Foreign relations of Taiwan
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The foreign relations of Taiwan, constitutionally and officially the Republic of China,12 are the relations between the Republic of China and other countries. Republic of China is recognized by 22 United Nations member states, as well as by the Holy See. ROC maintains diplomatic relations with those countries, as well as unofficial relations with other countries via its representative offices and consulates.
Republic of China participated in the Moscow Conference (1943), the Dumbarton Oaks Conference, the United Nations Conference on International Organization, and was a charter member of the United Nations. In 1949, the Nationalists lost Chinese Civil War in mainland China and retreated to Taiwan. Despite major loss of territory, they continued to be recognized as the legitimate government of China by the UN and by many non-Communist states. In 1971, the UN expelled ROC and transferred China's seat to PRC. As a result, the Republic of China lost its membership in all the intergovernmental organizations related to the UN. The UN and related organizations like International Court of Justice are the most common venues for effective execution of international law and serve as the international community for states in the post-World War II period, consequently, a majority of the countries aligned with the West in the Cold War terminated diplomatic relations with ROC and recognized PRC instead. However, as the Republic of China fulfills all the requirements in Article 3, 4, 5, 6 and 110,34 and United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 had bypassed Article 6 for the expulsion of ROC membership in the UN without recommendation from the Security Council at the time of expulsion, that ROC's de jure seat is currently stolen by the People's Republic of China in the United Nations under the UN Charter (for more, see Chapter II of the United Nations Charter). ROC continues to maintain de facto relations56 with most of the non-governmental organizations78910111213 at the United Nations, in addition with the concern from UNESCO.14 Exclusively, the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, which is entitled by the founding of the United Nations as the cornerstone of modern-day diplomacy since the Vienna Congress, was signed and ratified by the Republic of China on 18 April 1961 and 19 December 1969.15
ROC is one of the main supporters of official development assistance.16 As of 2010, along with other US security allies including Australia, New Zealand, Japan, and South Korea in the Asia-Pacific region with Taiwan Relations Act, officials of ROC have gained quasi-official level visits to the United States both in the governmental and political level, including the US-Taiwan cooperative military guidance171819 in the annual Han Kuang joint-force exercises.20 Taiwan's GDP by nominal means is ahead of several G20 economies of global financial governance.21 In the context of international norm of tabula rasa, there is a variety of forms for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of ROC as a formal organization, regardless of crossing the subject of statehood as a sui generis subject of international law22 abiding by the reference of a priori and a posteriori of the international law, to participate in the international organizations as defined by the international organizational norms and Union of International Associations.232425
Taiwan was annexed by Japan in 1895 after the First Sino-Japanese War. In the Northern Expedition, the Nationalists defeated the warlords of the Beiyang clique and established a unified government for China in Nanjing. The United States recognized Nationalist China on July 25, 1928, the first government to do so.26 The Japanese occupied much of China during World War II. After Japan's defeat in 1945, a civil war between the Nationalists and the Communists followed. The Communists gained control of the mainland in 1949 and proclaimed the People's Republic of China, while the Nationalists fled to Taiwan. In 1952, Taiwan was ceded by Japan in the Treaty of San Francisco.
In 1916, A.P. Winston, the author of "Chinese Finance Under the Republic," said that the "chief sources of information on those matters of discussion which have been subjects of diplomacy" were official publications from the United Kingdom.27 Winston explained that few official reports from the Chinese government aside from the maritime customs sector had appeared at that point, and that the government of the Republic of China was "too poor, perhaps still too secretive, to make regular and full publication of statistics."27
|This section requires expansion with: Second World War operations in Burma, Yalta Conference, Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Nationalists fleeing into exile in Taiwan in 1949, the 1952 San Francisco Peace Treaty and Treaty of Taipei, UN, Taiwan Strait Incidents, Korean War, Tachen retreat. (August 2008)|
The 1970s saw a switch in diplomatic recognition from ROC to PRC, with countries like the United States, Japan, and Canada making the switch during that decade. In October 1971, Resolution 2758 was passed by the UN General Assembly, expelling "the representatives of Chiang Kai-shek" and transferred China's seat on the Security Council to PRC. The resolution declared that "the representatives of the Government of the People's Republic of China are the only lawful representatives of China to the United Nations."
Many attempts by ROC to rejoin the UN, in recent years, have not made it past committee, under fierce opposition and threatened vetoes by PRC. Attempts under President Chen Shui-bian attempted the argument that Resolution 2758, replacing ROC with PRC in 1971, only addressed the question of who should have China's seat in the UN, rather than whether an additional seat for the Taiwan Area can be created to represent the 23 million people on Taiwan and other islands. The argument, however, has not been accepted by the UN.
