||This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2011)|
HMS Victory's bow and figure head, 2007
|Ordered:||14 July 1758|
|Laid down:||23 July 1759|
|Launched:||7 May 1765|
|Status:||Active, preserved at Portsmouth, England
flagship of the First Sea Lord
|General characteristics 1|
|Class & type:||104-gun first-rate ship of the line|
|Displacement:||3,500 tons (3,556 tonnes)|
|Tons burthen:||2,142 tons bm|
186 ft (57 m) (gundeck),
|Beam:||51 ft 10 in (15.80 m)|
|Draught:||28 ft 9 in (8.76 m)|
|Depth of hold:||21 ft 6 in (6.55 m)|
|Propulsion:||Sails—6,510 sq yd (5,440 m²)|
|Sail plan:||Full-rigged ship|
|Speed:||8 to 9 knots (15 to 17 km/h) maximum|
|Armour:||None, although oak hull thickness at waterline 2 ft (0.6 m)|
|Notes:||Height from waterline to top of mainmast: 205 ft (62.5 m)|
In December 1758, the commissioner of Chatham Dockyard was instructed to prepare a dry dock for the construction of a new first-rate ship. This was an unusual occurrence at the time as the Royal Navy preferred smaller and more manoeuvrable ships, and it was unusual for more than two to be in commission simultaneously; during the whole of the 18th century only ten were constructed.
The outline plans arrived in June 1759 and were based on HMS Royal George which had been launched at Woolwich Dockyard in 1756. The naval architect chosen to design the ship was Sir Thomas Slade who, at the time, was the appointed Surveyor of the Navy. She was designed to carry at least 100 guns and was established with that number of guns; in practice, her armament varied from 104 to 106 guns and carronades. In January 1808 the Victory was reduced to a 98-gun second rate, but was reclassed as a 104-gun first rate in February 1817.
The keel was laid on 23 July 1759 in the Old Single Dock (since renamed No. 2 Dock and now Victory Dock), and the name was finally chosen in October 1760. It was to commemorate the Annus Mirabilis, or Year of Victories, of 1759. In that year of the Seven Years' War, land victories had been won at Quebec and Minden and naval battles had been won at Lagos and Quiberon Bay. There were some doubts whether this was a suitable name since the previous first-rate Victory had been lost with all on board in 1744. Once the frame had been constructed, it was normal to cover the ship up and leave it for several months to season. However, the end of the Seven Years' War meant that she remained in this condition for nearly three years, which helped her subsequent longevity. Work restarted in autumn 1763 and she was finally launched on 7 May 1765, having cost £63,176 and 3 shillings2 (present day £7.06 million)3 and used around 6000 trees, 90% of which were oak and the remainder elm, pine and fir, as well as a small quantity of Lignum Vitae.
Because there was no immediate use for her, she was placed in ordinary—in reserve, roofed over, dismasted and placed under general maintenance—moored in the River Medway for 13 years until France joined the American War of Independence. In March 1778, John Lindsay was appointed her first captain, but he was transferred to captain HMS Prince George in May 1778 when Admiral the Honourable Augustus Keppel decided to raise his flag in Victory. She was commissioned in May 1778 under the command of Rear Admiral John Campbell (1st Captain) and Captain Jonathan Faulknor (2nd Captain), with the flag of Admiral Keppel.
The Victory was armed with smooth bore, cast iron cannon. Initially she carried thirty 42-pounders (19 kg) on her lower deck, twenty-eight 24-pounders (11 kg) on her middle deck, and thirty 12-pounders (5 kg) on her upper deck, together with twelve 6-pounders on her quarterdeck and forecastle. In May 1778, the 42-pounders were replaced by 32-pounders (15 kg), but the 42-pounders were reinstated in April 1779; eventually, in 1803, the 42-pounders were permanently replaced by 32-pounders. In 1782, all the 6-pounders were replaced by 12-pounders. Later, she also carried two carronade guns, firing 68-lb (31 kg) round shot.
Only one of the guns exhibited on Victory today is an original from the Battle of Trafalgar. The rest are modern fibreglass replicas. This is necessary because a ship cannot be placed in dry dock with her armaments on board. The weight would damage the structure without the support of sea water.
