Mikael Agricola • Paavo Nurmi • Martti Ahtisaari
Artturi Ilmari Virtanen • Tarja Turunen • Eppu Nuotio
|Regions with significant populations|
| Finland approx. 5,400,0001
Also Estonian • Karelian • Vepsian • Võro
Other Uralic languages
Orthodox Christian, Roman Catholic and Suomenusko minorities.
The terms Finns and Finnish people (Finnish: suomalaiset, Finland-Swedish: finnar (ethnic Finns), finländare (citizens of Finland)) are used in English to mean "a native or inhabitant of Finland". They are also used to refer to the ethnic group historically associated with Finland or Fennoscandia, and they are only used in that sense here.1516
As with most ethnic groups, the definition of Finns may vary. In every definition, the term includes the Finnish-speaking population of Finland. The group can also be seen to include the Finnish-speaking population of Sweden and the traditionally Swedish-speaking population of Finland, although the inclusion of the latter into the Finnish ethnicity is a subject of discussion. Smaller populations that may or may not be seen to fall under the term Finns include the Kvens in Norway, the Tornedalians of Sweden and the Ingrian Finns of Russia. Finns can be divided according to dialect into subgroups sometimes called heimo (lit. tribe), but such divisions have become less important with internal migration.
Linguistically, Finnish, spoken by most Finns, is part of the Uralic language family and is most closely related to other Finnic languages such as Karelian and Estonian, while Swedish, spoken by Swedish-speaking Finns, is unrelated to the Finnish language and a member of the Indo-European language family. Finnish has loanwords from Swedish, other Germanic and broader Indo-European languages in different chronological layers while Swedish has few loan words from the Finnic languages. Some scholars have argued that, genetically, Finns "have been shown to differ strikingly from other European populations".17 However, they have a close genetic affinity to other Europeans; their idiosyncratic findings being attributable to low population density in prehistory.18
The Finnish Population Registry Center maintains information on the place of birth, citizenship and mother tongue of the people living in Finland, but does not specifically categorize any as Finns by ethnicity.19
The majority of people living in the Republic of Finland consider Finnish as their first language. According to Statistics Finland, of the country's total population of 5,300,484 at the end of 2007, 91.2% (or 4,836,183) considered Finnish as their native language.20 It is not known how many of the ethnic Finns living outside Finland speak Finnish as their first language.
In addition to the Finnish-speaking inhabitants of Finland, also Kvens (people of Finnish descent in Norway), Tornedalians (people of Finnish descent in northernmost Sweden), and Karelians in the historic Finnish province of Karelia and Evangelical Lutheran Ingrian Finns (both in the northwestern Russian Federation), as well as Finnish expatriates in various countries are usually considered as Finnish people.dubious
Finns have been traditionally divided in sub-groups (heimot in Finnish) on regional, dialectical and ethnographical grounds. These include the people of Finland Proper (varsinaissuomalaiset), Satakunta (satakuntalaiset), Tavastia (hämäläiset), Savo (savolaiset), Karelia (karjalaiset) and Ostrobothnia (pohjalaiset). These sub-groups express regional self-identity with varying frequency and significance.
There is a number of distinct dialects (murre s. murteet pl. in Finnish) of the Finnish language spoken in Finland, although the use of only the standard Finnish (yleiskieli) both in its formal written (kirjakieli) and more casual spoken (puhekieli) form at the Finnish school system and within media and popular culture, as well as internal migration and urbanization, have all contributed to the subduing of the regional varieties considerably, especially in the latter half of the 20th century. The first three historical dialects were the South-Western (Lounaismurteet), Tavastian (Hämeen murre), and Karelian (Karjalan murre), which were later mixed up with each other and/or neighboring languages as the population expanded geographically to form the Southern Ostrobothnian (Etelä-Pohjanmaan murre), Central Ostrobothnian (Keski-Pohjanmaan murre), Northern Ostrobothnian (Pohjois-Pohjanmaan murre), Far-Northern (Peräpohjolan murre), Savonian (Savon murre), and South-Eastern (Kaakkois-Suomen murteet) aka South Karelian (Karjalan murre) dialects.