On less official terms, Taiwan is involved in a complex dispute for control over the Spratly Islands with China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Vietnam, and possibly Brunei; and over the Paracel Islands, occupied by China, but claimed by Vietnam and by Taiwan. Taiwan claims the Japanese-administered Senkaku Islands, which are called the Diaoyu Islands in Taiwan and China.
On November 7, 2003, diplomatic ties were established with Kiribati. However, ROC did not demand that ties be broken with PRC, and ROC Foreign Minister Eugene Chien said that he would not reject having both sides of the Taiwan Strait recognized simultaneously.28 PRC also broke precedent by not cutting ties until November 29 and spent the interim lobbying for Kiribati President Anote Tong to reverse his decision. The decision to hold off for weeks was possibly due to the strategic importance of China's satellite tracking base on Kiribati, which had been used for Shenzhou V and thought to have been used to spy on a U.S. missile range in the Marshall Islands.
Dates indicate establishment or duration of relations; * indicates an embassy in Taipei
Africa (4 states)
Central and South America, and Caribbean Community (12 states)
Of these countries, the Dominican Republic and Guatemala are the most economically substantial. Panama established diplomatic relations with China in 1909, and has maintained relations with Taipei from 1949 up until the present.29
Kiribati established diplomatic relations with ROC on 7 November 2003, switching recognition from the PRC.30 Saudi Arabia ended their diplomatic relations with ROC in 1990. South Korea was the last country in Asia which had an official diplomatic relations with ROC, but also ended their diplomatic relations in 1992.
South Africa switched recognition to PRC in 1998. Liberia switched from PRC to ROC in 1989, and back to PRC in October 2003. On March 31, 2004, Dominica ended its recognition, which began in 1983, because of offers from PRC to provide $117 million over six years. The Republic of Macedonia recognized ROC in 1999 but switched diplomatic recognition in 2001 after PRC imposed economic sanctions and used a rare veto on the UN Security Council to block peacekeeping efforts.31
Taiwan has non-diplomatic, unofficial relations with the European Union and at least 47 states, recognizing the People's Republic of China, that maintain "Economic, Trade and/or Cultural" (or similar) offices in Taiwan. These relations are not inter-governmental nor are they officially diplomatic or political. However, they ultimately do function as de facto 'embassies', including the processing of visas, cultural exchanges and to some extent, unofficial diplomatic and governmental exchanges.32 For example, the American Institute in Taiwan functions as the United States' de facto 'embassy' in Taiwan with the chairman and staff acting as 'unofficial' government consulate officers who nevertheless perform duties that official embassies would undertake. As a result, they do function as official representatives of each of their own respected governments despite being designated 'Economic, Trade and/or Cultural offices' and their policy as being 'non-inter-governmental' (accomplished as to not anger China).
The following states, recognizing Beijing, do not maintain any representation in Taiwan (including any non-political, non-diplomatic, non inter-governmental representation):
- America: Bahamas, Barbados, Costa Rica, Cuba, Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Uruguay
- Europe: Iceland, Norway, Portugal, Andorra, San Marino, Liechtenstein, Monaco, Luxembourg, Malta, Cyprus, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece, Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia
- Asia: Lebanon, Syria, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Kuwait, Iraq, Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, North Korea
- Oceania: Timor-Leste, Cook Islands, Samoa, Tonga, Niue, Papua New Guinea, Federated States of Micronesia, Vanuatu
- Africa: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Mauritania, Mali, Niger, Chad, Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, Ethiopia, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo-Brazzaville, DR Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar, Seychelles, Mauritius, Comoros, Botswana, Namibia, Lesotho.
- Abkhazia – Recognized by six UN member states. Taiwan does not recognize Abkhazia.
- Bhutan – Bhutan has no diplomatic relations with either China or Taiwan, but voted in favour of Beijing's entry into the UN in 1971 and conducts relations with China through their respective missions in India33 and has honorary consulates in Hong Kong and Macau. Taiwan recognizes Bhutan.34
- Kosovo – Recognized by 99 UN states. Taiwan recognizes Kosovo.35
- Nagorno-Karabakh Republic - Taiwan does not recognize Nagorno-Karabakh.
- Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic – recognized by 50 UN states, claimed by Morocco. Taiwan does not recognize the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.36
- Somaliland - Taiwan does not recognize Somaliland.
- South Ossetia – Recognized by five UN member states. Taiwan does not recognize South Ossetia.
- Sovereign Military Order of Malta – sovereign entity without territory, established diplomatic relations with 104 states. Taiwan recognizes the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.37
- Transnistria - Taiwan does not recognize Transnistria.
- Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus – Recognized by Turkey. Taiwan does not recognize the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.38
|Year||Recognition of Taipei39||Recognition of Beijing|
Taiwan has publicly feared that if any one state should switch its recognition to Beijing, it would create a domino effect, encouraging other states to do so as well.40 The Holy See (Vatican) – the only European state to recognize Taiwan – made efforts in 2007 to create formal ties with Beijing.41 High-ranking bishops in the Catholic Church have implied that such a diplomatic move was possible,42 predicated on China's granting more freedom of religion43 and interfering less in the hierarchy of the Chinese Catholic church.44
|Country||Period of recognition of Taiwan or Nationalist China|
|Bahamas||1989 to 1997|
|Belgium||1928 to 1971|
|Brazil||1928 to 1974|
|Central African Republic||1962 to 1964, 1968 to 1976, 1991 to 1998|
|Ivory Coast||to 1983|
|Chad||1962 to 1972, 1997 to 200645|
|DR Congo||1960 to 196146|
|Costa Rica||1944 to 200747|
|Cuba||1928 to 1960|
|Denmark||1928 to 1950|
|Dominica||1983 to 2004|
|Equatorial Guinea||to 1970|
|France||1928 to 1964|
|Grenada||1989 to 2005|
|Guinea-Bissau||1990 to 1998|
|Japan||1952 to 1972|
|Lesotho||1966 to 1983, 1990 to 1994|
|Liberia||1957 to 1977, 1989 to 1993, 1997 to 2003|
|Macedonia||1999 to 2001|
|Malawi||1966 to 200848|
|Malaysia||1957 to 1974|
|Mexico||1928 to 1972|
|Mongolia||1946 to 1949|
|Netherlands||1928 to 1950|
|New Zealand||to 1972|
|Niger||1963 to 1974, 1992 to 1996|
|Nigeria||1960 to 1971|
|Norway||1928 to 1950|
|Pakistan||1947 to 1951|
|Philippines||1948 to 1975|
|Portugal||1928 to 1979|
|San Marino||to 1971|
|Saudi Arabia||1946 to 1990|
|Senegal||1969 to 1972, 1996 to 2005|
|Sierra Leone||to 1971|
|South Africa||1976 to 199849|
|Spain||1928 to 1973|
|Soviet Union||1929 to 1949|
|South Korea||1949 to 1992|
|South Vietnam||to 197550|
|Sri Lanka||to 1950|
|Sweden||1928 to 1950|
|Tonga||1972 to 1998|
|United Arab Emirates||to 1984|
|United Kingdom||1928 to 1950|
|United States||1928 to 1979|
|Uruguay||1966 to 1988|
|Vanuatu||2004-11-03 to 2004-11-1052|
|Venezuela||1944 to 1974|
|West Germany||to 1972|
|Country||Period of recognition|
|Ethiopia||Did not recognize either state until 1970. Recognized Beijing in 1970.|
|Ireland||Did not recognize either state until 1979. Recognized Beijing in 1979.|
|Singapore||Did not recognize either state until 1990. Recognized Beijing in 1991.|
Taiwan is included in the Look East policy by India. The bilateral relations between India and Taiwan have improved since the 1990s despite both nations not maintaining official diplomatic relations.5354 India recognizes only the People's Republic of China. However, India's economic and commercial links as well as people-to-people contacts with Taiwan have expanded in recent years.53 Taiwan also has border disputes with India in the Constitution of the Republic of China, which disputes the validity of the McMahon Line claiming Arunanchal Pradesh, a state in India, as part of South Tibet.
On June 1, 1920, a friendship agreement was signed between the governments of China and Iran. Ratifications were exchanged on February 6, 1922, and the agreement went into effect on the same day.55 These relations came to an end in 1971, and Tehran recognized Beijing.
Until 1945 Nationalist China claimed sovereignty over Mongolia, but under Soviet pressure and as part of the Sino-Soviet Friendship treaty of August 1945, it recognized Mongolian independence. In 1953, due to the deterioration of diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union, it revoked this recognition and kept considering it a part of mainland China.5657
On 3 October 2002 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that Taiwan recognizes Mongolia as an independent country,58 although no legislative actions were taken to address concerns over its constitutional claims to Mongolia.59 A Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office was opened in Ulaanbaatar, and Taipei excluded Mongolia from the definition of the "mainland area" for administrative purposes. In 2006, old laws regulating the formation of banners and monasteries in Outer Mongolia were repealed. Offices established to support Taipei's claims over Outer Mongolia, such as the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission,60 lie dormant.61 However, the official borders of the Republic of China have not been changed via a vote of the National Assembly (as required by the Constitution prior to 2005) or via a referendum (as required by the Constitution after amendments made in 2005).62 The official status of recognition is currently ambiguous, though in practice Mongolia is treated as an ordinary foreign power.
