chic.
- "Largest hydro electric power plant goes smoothly". English.people.com.cn. 12 April 2006. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
- "Hydroelectric Power Plant built". Addistribune.com. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
- Foek, Anton (16 May 2007). "new coffee deal with Starbucks". Alternet.org. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
- The "white oil" of Ethiopia at the Wayback Machine (archived 28 September 2007). ethiopianreporter.com
- Independent Online (18 April 2006). "Ethiopia hopes to power neighbors with dams". Int.iol.co.za. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
- "Sub-Saharan Africa news in brief: 13–25 March". SciDev.Net. 28 March 2008. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
- Ethiosports, Track laying commences on section of Ethio-Djibouti Railway project, Published By Markos Berhanu On Sunday, 11 May 2014 Under, http://www.ethiosports.com/2014/05/11/track-laying-commences-on-section-of-ethio-djibouti-railway-project/
- "Ethiopian Airlines: Company Profile". Ethiopian Airlines. Archived from the original on 13 October 2012. Retrieved 13 October 2012.
- "Profile: Ethiopian Airlines". BBC News. 25 January 2010. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- "Ambassador impressed by Ethiopian Airlines". Royal Norwegian Embassy in Addis Ababa. 22 September 2009. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- "Ethiopian Airlines – Bringing the Dreamliner to Africa". CNN. 3 September 2012. Archived from the original on 21 September 2012. Retrieved 21 September 2012.
- World Population Prospects, the 2010 Revision. UN.org
- W. G. Clarence-Smith The Economics of the Indian Ocean slave trade in the nineteenth century (1989). p.100. ISBN 0-7146-3359-3
- Forecast provided by International Futures and hosted by Google Public Data Explorer
- Time Europe – Abyssinia: Ethiopian Protest at the Wayback Machine (archived 6 February 2004). 9 August 1926
- "World Refugee Survey 2008". U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. 19 June 2008.
- "Languages of Ethiopia". Ethnologue. SIL International. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- Mpoche, Kizitus and Mbuh, Tennu, ed. (2006). Language, literature, and identity. Cuvillier. pp. 163–164. ISBN 3-86537-839-0.
- Fattovich, Rodolfo (2003) "Akkälä Guzay" in von Uhlig, Siegbert, ed. Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: A-C. Weissbaden: Otto Harrassowitz KG, p.169.
- Hayward, R. J.; Hassan, M. (2009). "The Oromo orthography of Shaykh Bakri Saṗalō". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 44 (3): 550. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00144209. JSTOR 616613.
- Thomas P. Ofcansky, LaVerle Berry (2004). Ethiopia: A Country Study. Kessinger Publishing. pp. 130–141. ISBN 1-4191-1857-9.
- Weil, Shalva (2008) "Zionism among Ethiopian Jews" in Jewish Communities in the 19th and 20th Centuries. Salamon, Hagar (ed.). Ethiopia, Jerusalem: Ben-Zvi Institute, pp. 187–200. (Hebrew).
- Berhanu Abegaz, PDF (51.7 KB). Retrieved 6 April 2006.
- Pew Forum on Religious & Public life. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2013
- Northeast African Studies. 12–13: 174. 1990. Missing or empty
- "Acts 8". Bible Gateway.
- "The History of Ethiopian Jews". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
- Weil, Shalva (2011) "Operation Solomon 20 Years On", International Relations and Security Network (ISN). isn.ethz.ch
- Ethiopia hands lengthy prison terms to Muslim activists
- Ethiopia hands lengthy prison terms to Muslim activists
- Ethiopia jails Muslims convicted of terror plot
- Racin, L. (4 March 2008) "Future Shock: How Environmental Change and Human Impact Are Changing the Global Map". Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
- Ofcansky, T and Berry, L. "Ethiopia: A Country Study". Editied by Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1991. Countrystudies.us
- Shivley, K. "Addis Ababa, Ethiopia" Macalester.edu. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
- Belete, A. (1991). "Development of agriculture in Ethiopia since the 1975 land reform". Agricultural Economics 6 (2): 159. doi:10.1016/0169-5150(91)90022-D.