The area of modern Finland was part of the Swedish kingdom for several hundred years, and about 360,000 present-day individuals with Finnish citizenship speak Swedish as their mother tongue. In Finland, language is typically considered the basic, but not the only criterion that distinguishes the Finnish-speakers and the Swedish-speakers from each other.21 In general, Finland Swedes consider themselves to be just as much Finnish as the Finnish-speaking majority, but they have their own special identity distinct from that of the majority, and they wish to be recognized as such. In a 2005 survey by Svenska Finlands Folkting carried out among the Swedish speakers, when asked about the meaning of their identity, 82% of the respondents answered: "Both to belong to an own culture but also to be Finnish amongst the rest."22
On the other hand, the Finland-Swedish minority have been seen to fulfill the major criteria for a separate ethnic group: self-identification, language, social structure, and ancestry.23 Swedish-speaking Finns have a special relationship with Sweden, constituted of shared language and culture.
These include recent immigrants from Finland and (at least originally) Finnish-speaking people that have lived in Sweden for centuries. An estimated 450,000 first- or second-generation Finns live in Sweden, of which approximately half speak Finnish. The majority moved from Finland to Sweden following the Second World War, with a peak in 1970 and declining thereafter. There are also historical Finnish-speaking minorities in Sweden, for example the Tornedalingar (Torne Valley Finns) and the Finns of Dalecarlia. As a result, the Finnish language has an official status as one of five minority languages in Sweden.24
The Finnish term for Finns is suomalaiset (sing. suomalainen).
The Finnish and Swedish terms for the Swedish-speaking population of Finland are the expressions suomenruotsalaiset and finlandssvenskar respectively, which translate literally with regard to each other. In Finland Swedish usage and mindset the following distinctions are usually made: The nation (people) consists of Finnish speakers (Finland Swedish: finnar) and Swedish speakers (Finland Swedish: finlandssvenskar) who together with smaller minorities constitute the people of Finland (Finland Swedish: finländare). In Swedish spoken outside of Finland, in particular in Sweden, the term finländare is less known, and these distinctions are not always made.
Translating this terminology accurately into foreign languages, including Sweden's Swedish, is a tricky matter because the terminology closely reflects the nation's entire language issue, which played an intricate part in the process of the crystallisation of the nation's self-perception and in the interpretation of its history, and because it still affects these. Indeed, one of the very first domestic matters addressed during the process of national awakening in the 19th century was the language question.
It is therefore debatable which English terms best match the Finnish and (Finland-) Swedish terms suomalaiset (finländare, finnar) and finlandssvenskar (suomenruotsalaiset). Nevertheless, Swedish-speaking Finns seems to be the English term most commonly used today for26 and by27 the Swedish-speaking population of Finland, although the term Finland Swedes is in wide use too, at least in English written by non-native speakers in Scandinavia.
Similarly debatable is how to best designate the people living in Sweden who are current Finnish speakers or have Finnish or Finnish-speaking ancestors. The terms used include the traditional Sweden Finns and the more modern Finnish Swedes, instead of which it may be preferable to differentiate between (recent) Finnish immigrants and the indigenous Finnish ethnic minority in Sweden.28
As the meanings of these terms have changed in time, these terms may well be used with other meanings than those given above, particularly in foreign and older works.
Historical references to Northern Europe are scarce, and the names given to its peoples and geographic regions are obscure. Therefore, the etymologies of the names remain equally sketchy. Such names as Fenni, Phinnoi, Finnum, and Skrithfinni / Scridefinnum appear in a few written texts starting from about two millennia ago in association with peoples located in a northern part of Europe, but the real meaning of these terms is debatable. The earliest mentions of this kind are usually interpreted to have meant Fennoscandian hunter-gatherers whose closest successors in modern terms would be the Sami people.29 It has been suggested that this non-Uralic ethnonym is of Germanic language origin and related to such words as finthan (Old High German) 'find', 'notice'; fanthian (Old High German) 'check', 'try'; and fendo (Old High German) and vende (Old Middle German) 'pedestrian', 'wanderer'.30 Another etymological interpretation associates this ethnonym with fen in a more toponymical approach. Yet another theory postulates that the words finn and kven are cognates. The Icelandic Eddas and Norse sagas (11th to 14th centuries), some of the oldest written sources probably originating from the closest proximity, use words like finnr and finnas inconsistently. However, most of the time they seem to mean northern dwellers with a mobile life style.
An etymological link between the Sami and the Finns exists in modern Uralic languages as well. It has been proposed that e.g. the toponyms Sapmi (Sami for Lapland), Suomi (Finnish for Finland), and Häme (Finnish for Tavastia) are of the same origin,30 the source of which might be related to the proto-Baltic word *žeme / Slavic земля (zemlja) meaning 'land'.30 It has been proposed that these designations started to mean specifically people in Southwestern Finland (Finland Proper, Varsinais-Suomi) and later the whole area of modern Finland. But it is not known how, why, and when this occurred.
