Map showing the approximate location of selected Gaya polities relative to Silla and Baekje
|Religion||Buddhism, Korean shamanism|
|-||Submission to Silla||562|
|Today part of||South Korea|
Duck-shaped pottery from Gaya, 5th or 6th century.
|Hanja||加耶 or 伽倻|
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The traditional period used by historians for Gaya chronology is 42–532 CE. According to archaeological evidence in the third and fourth centuries some of the city-states of Byeonhan evolved into the Gaya confederacy, which was later annexed by Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. The individual polities that made up the Gaya confederacy have been characterized as small city-states.2 The material culture remains of Gaya culture mainly consist of burials and their contents of mortuary goods that have been excavated by archaeologists. Archaeologists interpret mounded burial cemeteries of the late third and early fourth centuries such as Daeseong-dong in Gimhae and Bokcheon-dong in Busan as the royal burial grounds of Gaya polities.3
Although most commonly referred to as Gaya (가야; 加耶, 伽耶, 伽倻), probably due to the imprecision of transcribing Korean words into hanja, historical sources use a variety of names, including Kaya, Garak (가락; 駕洛, 迦落), Gara (가라; 加羅, 伽羅, 迦羅, 柯羅), Garyang (가량;加良), and Guya (구야; 狗耶).4 According to Christopher Beckwith, "The spelling Kaya is the modern Korean reading of the characters used to write the name; the pronunciation /kara/ (transcriptionally *kala) is certain.".5 (See Gaya language.) In Japanese, Gaya is referred to as Mimana (任那), a name with considerable political connotations (see below). However, the word kara (から) is still extant in Japanese, meaning vaguely "the nations overseas, foreign country."
According to a legend recorded in the Samguk Yusa written in the 13th century, in the year 42 CE, six eggs descended from heaven with a message that they would be kings. Six boys were born, and within 12 days they grew mature. One of them, named Suro, became the king of Geumgwan Gaya, and the other five founded the remaining five Gayas, namely Daegaya, Seongsan Gaya, Ara Gaya, Goryeong Gaya, and Sogaya.6
The Gaya polities evolved out of the chiefly political structures of the twelve tribes of the ancient Byeonhan, one of the Samhan confederacies. The loosely organized chiefdoms resolved into six Gaya groups, centered around Geumgwan Gaya. On the basis of archaeological sources as well as limited written records, scholars such as Sin have identified the late 3rd century as a period of transition from Byeonhan to Gaya, with increasing military activity and changing funerary customs.7 Sin8 further argues that this was associated with the replacement of the previous elite in some principalities (including Daegaya) by elements from Buyeo, who brought a more militaristic ideology and style of rule.
The Gaya Confederacy disintegrated under pressure from Goguryeo between 391 and 412 CE, although the last Gaya polities remained independent until they were conquered by Silla in 562 CE, as punishment for assisting Baekje in a war against Silla (see Daegaya).
Polities were situated in the alluvial flats of tributary river valleys and the mouth of the Nakdong. In particular, the mouth of the Nakdong has fertile plains, direct access to the sea, and rich iron deposits. Gaya polities had economies that were based on agriculture, fishing, casting, and long-distance trade. They were particularly known for its iron-working, as Byeonhan had been before it. Gaya polities exported abundant quantities of iron ore, iron armor, and other weaponry to Baekje and the Kingdom of Wa in Yamato period Japan. In contrast to the largely commercial and non-political ties of Byeonhan, Gaya polities seem to have attempted to maintain strong political ties with those kingdoms as well.
The various Gaya polities formed a confederacy in the 2nd and 3rd centuries that was centered around the heartland of Geumgwan Gaya in modern Gimhae. After a period of decline, the confederacy was revived around the turn of the 5th and 6th centuries, this time centered around Daegaya of modern Goryeong. However, it was unable to defend itself against the incursions and attacks of the neighboring kingdom of Silla.
Political and trade relations with Japan have been a source of nationalist controversy in both Korea and Japan. Japanese publicists during the twentieth century looked to the controversial Nihonshoki, which claims that Gaya (named "Mimana" also "Kara" in Japanese) was a military outpost of Japan during the Yamato period (300-710). While there is absolutely no evidence to support this widely rejected contention, the claim has nonetheless been advocated at various times by Japanese imperialists, nationalists and press to justify the Japanese invasion of Korea (1910–1945).9101112
Archaeological evidence suggests that Gaya polities were the main exporter of technology and culture to Kyushu at that time. Theory of a Japanese outpost is widely rejected even in Japan as there was no Japanese dynasty at the time which had a strong enough military power to conquer Gaya or any other part of Korea.131415 The technology of Gaya was much more advanced than that of the Japanese dynasties of the time.131415
Horn-shaped cup from Gaya that may illustrate connection of Persian culture through the Silk Road to Korea.
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- List of Korea-related topics
- History of Korea
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- Three Kingdoms of Korea
- Crown of Gaya
- (2001). Kaya. In The Penguin Archaeology Guide, edited by Paul Bahn, pp. 228–229. Penguin, London.
- Barnes, Gina L. (2001). Introducing Kaya History and Archaeology. In State Formation in Korea: Historical and Archaeological Perspectives, pp. 179–200. Curzon, London.
- Barnes 2001:188-198.
- Barnes 2001:182-184.
- Christopher I. Beckwith, Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present (Princeton University Press, 2009: ISBN 978-0-691-13589-2), p. 105.
- Barnes 2001:180-182.
- Sin, K.C. (2000). Relations between Kaya and Wa in the third to fourth centuries CE. Journal of East Asian Archaeology 2(3–4), 112–122.
- Sin, K.C. (2000).
- Alexis Dudden, 'Japan's colonization of Korea: Discourse and power,' University of Hawaii Press, 2006
- Korea between empires, 1895–1919 – Google Books
- Lee, Peter H & Wm. Theodore De Bary. Sources of Korean Tradition, page 14. Columbia University Press, 1997. ISBN 0-231-10567-3
- Peakche Of Korea And The Origin Of Yamato Japan
- Kenneth B. Lee (1997). "4. Korea and Early Japan, 200 B.C. -700 A.D.". Korea and East Asia: The Story of a Phoenix. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 31 ~ 35p. ISBN 0-275-95823-X.
- John Whitney Hall (1998). "5. Japan and the continent". The Cambridge History of Japan. Cambridge University Press. pp. 308 ~ 310p. ISBN 0-521-22352-0.