Keppel put to sea from Spithead on 9 July 1778, with a force of thirty ships of the line and, on 23 July, sighted a French fleet of twenty-nine ships 100 miles (160 km) west of Ushant. The French Admiral, Louis Guillouet, comte d'Orvilliers, who had orders to avoid battle, was cut off from Brest but retained the weather gage. Two of his ships escaped into port leaving him with twenty-seven. The two fleets manoeuvred during shifting winds and a heavy rain squall until a battle became inevitable with the British more or less in column and the French in some confusion. However, the French managed to pass along the British line with their most advanced ships. At about a quarter to twelve Victory opened fire on the Bretagne of 110 guns, which was being followed by the Ville de Paris of 90 guns. The British van escaped with little loss but Sir Hugh Palliser's rear division suffered considerably. Keppel made the signal to follow the French but Palliser did not conform and the action was not resumed. Keppel was court martialled and cleared and Palliser criticised by an inquiry before the affair turned into a political argument.
In March 1780 Victory's hull was sheathed with 3,923 sheets of copper below the waterline to protect it against shipworm. On 2 December 1781 the ship, now commanded by Captain Henry Cromwell and bearing the flag of Rear Admiral Richard Kempenfelt, sailed with eleven other ships of the line, a 50-gun fourth-rate, and five frigates, to intercept a French convoy that had sailed from Brest on 10 December. Not knowing that the convoy was protected by twenty-one ships of the line under the command of Luc Urbain de Bouexic, comte de Guichen, Kempenfelt ordered a chase when they were sighted on 12 December and began the battle. When he noted the French superiority he contented himself with capturing fifteen sail of the convoy. The French were dispersed in a gale and forced to return home.
In 1796 Captain Robert Calder (First Captain) and Capt. Sir George Grey, 1st Baronet (Second Captain), commanded Victory under Admiral Sir John Jervis's flag. Sir John Jervis sailed from the Tagus on 18 January 1797; after being reinforced on 6 February by five ships from England his fleet consisted of fifteen sail of the line and six frigates. On 14 February the Portuguese frigate Carlotta, commanded by a Scotsman named Campbell with a Portuguese commission, brought news that a Spanish fleet was close. Jervis manoeuvred to intercept, and the battle was joined. Principe de Asturias, leading the Spanish leeward division, tried to break through the British line ahead or astern of Victory, but Victory poured such a tremendous fire into her, followed by several raking broadsides (that is, a ripple broadside delivered to the stern of the enemy axially), that the whole Spanish division wore round and bore up. Horatio Nelson, in HMS Captain (primarily), also played a decisive role in this action.
In February 1798 Victory was stationed at Chatham under the command of Lieutenant J. Rickman. On 8 December, unfit for service as a warship, she was ordered to be converted to a hospital ship to hold wounded French and Spanish prisoners of war. In 1799, Rickman was relieved by Lieutenant J. Busbridge.
However, on 8 October 1799 HMS Impregnable was lost off Chichester, having run aground on her way back to Portsmouth after escorting a convoy to Lisbon. She could not be refloated and so was stripped and dismantled. Now short of a first rate, the Admiralty decided to recondition Victory. Work started in 1800 but as it proceeded an increasing number of defects were found and the repairs developed into a very extensive reconstruction. The original estimate was £23,500 but the final cost was £70,933. Extra gun ports were added, taking her from 100 guns to 104, and her magazine lined with copper. Her figurehead was replaced along with her masts and the paint scheme changed from red to the black and yellow seen today. Her gun ports were originally yellow to match the hull but later repainted black, giving a pattern later called the "Nelson chequer", which was adopted by all Royal Navy ships after the Battle of Trafalgar. The work was completed on 11 April 1803 and the ship left for Portsmouth on 14 May under her new captain, Samuel Sutton.
Vice-Admiral Nelson hoisted his flag in Victory on 16 May 1803 with Samuel Sutton as his flag captain and sailed to assume command in the Mediterranean on 20 May. Nelson transferred to the faster frigate Amphion on 23 May.
On 28 May, Captain Sutton captured the French Embuscade of 32 guns, bound for Rochefort from San Domingo. Victory rejoined Lord Nelson off Toulon on 30 May when Captain Sutton exchanged commands with the captain of Amphion, Thomas Masterman Hardy.
Victory was passing the island of Toro on 4 April 1805, when HMS Phoebe brought the news that the French fleet under Pierre-Charles Villeneuve had escaped from Toulon. While Nelson made for Sicily to see if the French were heading for Egypt, Villeneuve was entering Cádiz to link up with the Spanish fleet. On 7 May Nelson reached Gibraltar and received his first definite news. The British fleet completed their stores in Lagos Bay, Portugal on 10 May, and two days later sailed westward with ten ships and three frigates in pursuit of the combined Franco-Spanish fleet of 17 ships. They arrived in the West Indies to find that the enemy was sailing back to Europe where Napoleon Bonaparte was waiting for them with his invasion forces at Boulogne.