Petri Kallio has suggested that the name 'Suomi' may bear even earlier Indo-European echoes with the original meaning of either ’land’ or ’human’.31
Among the first written documents possibly designating western Finland as the land of Finns are two rune stones. One of these is in Söderby, Sweden, with the inscription finlont (U 582 †), and the other is in Gotland, a Swedish island in the Baltic Sea, with the inscription finlandi (G 319 M) dating from the 11th century.32
With regard to the ancestry of the Finnish people, the modern view emphasizes the overall continuity in Finland's archeological finds33 and (earlier more obvious) linguistic surroundings. Archeological data suggest the spreading of at least cultural influences from many sources ranging from the south-east to the south-west following gradual developments rather than clear-cut migrations.
Just as uncertain are the possible mediators and the timelines for the development of the Uralic majority language of the Finns. On the basis of comparative linguistics, it has been suggested that the separation of the Finnic and the Sami languages took place during the 2nd millennium BC, and that the proto-Uralic roots of the entire language group date from about the 6th to the 8th millennium BC. When the Uralic languages were first spoken in the area of contemporary Finland is debated but current opinion leans towards the Stone Age.33not in citation given It is thought, however, that Proto-Finnish (the proto-language of the Finnic languages) was not spoken in modern Finland, because the maximum divergence of the daughter languages occurs in modern-day Estonia. Therefore, Finnish was already a separate language when arriving in Finland. Furthermore, the traditional Finnish lexicon has large number of words (about third) without a known etymology, hinting towards the existence of a disappeared Paleo-European language; these include toponyms such as niemi "peninsula". A gradual displacement of the Sami people by Finns has continued to this day; toponyms suggest that the Sami lived in all of Finland in prehistory, and up to the 17th century, Finnish was not widely spoken in the north (Lapland).
Because the Finnish language itself reached a written form only in the 16th century, little primary data remains of early Finnish life. For example, the origins of such cultural icons as the sauna, the kantele (an instrument of the zither family), and the Kalevala (national epic) have remained rather obscure.
Agriculture supplemented by fishing and hunting has been the traditional livelihood among Finns. Slash-and-burn agriculture was practiced in the forest-covered east by Eastern Finns up to the 19th century. Agriculture, along with the language, distinguishes Finns from the Sami, who retained the hunter-gatherer lifestyle longer and moved to coastal fishing and reindeer herding. Following industrialization and modernization of Finland, most Finns were urbanized and employed in modern service and manufacturing occupations, with agriculture becoming a minor employer (see Economy of Finland). Western and southern coastal regions and islands have concentrations of the Finland-Swedish; although differences occupational structure are minor in modern times, the most common occupation of Finland-Swedes is as fishermen.
Finland's Swedish speakers descend from peasants and fishermen who settled coastal Finland ca. 1000–1250,27 from the subsequent immigration during Swedish sovereignty over Finland,34 and from Finns and immigrants who adopted the Swedish language.27 Fennomania in the 19th and early 20th century led to some minor language change into Finnish, but this was of little consequence in comparison to ordinary demographic trends, which reduced the proportion of Swedish-speakers during the entire 20th century from 12.9% (1900) to 5.6% (2003).
Finns are traditionally assumed to originate from two different populations speaking different dialects of Proto-Finnic (kantasuomi). Thus, a division into West Finnish and East Finnish is made. Further, there are subgroups, traditionally called heimo,3536 according to dialects and local culture. Although ostensibly based on late Iron Age settlement patterns, the heimos have been constructed according to dialect during the rise of nationalism in the 19th century.
- Häme: Tavastians or Häme people (hämäläiset)
- Ostrobothnia: Ostrobothnians (pohjalaiset)
- Southwestern Finland: varsinaissuomalaiset
- Swedish-speakers also have several dialectal subdivisions.
The historical provinces of Finland and Sweden can be seen to approximate some of these divisions. The regions of Finland, another remnant of a past governing system, can be seen to reflect a further manifestation of a local identity.
Today's (urbanized) Finns are not usually aware of the concept of 'heimo' nor do they typically identify with one, although the use of dialects has experienced a recent revival. Urbanized Finns do not necessarily know a particular dialect and tend to use standard Finnish or city slang but they may switch to a dialect when visiting their native area.