- Worldbank.org. Retrieved 5 October 2008not specific enough to verify
- Crawley, Mike. "Breaking the Cycle of Poverty in Ethiopia". April 2003. International Development Research Centre. Retrieved on 24 May 2008
- BBC, The World Today, 24 July 2007
- "Global distribution of health workers in WHO Member States" (PDF). The World Health Report 2006. World Health Organization. Retrieved 2 February 2008.
- "WaterAid UK - Where we work - Ethiopia". www.wateraid.org. Retrieved 2015-05-16.
- "Ethiopia – Health and Welfare". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 16 March 2009.
- "Ethiopia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
- Aids Action (The International News Letter on AIDS Prevention and Care): Issue 46, Health Link World Wide (October–December 1999)
- "The World Factbook". cia.gov.
- "WHO | Female genital mutilation". who.int.
- See the 2004 Penal Code: Article 565 – Female Circumcision; Article 566 – Infibulation of the Female Genitalia 
- Hayes, R. O. (1975). "Female genital mutilation, fertility control, women's roles, and the patrilineage in modern Sudan: A functional analysis1". American Ethnologist 2 (4): 617. doi:10.1525/ae.1975.2.4.02a00030.
- Bodman, Herbert L. and Tohidi, Nayereh Esfahlani (1998) Women in Muslim societies: diversity within unity, Lynne Rienner Publishers, p. 41. ISBN 1-55587-578-5
- Frayser, Suzanne G. and Whitby, Thomas J. (1995) Studies in human sexuality: a selected guide, Libraries Unlimited, p. 257 ISBN 1-56308-131-8.
- Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (Central Statistics Agency, 2005), p. 1.
- "Female Genital Mutilation in Ethiopia", Africa Department, gtz.de, 2007.
- Fedman-Jacobs, Charlotte and Clifton, Donna (February 2010) Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Data and Trends Update 2010. prb.org
- "UNICEF STATISTICS". unicef.org.
- "Male Circumcision and AIDS: The Macroeconomic Impact of a Health Crisis by Eric Werker, Amrita Ahuja, and Brian Wendell :: NEUDC 2007 Papers :: Northeast Universities Development Consortium Conference" (PDF). Center for International Development at Harvard University. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
- Teferra, Damtew and Altbach, Philip. G. (eds.) (2003) African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook Indiana University Press, pp. 316–325 ISBN 0-253-34186-8
- Engel, Jakob. "Ethiopia’s progress in education: A rapid and equitablension of access - Summary" (PDF). Development Progress. Overseas Development Institute. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- "Literacy" in The World Factbook. cia.gov.
- Doyle, Lawrence R. "The Borana Calendar Reinterpreted". tusker.com.
- "The Simpsons Episode Well-Received by Ethiopians On Social Media". Tadias Magazine. 1 December 2011.
- "Culture of the people of Tigrai". Tigrai Online. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- Abdullahi, Mohamed Diriye (2001). Culture and Customs of Somalia. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 170. ISBN 0-313-31333-4.
Somali music, a unique kind of music that might be mistaken at first for music from nearby countries such as Ethiopia, the Sudan, or even Arabia, can be recognized by its own tunes and styles.
- Tekle, Amare (1994). Eritrea and Ethiopia: from conflict to cooperation. The Red Sea Press. p. 197. ISBN 0-932415-97-0.
Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan have significant similarities emanating not only from culture, religion, traditions, history and aspirations ... They appreciate similar foods and spices, beverages and sweets, fabrics and tapestry, lyrics and music, and jewelry and fragrances.
- "Ethiopian Olympic Committee". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 3 January 2013.
- FIBA National Federations – Ethiopia, fiba.com, accessed 24 May 2014.
- Abir, Mordechai (1968). Ethiopia: The Era of the Princes; The Challenge of Islam and the Re-unification of the Christian Empire (1769–1855). London: Longmans.