The partnership between the anti-communist governments of General Alfredo Stroessner and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek was quite natural. Many Paraguayan officers went for training in Fu Hsing Kang College in Taiwan.63
The ousting of Stroessner in 1989, and his successor Andrés Rodríguez's reinventing himself as a democratically elected president, were immediately followed by invitations from Beijing to switch diplomatic recognition.64 However, the Taiwanese ambassador, Wang Sheng, and his diplomats were able to convince the Paraguayans that continuing the relationship with Taiwan, and thus keeping Taiwan's development assistance and access to Taiwan's markets, would be more advantageous for Paraguay.
The relations between Taiwan and mainland China, have been complicated by history and politics.
Neither Taipei nor Beijing sees their relations as foreign relations. The government position that both Taiwan and mainland China are parts of the same state is not universally accepted in Taiwan. In particular, the pro-independence Pan-Green Coalition considers Taiwan and China to be different countries. By contrast, the pro-reunification Pan-Blue Coalition take the view that both Taiwan and mainland China are parts of the same state, the Republic of China. Former president Lee Tung-hui described these relations as "Special State-to-State Relations".65 The subsequent administrations of President Chen Shui-bian described Taiwan and China by saying "...with Taiwan and China on each side of the Taiwan Strait, each side is a country.". Current President Ma Ying-jeou has returned to the government position of the early 1990s, calling relations with Beijing special relations between two areas within one state. That state according to Taiwan is the Republic of China, and due to constitutional reasons, neither Taipei nor Beijing recognises each other as a legitimate government.666768
The term preferred by Taiwanese and Chinese governments is "cross-strait relations", referring to the geographical separator, the Taiwan Strait. The constitutional position of Taipei is that the territory of the Republic of China is divided into the "Mainland Area" and the "Free Area" (also known as "Taiwan Area"). Administratively, cross-strait relations are not conducted by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Taiwan, but by the Mainland Affairs Council, an instrumental of the Executive Yuan. The relations with Hong Kong and Macau are also conducted by the Mainland Affairs Council, although not all regulations applicable to mainland China are automatically applied to those territories.
Consistently with the policies of both governments, Taiwanese and Chinese governments do not directly interact. Talks are conducted by China's Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits (ARATS) and Taiwan's Straits Exchange Foundation (SEF), formally privately constituted bodies that are controlled and directly answerable to the executive branch of their respective governments.
Until the late 1990s Hong Kong and Macau were British and Portuguese colonies respectively. They provided neutral detour points for people and goods moving from one side of the strait to the other. They, as well as Singapore, also served as venues for talks between the two sides at that time. One outcome of such talks in neutral venues was the 1992 Consensus, arising from a meeting in Hong Kong in 1992. Under this consensus, the two sides agree that both Taiwan and mainland China are under the same single sovereignty of China, but the two sides agree to disagree on which side is the legitimate representative of that sovereignty. Setting aside that disagreement, the two sides agreed to co-operate on practical matters, such as recognising certifications authenticated by the other side.69
Relations between Taipei and Beijing have warmed since the election of President Ma Ying-jeou of the Kuomintang in 2008, with the promotion of cross-strait links and increased economic and social interchanges between the two sides which has seen the economy of Taiwan grow and recover from President Chen Shui-bian's two terms of office. The thawed tensions across the Taiwan Strait is not welcomed by the Pan-Green Coalition in Taiwan for the Taiwan independence movement.
The Philippines recognize the One China Policy but has relations with Taiwan through the Manila Economic and Cultural Office in Taipei and the Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Manila. Both offices were established in 1975 and were organized as non-profit and non-stock private corporations.
In the Chinese Civil War, the Soviet Union had a tumultuous yet strategic relations with the Kuomintang-led Nationalist China until 1949 with the proclamation of the People's Republic of China and the subsequent military takeover of Mainland China by the Chinese Communist Party. In the Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, the Soviet Union under the leadership of Nikita Khrushchev recommended the internationalization of the Taiwan Question and appealed to the United Nations and other multilateral organizations to erase the crisis, further, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union called for the Ten Nations Summit in New Delhi to discuss the issue and eradicate the military tension on September 27, 1958 and undermined as one of the precursors of the latter Sino-Soviet split.70 Since the formation of the Russian Federation, Taiwan has exported many ferric materials to Russia in 2004-2005. In 2005, the total amount of the trade between the two economies was $2,188,944,473. Russia also has a representative office in Taipei,71 and Republic of China has a representative office in Moscow.72 According to the data, Russia keeps a positive balance in its trade relations with Taiwan mainly from crude oil, cast iron and steel, nonferrous metals, petrochemical products, ferroalloys, coking coal, timber, and chemical fertilizers. Russia imports mostly electronics and electronic parts, computers and computer parts, and home appliances. The two countries cooperate closely and intensely by establishing unofficial diplomatic relations since 1993~1996. Taipei is targeting Russia for exporting opportunities and marketing potentials and this mutually-beneficial relationship is effective, especially under the framework of APEC.73 The two nations currently have a legal dispute over Tannu Uriankhai.