Recently, the use of mitochondrial "mtDNA" (female lineage) and Y-chromosomal "Y-DNA" (male lineage) DNA-markers in tracing back the history of human populations has been started. For the paternal and maternal genetic lineages of Finnish people and other peoples, see, e.g., the National Geographic Genographic Project and the Suomi DNA-projekti. In essence, the types of mtDNA markers of Finnish people do not differ from those of other European ethnicities.38 For example, Haplogroup U5 is estimated to be the oldest mtDNA haplogroup in Europe and is found in the whole of Europe at a low frequency, but seems to be found in significantly higher levels among Finns, Estonians and the Sami.39 Of modern nationalities, Finns are closest to Cro-Magnons in terms of anthropological measurements.40
With regard to the Y-chromosome, the most common haplogroups of the Finns are N1c (58%), I (29%), R1a (7.5%) and R1b (3.5%).41 Haplogroup N1c, which is found only in a few countries in Europe (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Sweden and Russia), is a subgroup of the haplogroup N (Y-DNA) distributed across northern Eurasia and estimated in a recent study to be 10,000–20,000 years old and suggested to have entered Europe about 12,000–14,000 years ago from Asia.42
According to an earlier study conducted by a team of scientists including L. L. Cavalli-Sforza:
Principal coordinate analysis shows that Lapps/Sami are almost exactly intermediate between people located geographically near the Ural mountains and speaking Uralic languages, and central and northern Europeans. Hungarians and Finns are definitely closer to Europeans. An analysis of genetic admixture between Uralic and European ancestors shows that Lapps/Sami are slightly more than 50% European, Hungarians are 87% European, and Finns are 90% European. There is basic agreement between these conclusions and historical data on Hungary. Less is known about Finns and very little about Lapps/Sami.43
Recent autosomal (genomewide, 10,000 markers instead of the few looked at for Y-DNA and mtDNA) studies give a distinct picture of Finnish genes. Finns show very little if any Mediterranean and African genes but on the other hand almost 10% of Finnish genes seem to be shared with some Siberian populations. Nevertheless more than 80% of Finnish genes are from a single ancient North-European population, while most Europeans are a mixture of 3 or more principal components.44
Variation within Finns is, according to fixation index (FST) values, greater than anywhere else in Europe. Greatest intra-Finnish FST distance is about 60, greatest intra-Swedish FST distance about 25.4546 FST distances between for example Germans, French and Hungarians is only 10, and between Estonians, Russians and Poles it is also 10.47 Thus Finns from different parts of the country are more remote from each other genetically than are many European peoples from each other.48 The closest genetic relatives for Finns are Estonians (FST to Helsinki 40 and to Kuusamo 90) and Swedes (FST to Helsinki 50 and to Kuusamo 100).
In a recent study (2008) a joint analysis was performed for the first time on Swedish and Finnish autosomal genotypes. Swedish-speakers from Ostrobothnia (reference population of the study representing 50% of all Swedish-speakers in Finland) did not differ significantly from the Finnish-speaking population of western Finland, but when Swedish samples were used as reference the Swedish-speaking Finns' samples clustered with the Swedes.49 Moreover, according to a recent Y-DNA study (2008) Swedish-speaking reference group from Larsmo, Ostrobotnia, differed significantly from the Finnish-speaking sub-populations in the country in terms of Y-STR variation.50
In the 19th century, the Finnish researcher Matthias Castrén prevailed with the theory that "the original home of Finns" was in west-central Siberia.51 But later, it was considered more credible that an ancient homeland of all Finno-Ugric speaking peoples was situated in a region between the Volga and Kama rivers in the European part of Russia. Grouping Finnic with the controversial Altaic macrofamily ("Turanian") was popular in the 19th century, and much serious research was made by Finnish researchers in an attempt to link Finns with "Altaic-speaking" peoples such as Mongolians.