The Franco-Spanish fleet was involved in the indecisive Battle of Cape Finisterre in fog off Ferrol with Admiral Sir Robert Calder's squadron on 22 July before taking refuge in Vigo and Ferrol to land wounded and abandon three damaged ships. Calder on 14 August and Nelson on 15 August joined Admiral Cornwallis's Channel Fleet off Ushant. Nelson continued to England in Victory leaving his Mediterranean fleet with Cornwallis who detached twenty of his thirty-three ships of the line and sent them under Calder to find the combined fleet at Ferrol. On 19 August came the worrying news that the enemy had sailed from there, followed by relief when they arrived in Cádiz two days later. On the evening of Saturday, 28 September, Lord Nelson joined Lord Collingwood's fleet off Cádiz, quietly, so that his presence would not be known.
When Admiral Villeneuve learned that he was to be removed from command he took his ships to sea on the morning of 19 October, first sailing south towards the Mediterranean but then turning north towards the British fleet, beginning the Battle of Trafalgar. Nelson had already made his plans: to break the enemy line some two or three ships ahead of their Commander in Chief in the centre and achieve victory before the van could come to their aid. Villeneuve was aware of Nelson's tactics for having faced him several times, but the superiority of the British cannons over the French and Spanish ones made his attempt to counter it vain. Fitful winds made it a slow business. For five hours after Nelson's last manoeuvring signal the two columns of British ships slowly approached the French line before Royal Sovereign, leading the lee column, was able to open fire on Fougueux. Twenty five minutes later Victory broke the line between Bucentaure and Redoutable firing a treble shotted broadside into the stern of the former from a range of a few yards. At 25 minutes past one Nelson was shot, the fatal musket ball entering his left shoulder and lodging in his spine. He died at half past four. Such killing had taken place on Victory's quarter deck that Redoutable attempted to board her, but they were thwarted by the arrival of Eliab Harvey in the 98-gun HMS Temeraire, whose broadside devastated the French ship.4 Nelson's last order was for the fleet to anchor, but this was countermanded by Vice Admiral Collingwood. Victory lost 57 killed and 102 wounded.
Victory bore many Admirals' flags after Trafalgar, and sailed on numerous expeditions, including two Baltic campaigns under Admiral Sir James Saumarez. Finally her active career ended on 7 November 1812, when she was moored in Portsmouth Harbour off Gosport and used as a depot ship.
It is said that when Thomas Hardy was First Sea Lord he told his wife, on returning home, that he had just signed an order for Victory to be broken up. She burst into tears and sent him straight back to his office to rescind the order. Though this story may be apocryphal, the page of the 1831 duty log containing the orders for that day has been torn out.5
In 1889, Victory was fitted up as a Naval School of Telegraphy. She soon became a proper Signal School, and signal ratings from ships paying off were sent to Victory, instead of the barracks, for a two-month training course. The School remained on Victory until 1904, when training was transferred temporarily to HMS Hercules, and in 1906 the whole School was moved to a permanent establishment at the Chatham Royal Naval Barracks (RNCA - The First Signal Schools).
As the years passed by Victory slowly deteriorated at her moorings. By 1921 she was in very poor condition, and a campaign to save her was started with the Save the Victory Fund under the aegis of the Society for Nautical Research. The outcome of the campaign was that the British Government agreed to restore and preserve her to commemorate Nelson, the Battle of Trafalgar and the Royal Navy's supremacy before, during, and after the Napoleonic period.
On 12 January 1922 she was moved into No. 2 dock, the oldest drydock in the world still in use,6 at Portsmouth for restoration - her condition having deteriorated to the extent that she could no longer safely remain afloat. During the initial restoration period from 1922 to 1929, a considerable amount of structural repair work was carried out above the waterline and, mainly, above the middle deck. In 1928 King George V was able to unveil a tablet celebrating the completion of the work, although restoration and maintenance still continued under the supervision of the Society for Nautical Research.
In 1941, Victory sustained some damage from a bomb dropped by the Luftwaffe into her dry dock, causing damage to the hull. On one occasion German radio propaganda claimed that the ship had been destroyed by a bomb, and the Admiralty had to issue a denial. Very few structural repairs were carried out in the period between 1929 and 1950. In the early 1950s, a detailed structural survey was completed. From that survey, it was apparent that the lower structure in the vicinity of the keel and extending up both port and starboard to beyond the turn of the bilge, was in very poor condition. Repairs were put in hand and completed in 1964. The wood used to carry out some of the restoration was teak in the case of the timbers internal and external planking, and oak for the keelson, riders in the hold, beams and pillars. After 1964, some repair of a belt extending around the ship which contained a fair proportion of decayed wood was carried out using Iroko hardwood.