Singapore had maintained unofficial relations with both ROC and PRC until 1992. It was decided in the Second Ministerial Meeting of APEC as chaired by Singapore in 1990 for the inclusion of ROC commencing from the Third Ministerial Meeting in Seoul.74 After the establishment of diplomatic ties between Singapore and PRC on October 3, 1992, it continues to maintain close economic and military ties with Taiwan as part of its attempt to position itself as a neutral party to both sides. This is, however, a diplomatically delicate situation which has flared up occasionally. A severe diplomatic row broke out between China and Singapore when Lee Hsien Loong visited Taiwan a month before being sworn-in as the Prime Minister of Singapore on 12 August 2004.75 The Singaporean defence ministry took great pains to correct an erroneous report in the Liberty Times on a joint military exercise between the Singapore and Taiwan in March 2005.76 Still, Singapore is the only foreign country to maintain military training camps in Taiwan, and continues to regularly send infantry, artillery, and armoured personnel there for training annually. There has been talk in recent years, however, of the possibility of moving some or all of these facilities to Hainan following an offer by the PRC, although this may not be taken up due to sensitivities in diplomatic relations between Singapore and its defence ally, USA.7778 On the issue of United Nations participation for Taiwan, there was a heated exchange of views between George Yong-Boon Yeo and Mark Chen Tang-shan in 2004 between the two Foreign Ministers of the two countries.79
South Korea was the last Asian country that had an official diplomatic relations with ROC. Relations between Republic of China and South Korea date back to 4 January 1949, four months after the formal establishment of the South Korean government, when ROC set up an embassy in Seoul's Myeongdong district. However, on 23 August 1992 ROC severed diplomatic relations with South Korea in advance of the latter's announcement of formal recognition of PRC.
Commercial (such as Trade and Investment Framework Agreement, TIFA808182), cultural, and other relations between "the people of the United States" and "the people on Taiwan" are currently governed by the Taiwan Relations Act. The Act does not recognize the terminology of "Republic of China" after January 1, 1979.83 Taiwan has been mentioned in the Three Communiqués between the United States and China. Taiwanese passport holders are included in the US Visa Waiver Program for the stay of 90 days that commences on November 1, 2012.84
Similar positions on Taiwan are taken by a majority of countries. Twenty-three states recognize ROC only. During the 1990s, ROC actively encouraged such recognition through generous grants of foreign aid. In the 2000s, this strategy was abandoned because PRC could outbid ROC with foreign aid, and the spending of large sums of money to buy recognition became quite unpopular in Taiwan.
In the 2000s, the diplomatic strategy of ROC appears to have shifted to encourage "democratic solidarity" with major powers, such as the United States, Europe, and Japan.
In 2007, a measure was introduced into the United States Congress that would dramatically strengthen U.S. ties with Taiwan.85 The United States House of Representatives passed a resolution calling for the lift of United States government curbs on visits by high-ranking or top ROC officials. The Resolution noted that "whenever high-level visitors from Taiwan, including the President, seek to come to the United States, their requests result in a period of complex, lengthy and humiliating negotiations." In an additional note on the resolution, it said: "Lifting these restrictions will help bring a friend and ally of the United States out of its isolation, which will be beneficial to peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific Region."86
A bill was also introduced by U.S. lawmakers to back the UN bid by Taiwan. The bill stated that Taiwan and its 23 million people "deserve membership in the United Nations" and that the United States should fulfill a commitment "to more actively support Taiwan's membership in appropriate international organizations." The bill was introduced on 8 November 2007, at the House Foreign Affairs Committee by 18 Republican legislators and one Democrat. Congressional records show that the move was led by New Jersey Republican Representative Scott Garrett.87
Official diplomatic relations are currently nonexistent, as the United States ended them in 1979 as a prerequisite for establishing ties with the PRC. Unofficial diplomatic relations are nevertheless maintained on both sides by means of de facto embassies, which are technically "private organizations" staffed by career diplomats who are formally "on leave". ROC's de facto embassy network is the Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office (TECRO) with offices in Washington, D.C., and 12 other U.S. cities, as well as many other countries without official ties to ROC. The Americans' analogous organization is the American Institute in Taiwan (AIT). As of 2010, officials of ROC have gained quasi-official level visits to the United States both in the governmental and political level.20
In 2007 Venezuela decided not to renew visas for five members of ROC commercial representation in Caracas.88 Relations with Venezuela have worsened because of the increasing partnership between the government of Venezuela and China.
ROC–Vietnam relations are conducted on an unofficial level, as Hanoi adheres to a one-China policy and officially recognises the People's Republic of China only. However, this has not stopped bilateral visits and significant flows of migrants and investment capital between ROC and Vietnam.89 ROC is Vietnam's number one Foreign Direct Investment partner.90
Vietnam is the only communist country that has an unofficial foreign relationship with ROC.