Until the 1970s, most linguists believed that Finns arrived in Finland as late as the first centuries AD. But accumulating archaeological data suggested that the area of contemporary Finland had been inhabited continuously since the end of the ice-age, contrary to the earlier idea that the area had experienced long uninhabited intervals. However, there is no certainty to which ethno-linguistic culture the first dwellers within the borders of contemporary Finland belonged. The hunter-gatherer Sami were pushed into the more remote northern regions.52
A recent and controversial theory is that the ancestors of the Finns lived during the Ice Age in one of three habitable areas of southern Europe, so-called refugia, while the other two habitable areas were occupied by the speakers of Indo-European and Basque languages. This was proposed in the 1990s by Kalevi Wiik, a professor emeritus of phonetics at the University of Turku. According to this theory, Finno-Ugric speakers spread north as the ice melted. They populated central and northern Europe, while Basque speakers populated western Europe. As agriculture spread from the south-east into Europe, the Indo-European languages spread among the hunter-gatherers. In this process, both the hunter-gatherers speaking Finno-Ugric and those speaking Basque learned how to cultivate land and became Indo-Europeanized. According to Wiik, this is how the Celtic, Germanic, Slavic, and Baltic languages were formed. The linguistic ancestors of modern Finns did not switch their language due to their isolated location.53 The main supporters of Wiik's theory are Professor Ago Künnap (Univ. of Tartu), Professor Kyösti Julku (Univ. of Oulu) and Associate Professor Angela Marcantonio (Univ. of Rome). Wiik has not presented his theories in peer-reviewed scientific publications. Many scholars in Finno-Ugrian studies have strongly criticized the theory. Especially Professor Raimo Anttila, Petri Kallio and brothers Ante and Aslak Aikio have renounced Wiik's theory with strong words, hinting strongly to pseudoscience and even at right-wing political biases among Wiik's supporters.5254 Moreover, some dismissed the entire idea of refugia, due to the existence even today of arctic and subarctic peoples. The most heated debate took place in the Finnish journal Kaltio during autumn 2002. Since then, the debate has calmed, each side retaining their positions.55
Whilst the refugium theory proved unpopular amongst Finns, substantial genotype analyses across the greater European genetic landscape have mostly confirmed the Last Glacial Maximum refugiums to be correct and have substantial backing of the greater scientific community.5657585960
- Finnic (disambiguation)
- Finnish (disambiguation)
- Finnish language
- Finnish Americans
- Finnish immigration to North America
- List of Finns
- Mandatory Swedish
- Swedish-speaking Finns
- Statistics Finland - Preliminary population statistics at the end of January 2012
- Ancestry 2000 By Angela Brittingham and G. Patricia de la Cruz
- Statistics Canada, 2006 Census
- 2002 Russian Census
- 2006 Census Table : Australia
- Euroopassa asuneet Suomen kansalaiset maittain 1971-2002. Retrieved 11-21-2007. (Finnish)
- St.meld. nr. 15 (2000-2001) " http://odin.dep.no/krd/norsk/dok/regpubl/stmeld/016001-040003/hov005-bn.html Om nasjonale minoriteter i Norge
- Saressalo, L. (1996), Kveenit. Tutkimus erään pohjoisnorjalaisen vähemmistön identiteetistä. Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seuran Toimituksia, 638. Helsinki.
- BBC Born Abroad Finland
- Population Statistics, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Estonia, 2007
- Institute of Migration
- Suomen suurlähetystö, Haag : Tietoa Alankomaista : Kahdenväliset suhteet
- Embassy of Finland in the United Arab Emirates
- Попис становништва, домаћинстава и станова 2011. у Републици Србији: Становништво према националној припадности - „Oстали“ етничке заједнице са мање од 2000 припадника и двојако изјашњени
- "Finn noun" The Oxford Dictionary of English (revised edition). Ed. Catherine Soanes and Angus Stevenson. Oxford University Press, 2005. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Tampere University of Technology. 3 August 2007 
- Perspectives to Finnish Identity, by Anne Ollila: Scandinavian Journal of History, Volume 23, Numbers 3-4, 1 September 1998, pp. 127-137(11). Retrieved 6 October 2006.
- Humphreys K, Grankvist A, Leu M, Hall P, Liu J, et al. 2011 The Genetic Structure of the Swedish Population. PLoS ONE 6(8): e22547. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022547 http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0022547
- Annual population statistics of Finland.
- Statistics Finland - Population Structure
- A guide to Finnish customs and manners-Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland 2007.
- (Swedish: Både att höra till en egen kultur, men också att vara en finländare bland alla andra. Finnish: Kuulumista omaan kulttuuriin, mutta myös suomalaisena olemista muiden joukossa.) See (Swedish)(Finnish)"Folktingets undersökning om finlandssvenskarnas identitet – Identitet och framtid", Folktinget, 2005.