Listed as part of the National Historic Fleet, Core Collection, in the early 21st century the ship underwent another very extensive restoration for the bicentenary of the battle in October 2005 to bring her appearance as close as possible to that which she had at Trafalgar. Replicas of items including mess bowls, beakers and tankards in the 'Marines' Mess', and a toothbrush, shaving brush and wash bowl in 'Hardy's Cabin' are on display.
Victory's foretopsail was severely damaged during the battle of Trafalgar, perforated by upwards of 90 cannonballs and other projectiles. It was replaced after the battle but was preserved, and eventually came to be displayed in the Royal Naval Museum. The sail is laid out across a large chamber, illuminated by alternating lowlight projectors.
HMS Victory is still in commission, and has been the flagship of the First Sea Lord since October 2012. Before this date she was the flagship of the Second Sea Lord.7 She is the oldest commissioned warship in the world, although the USS Constitution, launched 30 years later, is the oldest commissioned warship still afloat. Victory attracts around 350,000 visitors per year in her role as a museum ship.
In June 2009 Defence Equipment & Support, DE&S issued a request for Expressions of Interest to private industry for the future support arrangements for HMS Victory. DE&S subsequently awarded a single 9-year project management contract to BAE Systems for planned works to commence in April 2011 through to April 2020, worth £16 million over the life of the contract.
40 years after the last significant maintenance period, this contract was placed to conduct major repairs to the hull, the deterioration being worse on the Starboard side than the Port. It is anticipated that the majority of manufactured hull planking will be issued as Ministry Supplied Material (MSM) to the successful contractor. Whilst the contractor will not, for the most part, be expected to employ authentic methods and skills, whenever it is practical authentic materials will be used.9
However, after this contract was placed by DE&S, the most significant change in the custodianship of HMS Victory took place on 6 March 2012, when ownership of the ship was transferred from the Ministry of Defence to a dedicated HMS Victory Preservation Trust, established as part of the National Museum of the Royal Navy. According to the Royal Navy website, the move was "heralded by the announcement of a £25 million capital grant to support the new Trust by the Gosling Foundation – a donation which has been matched by a further £25 million from the MOD" .10 This continues the long tradition of Sir Donald Gosling's support for Royal Naval heritage projects, and aims to safeguard the life of HMS Victory for the next 240 years.
Over the two centuries since Victory's launch, numerous admirals have hoisted their flag in her:
|List of Admirals|
|Admiral The Viscount Keppel||16 May 1778||28 October 1778|
|Admiral Sir Charles Hardy||19 March 1779||14 May 1780|
|Admiral Sir Francis Geary||24 May 1780||28 August 1780|
|Rear Admiral Francis William Drake||26 September 1780||29 December 1780|
|Vice Admiral Sir Hyde Parker||20 March 1781||31 May 1781|
|Commodore John Elliott||June 1781||August 1781|
|Rear Admiral Richard Kempenfelt||10 September 1781||11 March 1782|
|Admiral The Earl Howe||20 April 1782||14 November 1782|
|Admiral The Earl Howe||July 1790||August 1790|
|Admiral The Lord Hood||August 1790||August 1791|
|Rear Admiral Sir Hyde Parker||6 February 1793||May 1793|
|Admiral The Lord Hood||6 May 1793||15 December 1794|
|Rear Admiral Robert Mann||8 July 1795||27 September 1795|
|Vice Admiral Robert Linzee||October 1795||November 1795|
|Admiral Sir John Jervis||3 December 1795||30 March 1797|
|Vice Admiral The Viscount Nelson||8 May 1803||21 October 1805|
|Admiral Sir James Saumarez||18 March 1808||9 December 1808|
|Admiral Sir Graham Moore||December 1808||23 January 1809|
|Admiral Sir James Saumarez||8 April 1809||December 1809|
|Admiral Sir James Saumarez||11 March 1810||3 December 1810|