ROC maintains diplomatic relations with six countries in Oceania:Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, the Solomon Islands and Tuvalu. China has relations with eight others (including Australia, Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and Fiji). The Pacific is an area of intense and continuous diplomatic competition between Beijing and Taipei, with several countries (Nauru, Kiribati, Vanuatu) having switched diplomatic support from one to the other at least once. Both PRC and ROC provide development aid to their respective allies. In exchange, ROC allies support its membership bid in the United Nations. ROC is one of tiny Tuvalu and Nauru's most important economic partners.
In May 2008, ROC Foreign Minister James Huang resigned, along with two other top officials of the out-going Chen Shui-bian Administration, after wasting over €19 million in a failed attempt to win diplomatic recognition for ROC from Papua New Guinea. The misuse of the money caused public outrage, forcing Huang's resignation.91 Papua New Guinea's foreign minister Sam Abal subsequently confirmed that his country had no intention of recognising ROC.92
The European Union has earnestly emphasized Human Rights in its relations with ROC.94 The European Union has unofficial relations95 with Taiwan through European Economic and Trade Office. Taipei is one of the major trading partners with European Free Trade Association,96 and in sum a potential trading partner with the Eurozone.97 The European Parliament voted 559 votes to 40 with 13 abstentions and approved that Taiwanese passport holders with identity card number are exempted and do not require Schengen visa whilst visiting the Schengen Area on 11 November 2010 with similar Schengen granting to Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, South Korea and Singapore, and reciprocally ROC exempted visa for individuals from the Schengen Area.9899100 For the debate concerning EU-Taiwan relations in the European Parliament, see.101 Currently, there are 16 member states of the European Union that have established offices in Taipei, as well as several functional offices established by different member states.102 Taipei Representative Office in the EU and Belgium is the unofficial diplomatic representation of Taiwan in the EU.103 British Trade and Cultural Office 104 and British Council in Taipei of United Kingdom are represented in Republic of China. Chinese Taipei is an observer 105106107 in the OECD, which is headquartered in Paris, France.
Under Chinese pressure, ROC has been excluded from or downgraded in many international organizations. In other cases, ROC may retain full participation, due to the usage of names such as "Chinese Taipei" or "Taiwan, China".
Below is a list of such international organizations and the names as which Taiwan is known:
- Afro-Asian Rural Development Organization (participates as "Republic of China (Taiwan)")108
- Agency for international trade information and cooperation (AITIC) (participates as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu")
- Amnesty International (AI) (participates as "Taiwan")109110111
- Asian and Oceanian Stock Exchanges Federation (AOSEF) (participates as "Taiwan Stock Exchange Corp.")112113
- Association for Financial Professionals (AFP)114 (provide country-specific information as "Taiwan")115
- Association of Future Markets116 (AFM) (participates as "Taiwan Futures Exchange" (TAIFEX))117
- Asian Productivity Organization118 (APO) (participates as Republic of China)119120121122
- Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) (on the basis of the Memorandum of Understanding of 1991123124 and partaking APEC Business Travel Card scheme) (participates as "Chinese Taipei")
- Asian Development Bank (ADB) (participates as "Taipei, China")125
- Association of Asian Election Authorities126 (AAEA) (participates as "Republic of China (Taiwan)")127
- Bank for International Settlements (BIS) (referred to as "Taiwan")128
- Botanic Gardens Conservation International (participates as "Taiwan")
- Boao Forum for Asia (BFA) (participates as "Cross-Strait Common Market Foundation"129)130
- Banco Centralamericano de Integración Economico (BCIE or CABEI) (participates as Republic of China)
- Caribbean Community (CARICOM) (with Member States of Belize, Haiti, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines recognizing Republic of China)
- Egmont Group of Financial Intelligence Units (participates as "Taiwan")131
- European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (has a long-standing cooperation with the EBRD as "Taipei China")132
- Food and Fertilizer Technology Center133 (FFTC) (participates as "Taiwan")134
- Food and Agriculture Organization (due to PRC's political pressure, participates in various subsidiary organizations as "China - Taipei", including Asia-Pacific Association of Agricultural Research Institutions, International Commission on Irrigation and Drainage, Asia and Pacific Seed Association)135
- International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (included as "Taiwan, China"136 as a separate identity which maintains official non-governmental relations with the IAEA in the Model Additional Protocol137 apart from the People's Republic of China).