- Finland has generally been regarded as an example of a monocultural and egalitarian society. However, Finland has a Swedish-speaking minority that meets the four major criteria of ethnicity, i.e. self-identification of ethnicity, language, social structure and ancestry (Allardt and Starck, 1981; Bhopal, 1997). Markku T. Hyyppä and Juhani Mäki: Social participation and health in a community rich in stock of social capital
- Коми народ / Финно-угры / Народы / Финны-ингерманландцы
- A guide to Finnish customs and manners— thisisFINLAND
- "Traditionally, immigrants were described in English and most other languages by an adjective indicating the new country of residence and a noun indicating their country of origin or their ethnic group. The term "Sweden Finns" corresponds to this naming method. Immigrants to the USA have however always been designated the "other way around" by an adjective indicating the ethnic or national origin and a noun indicating the new country of residence, for example "Finnish Americans" (never "American Finns"). The term "Finnish Swedes" corresponds to this more modern naming method that is increasingly used in most countries and languages because it emphasises the status as full and equal citizens of the new country while providing information about cultural roots. (For more information about these different naming methods see Swedish-speaking Finns.) Other possible modern terms are "Finnish ethnic minority in Sweden" and "Finnish immigrants". These may be preferable because they make a clear distinction between these two very different population groups for which use of a single term is questionable and because "Finnish Swedes" is often used like "Finland Swedes" to mean "Swedish-speaking Finns". It should perhaps also be pointed out that many Finnish and Swedish speakers are unaware that the English word "Finn" elsewhere than in this article usually means "a native or inhabitant of Finland" (, , ) and only sometimes also has the meaning "a member of a people speaking Finnish or a Finnic language" or has this as its primary but not exclusive meaning.. Archived 2009-10-31.
- Sami fly their flag in Helsinki- thisisFINLAND
- Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura
- Kallio, Petri 1998: Suomi(ttavia etymologioita) – Virittäjä 4 / 1998.
- of Finnish and related languages —thisisFINLAND
- Main outlines of Finnish history
- Heimo is often mistranslated as "tribe", but a heimo is a dialectal and cultural kinship rather than a genetic kinship, and represents a much larger and disassociated group of people. Suomalaiset heimot. From the book Hänninen, K. Kansakoulun maantieto ja kotiseutuoppi yksiopettajaisia kouluja varten. Osakeyhtiö Valistus, Raittiuskansan Kirjapaino Oy, Helsinki 1929, neljäs painos. The excerpt from a 1929 school book shows the generalized concept. Retrieved 1-13-2008. (Finnish)
- Sedergren, J (2002) Evakko – elokuva ja romaani karjalaispakolaisista. Ennen & nyt 3/2002. Retrieved 1-13-2008. (Finnish) The reference is a movie review, which however discusses the cultural phenomenon of the evacuation of Finnish Karelia using and analyzing the heimo concept rather generally.
- Topelius, Z. (1876) Maamme kirja. Lukukirja alimmaisille oppilaitoksille Suomessa. Toinen jakso. Suom. Johannes Bäckvall. (Finnish) Retrieved 13-1-2008. (Finnish) Pp. 187 onwards shows the stereotypical generalizations of the heimos listed here.
- Recent mitochondrial genetic research, which can discover facts concerning tens of thousands of years ago, "supports the assumption of a Western genotype for the Finns". Dead link
- The Genographic Project at National Geographic
- Niskanen, Markku. The Origin of the Baltic-Finns from the Physical Anthropological Point of View (PDF). Retrieved 2009-06-23.
- (N3=312/536), Regional differences among the Finns: a Y-chromosomal perspective, Lappalainen at al. 2006
-  and 
- Uralic genes in Europe by Guglielmino CR, Piazza A, Menozzi P, Cavalli-Sforza LL 
-  Dead link
- Salmela et al. 2011: Swedish Population Substructure Revealed by Genome- Wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Data. - PLoS ONE 6, issue 2. 
- Jakkula et al. 2008: The Genome-wide Patterns of Variation Expose Significant Substructure in a Founder Population. - The American Journal of Human Genetics 83. 
- Nelis et al. 2009: Genetic Structure of Europeans: A View from the North-East. – PLoS ONE 5 / 2009. 
- Häkkinen, Jaakko 2011: Seven Finnish populations: the greatest intranational substructure in Europe. 