- Beshah, Girma and Aregay, Merid Wolde (1964). The Question of the Union of the Churches in Luso-Ethiopian Relations (1500–1632). Lisbon: Junta de Investigações do Ultramar and Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos.
- Munro-Hay, Stuart (1991). Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity (PDF). Edinburgh: University Press. ISBN 0-7486-0106-6.
- Valdes Vivo, Raul (1977). Ethiopia's Revolution. New York: International Publishers. ISBN 0717805565.
- Zewde, Bahru (2001). A History of Modern Ethiopia, 1855–1991 (2nd ed.). Athens, OH: Ohio University Press. ISBN 0-8214-1440-2.
- Selassie I., Haile (1999). My Life and Ethiopia's Progress: The Autobiography of Emperor Haile Selassie I. Translated by Edward Ullendorff. Chicago: Frontline. ISBN 0-948390-40-9.
- Deguefé, Taffara (2006). Minutes of an Ethiopian Century, Shama Books, Addis Ababa, ISBN 99944-0-003-7.
- Hugues Fontaine, Un Train en Afrique. African Train, Centre Français des Études Éthiopiennes / Shama Books. Édition bilingue français / anglais. Traduction : Yves-Marie Stranger. Postface : Jean-Christophe Belliard. Avec des photographies de Matthieu Germain Lambert et Pierre Javelot. Addis Abeba, 2012, ISBN 978–99944–867–1–7. English and French. 
- Henze, Paul B. (2004). Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia. Shama Books. ISBN 1-931253-28-5.
- Marcus, Harold G. (1975). The Life and Times of Menelik II: Ethiopia, 1844–1913. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon. Reprint, Trenton, NJ: Red Sea, 1995. ISBN 1-56902-009-4.
- Marcus, Harold G. (2002). A History of Ethiopia (updated ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22479-5.
- Mauri, Arnaldo (2010). Monetary developments and decolonization in Ethiopia, Acta Universitatis Danubius Œconomica, VI, n. 1/2010, pp. 5–16.  and WP 
- Mockler, Anthony (1984). Haile Selassie's War. New York: Random House. Reprint, New York: Olive Branch, 2003. ISBN 1-902669-53-3.
- Murphy, Dervla (1968). In Ethiopia with a Mule. London: Century, 1984, cop. 1968. N.B.: An account of the author's travels in Ethiopia. 280 p., ill. with a b&w map. ISBN 0-7126-3044-9
- Rubenson, Sven (2003). The Survival of Ethiopian Independence (4th ed.). Hollywood, CA: Tsehai. ISBN 0-9723172-7-9.
- Siegbert Uhlig, et al. (eds.) (2003). Encyclopaedia aethiopica, Vol. 1: A-C. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
- Siegbert Uhlig, et al. (eds.) (2005). Encyclopaedia aethiopica, Vol. 2: D-Ha. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
- Siegbert Uhlig, et al. (eds.) (2007). Encyclopaedia aethiopica, Vol. 3: He-N. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
- Siegbert Uhlig & Alessandro Bausi, et al. (eds.) (2010). Encyclopaedia aethiopica, Vol. 4: O-X. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
- Alessandro Bausi & S. Uhlig, et al. (eds.) (2014). Encyclopaedia aethiopica, Vol. 5: Y-Z and addenda, corrigenda, overview tables, maps and general index. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag.
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies.
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World Factbook.
Find more about
at Wikipedia's sister projects
|Definitions from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Abyssinia.|
- Ethiopia entry at The World Factbook
- Ethiopia Corruption Profile from the Business Anti-Corruption Portal
-  at EiABC Ethiopian Heritage in the Digital World
- Ethiopian Tourism Commission at the Ethiopian Ministry of Culture and Tourism.
- BBC Ethiopia Profile
- World Bank Ethiopia Summary Trade Statistics
- Ethiopia at DMOZ
- Wikimedia Atlas of Ethiopia
- Ethiopia travel guide from Wikivoyage
- Ethiopian News Agency, government news agency.
- Key Development Forecasts for Ethiopia from International Futures.