- International Association of Judges138 (IAJ) (as a professional and non-political international organization, that the Association has consultative status with the United Nations (namely the International Labour Office and the U.N. Economic and Social Council) and with the Council of Europe, participates as "Republic of China (Taiwan)"139)140141142143144145
- International Association of Universities (UAI) (founded in 1950, is the UNESCO-based worldwide association of higher education institutions, participates institutionally by Tamkang University and officially as "China-Taiwan")146147
- International Bar Association (IBA) (participates section-ally as "Taiwan")148149
- International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO)150 (There are 4 IB World Schools in Taiwan offering one or more of the three IB programmes,151 and currently there is no university in Taiwan recognizes IB, which is deflecting from the global trend of educational development.152)
- International Chamber of Commerce(ICC)153 (ICC participates in the activities of UNCTAD,154 including International Court of Arbitration) (participates as "Chinese Taipei")155
- International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) (affiliates by the Taipei Bar Association156)157158
- International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) (originally associated from the UNESCO,159160 participates as "Chinese Taipei".)161
- International Energy Agency (IEA) (included as a non-member country as "Chinese Taipei")162
- International Renewable Energy Agency (IREA) (referred to as "Taiwan" as IREA is co-hosted in the Steering Committee in the REN21)163
- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers(IEEE)164 (participates as "IEEE Taipei Section"165 and "IEEE Tainan Section"166)
- Institute of International Finance (IIF) (participates as Mega International Commercial Bank, "Taiwan, China")167
- International Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP) (participates as "Taiwan Provincial Farmers Association")168
- International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH) (participates as "Taiwan")169
- International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) (participates as "Taiwan")170
- International Labour Organization (ILO) (referred to as "Taiwan, Province of China")171
- International Maritime Organization (IMO) (referred to as "Taiwan, Province of China")172
- International Monetary Fund (IMF) (referred to as "Taiwan Province of China")173
- International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education174 (INQAAHE)175 (participates as observer as "Taiwan")176
- International Olympic Committee (IOC) (participates as "Chinese Taipei" and bid for 2019 Asian Games by the Taipei City Government177)178
- International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) (participates and affiliates as "Chinese Taipei")179180
- International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) remains unofficial relations with the ICRC and referred as the "Taiwan Red Cross Organization" under the category of Public Sources.181 (see page 476)
- International Federation of Audit Bureaux of Circulations (IFABC) (participates as "Chinese Taipei")182
- International Telecommunication Union (ITU) (referred to as "Taiwan, China")183
- International Union of Railways (UIC) (participates as "Taiwan (China)")184
- International Union of Forest Research Organizations (participates as "China -Taipei")185
- League of Historical Cities186 (participates as Tainan, "Chinese Taipei")187
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) (referred to as "Taiwan")188189190
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (participates as "Chinese Taipei" as an observer)191
- Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) (listed by economic cooperation as "Taiwan")192
- Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) (conducts regular dialogue as Taiwan/ROC Forum countries dialogue and issues diplomatic Joint Statement at each dialogue conference)193
- Pacific Economic Cooperation Council (PECC) (participates as "Chinese Taipei")194
- Regional Fisheries Management Organisation (RFMOs) (participates as a fishing entity on the basis of United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement)195196
- Sistema de Integración Centroamericana (SICA) (participates as "Republic of China")197
- SEACEN198 (participates as Central Bank, "Chinese Taipei")199
- Transparency International (TI) (to lend impetus on the formation of United Nations Convention against Corruption and OECD Anti-Bribery Convention, participates as "Chinese Taipei")200
- United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) (referred to as "Taiwan")201202203
- United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) (to be considered separately from People's Republic of China, but has not attained neither CISG204 status nor Model Law205 status)206
- United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) (referred to as "Taiwan Province of China")207
- United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN/DESA) (assorted as "Taiwan Province of China")208
- United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific(UNESCAP) (over-sighted as "Taiwan Province of China")209210211
- United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN–HABITAT) (included as "Taiwan Province of China")212213
- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (referred to as "Taiwan Province of China")214215
- Universal Postal Union (UPU) (removed and excluded by UPU in 1972 ; "Taiwan's" Chunghwa Post continually providing the postal services as a non-recognized postal entity)
- United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) (researched as "Taiwan Province of China")216217
- Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) (participates as "Taiwan")
- World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) (participates as "Taiwan", also note that there is no national member of WAGGGS in PRC)
- World Confederation of Labour (WCL) (participates as "Taiwan")
- World Economic Forum (WEF) (officially listed as "Taiwan, China")218
- World Federation of Exchanges (WFE) (participates as "Taiwan Stock Exchange" and "Taiwan Futures Exchange")219220221 Under the umbrella of World Federation of Exchanges, MSCI includes Taiwan as MSCI Taiwan Index.222 In addition, London Metal Exchange is participated under London Stock Exchange in association with the World Federation of Exchanges in relation with Taiwan Future Exchange.223224