- This agrees with previous studies and population history . Population Genetic Association and Zygosity testing on preamplified Dna. 2008. Ulf Hannelius. "Clear East-West duality was observed when the Finnish individuals were clustering using Geneland. Individuals from the Swedish-speaking part of Ostrobotnia clustered with Sweden when a joint analysis was performed on Swedish and Finnish autosomal genotypes." "Interestingly, the county-level PCA and Geneland placed the Finnish subpopulation of Swedish-speaking Ostrobothnia closest to Sweden.".
- Jukka U. Palo et al. 2008. The effect of number of loci on geographical structuring and forensic applicability of Y-STR data in Finland. Int J Legal Med (2008)122:449-456. ""The subpopulation LMO (Larsmo, Swedish-speaking) differed significantly from all the other populations". "The geographical substructure among the Finnish males was notable when measured with the ΦST values, reaching values as high as ΦST=0.227 in the Yfiler data. This is rather extreme, given that, e.g., subpopulations Larsmo and Kymi are separated by mere 400 km, with no apparent physical dispersal barriers between them".
- Lehikoinen, L. (1986) D.E.D Europaeus kirjasuomen kehittäjänä ja tutkijana. Virittäjä, 1986, 178–202. (Finnish), with German abstract. Retrieved 1-8-2008.
- Aikio, A & Aikio, A. (2001). Heimovaelluksista jatkuvuuteen – suomalaisen väestöhistorian tutkimuksen pirstoutuminen. Muinaistutkija 4/2001. (Finnish) Retrieved 1-7-2008
- Julku, K. (2002) Suomalaisten kaukaiset juuret. Kaltio 3/2002. (Finnish). Retrieved 8-1-2008. The article presents a very good outline on the Wiik's theory.
- Anttila, R., Kallio, P. (2002) Suur-Suomen tiede harhapoluilla. Kaltio 4/2002. (Finnish) Retrieved 1-7-2008. The article name Suur-Suomen tiede harhapoluilla translates as "The scholarship of Greater Finland on erraneous paths". The term Suur-Suomi, "Greater Finland" was used in nationalist propaganda in interbellum era to mean a political construct involving Finland, Eastern Karelia, Ingria, Estonia, Kola peninsula, and Northern parts of Sweden and Norway.
- The debate (in Finnish) is accessible in Kaltio's website. Retrieved 1-7-2008.
- The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective. Semino O, Passarino G, Oefner PJ, Lin AA, Arbuzova S, Beckman LE, De Benedictis G, Francalacci P, Kouvatsi A, Limborska S, Marcikiae M, Mika A, Mika B, Primorac D, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA Science. 2000 Nov 10; 290(5494):1155-9.
- Patterns of male-specific inter-population divergence in Europe, West Asia and North Africa. Malaspina P, Cruciani F, Santolamazza P, Torroni A, Pangrazio A, Akar N, Bakalli V, Brdicka R, Jaruzelska J, Kozlov A, Malyarchuk B, Mehdi SQ, Michalodimitrakis E, Varesi L, Memmi MM, Vona G, Villems R, Parik J, Romano V, Stefan M, Stenico M, Terrenato L, Novelletto A, Scozzari R Ann Hum Genet. 2000 Sep; 64(Pt 5):395-412.
- Torroni, Antonio, Hans-Jürgen Bandelt, Vincent Macaulay, Martin Richards, Fulvio Cruciani, Chiara Rengo, Vicente Martinez-Cabrera et al. "A signal, from human mtDNA, of postglacial recolonization in Europe." American journal of human genetics 69, no. 4 (2001): 844.
- Achilli, Alessandro, Chiara Rengo, Chiara Magri, Vincenza Battaglia, Anna Olivieri, Rosaria Scozzari, Fulvio Cruciani et al. "The molecular dissection of mtDNA haplogroup H confirms that the Franco-Cantabrian glacial refuge was a major source for the European gene pool." The American Journal of Human Genetics 75, no. 5 (2004): 910-918.
- Pala, Maria, Anna Olivieri, Alessandro Achilli, Matteo Accetturo, Ene Metspalu, Maere Reidla, Erika Tamm et al. "Mitochondrial DNA Signals of Late Glacial Recolonization of Europe from Near Eastern Refugia." The American Journal of Human Genetics 90, no. 5 (2012): 915-924.
- FTDNA Finland Geographic DNA Project
- The Finnish Heritage Museum of Fairport Harbor, Ohio, USA
- Åbo Akademi
- Finno-Ugric media center