- World Health Organization (WHO) (In the outbreak of Severe acute respiratory syndrome and with the concern of Disease surveillance, was invited as "Chinese Taipei" on the case-by-case basis.225 with its relations with the WHO being governed by a Memorandum of Understanding dated 14 May 2005 between the PRC and the WHO.226 The health insurance scheme in Taiwan is referenced on the WHOpublication.227)
- World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) (not a signatory of the Patent Cooperation Treaty and Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, referred to as "Taiwan, Province of China")228229
- World Medical Association(WMA)230 (participates as "Taiwan" by the Taiwan Medical Association)231
- World Meteorological Organization (WMO) (signed and ratified the Convention of the World Meteorological Organization on 2 March 1951, cited as "Taiwan region")232233
- World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) (participates as "Chinese Taipei")234
- World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM) (participates as "Scouts of China")
- World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) (retrieved as "Taiwan (province of China)")235 (see page 8)
- World Trade Organization (WTO) (full membership as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu" (Chinese Taipei) and delegated by the Permanent Mission of the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Mastu to the WTO in Geneva.236)237
- Metre Convention (associate as "Chinese Taipei")238
- Free trade agreements with Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama (as Republic of China)
- Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement with PRC (signed between Straits Exchange Foundation and Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits - for ROC and PRC respectively239 and includes the topic of the realization of direct flights240 and with the improving relations between Mainland China and Taiwan that Taipei Economic and Cultural Office in Hong Kong241 is officially launched and Hong Kong Economic, Trade and Cultural Office (Taiwan)242 is sighted in Taiwan)
Taipei claims to be the sole legitimate government of China.citation needed Accordingly, it claims all territories currently administered by the People's Republic of China and Mongolia. This includes Mainland China,citation needed and Outer Mongolia. As part of the same claim, Taipei also claims some surrounding areas which it says were historically part of Chinese territory, including South Tibet, an eastern part of Bhutan, the Russian-administered part of Heixiazi Island, a northern part of Burma, part of the Pamir Mountains, Sixty-Four Villages East of the Heilongjiang River and Tannu Uriankhai. However, Taipei does not actively pursue these claims.citation needed
ROC also claims islands in the South China Sea on the same basis as its claim to historical Chinese territory. Unlike its claims on the Asian mainland, however, ROC actively pursues and defends some of its claims to these islands. These include all of the Spratly Islands, the Paracel Islands, Macclesfield Bank and Scarborough Shoal. These islands are administered by a number of governments around the South China Sea. ROC also claims the Senkaku Islands, currently administered by Japan.
The People's Republic of China, in turn, asserts itself as the sole legitimate government of China, and claims all territories administered by ROC.
The dispute over Taiwan's status has also affected the island's air links with the outside world, particularly Europe, North America and Australia. For many years, Mandarin Airlines, a subsidiary of Taiwan's national airline, China Airlines (CAL) served many international destinations that CAL did not, owing to political sensitivities. However, in 1995 CAL dropped the national colours from its livery, and now flies to international destinations under its own name.
Many countries' national airlines similarly set up special subsidiaries to operate services to Taipei, with a different name, and livery omitting national symbols. For example, British Airways' now defunct subsidiary, British Asia Airways, operated flights to London, KLM's subsidiary, KLM Asia, operated flights to Amsterdam, and Swissair's subsidiary, Swissair Asia, operated flights to Zurich, while other countries' flag carriers, such as Germany's Lufthansa, operated flights to Taipei using an existing subsidiary (in Lufthansa's case, Condor). Qantas had a subsidiary called Australia Asia Airlines, which flew between Sydney and Taipei, but now operates flights to the island as a code share with EVA Air.
Japan Air Lines established a subsidiary called Japan Asia Airways to operate flights to Tokyo. Before the completion of the second runway at New Tokyo International Airport (now Narita International Airport) near Tokyo, Japan, airlines from Taiwan were required to fly to Tokyo International Airport (commonly known as Haneda Airport) in Ota, Tokyo in order not to offend the airlines from the People's Republic of China that flew to Narita.
As of July 2008[update], charter flights between mainland China and Taiwan, which were traditionally only allowed on special holidays such as Chinese New Year, were expanded greatly. Under current plans, the opening of these flights may eventually reach a capacity of 3,000 mainland Chinese tourists per day entering Taiwan.
International dialing codes are assigned by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) to its member states and their dependencies. However, as ROC was not an ITU member state, it had to be allocated the code 886 unofficially, with the ITU listing the code as 'reserved'. Until the late 1970s, ROC used the code 86, but the code was re-assigned to the People's Republic of China in conformity with ITU's official membership, forcing ROC to utilize another code for countries that wished to maintain direct dial connections.
China has reserved part of its numbering plan for calls to Taiwan, using the prefix 06, but despite this, calls from China to Taiwan are still currently made by using the international dialing code +886.
- China and the United Nations
- List of diplomatic missions in Taiwan
- List of diplomatic missions of Taiwan
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Republic of China)
- Taiwan passport
- Visa policy of Taiwan
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