|Rear Admiral Sir Joseph Yorke||December 1810||March 1811|
|Admiral Sir James Saumarez||2 April 1811||25 December 1811,|
|Admiral Sir James Saumarez||14 April 1812||15 October 1812|
|In Ordinary||18 December 1812||31 January 1824|
|Commissioner Sir Michael Seymour, 1st Baronet||1824|
|Paid off||30 April 1827||21 October 1831|
|became Flagship of Port Admiral|
|Rear Admiral Sir Frederick Lewis Maitland||1832|
|Rear Admiral Duncombe Pleydell-Bouverie||1837|
|Rear Admiral Hyde Parker||1842|
|Rear Admiral W H Shiffeff||1847|
|Admiral Sir Charles Ogle||20 March 1848||19 December 1848|
|Admiral Sir Thomas Capel||20 December 1848||19 December 1851|
|Admiral Sir Thomas Briggs||20 December 1851||19 March 1853|
|Vice Admiral Sir Thomas Cochrane||20 March 1854||19 March 1856|
|Vice Admiral Sir George Seymour||20 March 1856||19 March 1859|
|Admiral Sir William Bowles||20 March 1859||19 March 1860|
|Vice Admiral Sir Henry Bruce||20 March 1860||19 December 1864|
|Vice Admiral Sir Michael Seymour||20 December 1864||19 March 1866|
|Vice Admiral Sir Thomas Pasley||20 March 1866||20 March 1869|
|Tender to HMS Duke of Wellington||20 December 1869||1 September 1891|
|Admiral The Earl of Clanwilliam||1 August 1891||17 September 1894|
|Admiral Sir Nowell Salmon VC||18 September 1894||31 August 1897|
|Admiral Sir Michael Culme-Seymour||1 September 1897||17 November 1900|
|Admiral Sir Charles Hotham||18 November 1900||30 September 1903|
|Admiral Sir John Fisher||1 October 1903||18 March 1904|
|The Port Admiral's flag moved to Hercules
and on 1 February 1905, to Firequeen
|Admiral Sir Archibald Douglas||18 March 1905||1 March 1907|
|Admiral Sir Day Bosanquet||2 March 1907||17 March 1908|
|Admiral Sir Arthur Fanshawe||18 March 1908||30 April 1910|
|Admiral Sir Assheton Curzon-Howe||1 May 1910||17 March 1911|
|Admiral Sir Arthur Moore||18 March 1911||31 July 1912|
|Admiral of the Fleet Sir Hedworth Meux||1 August 1912||17 February 1916|
|Admiral The Hon Sir Stanley Colville||18 February 1916||17 April 1919|
|Admiral Sir Cecil Burney||18 April 1919||17 June 1920|
|Admiral Hon Sir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe||18 June 1920||31 May 1923|
|Admiral Sir Sydney Fremantle||1 June 1923||1 April 1926|
|Admiral Sir Osmond Brock||18 May 1926||30 April 1929|
|Admiral of the Fleet Sir Roger Keyes||1 May 1929||17 June 1931|
|Admiral Sir Arthur Waistell||18 June 1931||17 February 1934|
|Admiral of the Fleet Sir John Kelly||18 February 1931||31 August 1936|
|Admiral of the Fleet The Earl of Cork and Orrery||18 August 1937||30 June 1939|
|Admiral Sir William James||1 July 1939||30 September 1942|
|Admiral Sir Charles Little||1 October 1942||28 September 1945|
|Admiral Sir Geoffrey Layton||29 September 1945||29 June 1947|
|Admiral The Lord Fraser of North Cape||30 June 1947||18 April 1949|
|Admiral of the Fleet Sir Algernon Willis||19 April 1949||17 October 1950|
|Admiral of the Fleet Sir Arthur Power||18 October 1950||17 October 1952|
|Admiral Sir John Edelsten||18 October 1952||17 October 1954|
|Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Creasy||18 October 1954||17 July 1957|
|Admiral Sir Guy Grantham||18 July 1957||17 July 1959|
|Admiral Sir Manley Power||18 July 1959||17 January 1962|
|Admiral Sir Alexander Bingley||18 January 1962||17 January 1963|
|Admiral Sir Wilfrid Woods||18 January 1963||9 September 1965|
|Admiral Sir Varyl Begg||10 September 1965||9 June 1966|
|Admiral Sir Frank Hopkins||10 June 1966||30 October 1967|
|Admiral Sir John Frewen||31 October 1967||27 February 1970|
|Admiral Sir Horace Law||28 February 1970||28 February 1972|
|Admiral Sir Andrew Lewis||29 February 1972||29 June 1974|
|Admiral Sir Derek Empson||30 June 1974||30 October 1975|
|Admiral Sir Terence Lewin||31 October 1975||30 October 1976|
|Admiral Sir David Williams||31 October 1976||30 October 1978|
|Admiral Sir Richard Clayton||31 October 1978||30 June 1981|
|Admiral Sir James Eberle||1 July 1981||31 December 1983|
|Admiral Sir Desmond Cassidi||1 January 1983||30 October 1984|
|Admiral Sir Peter Stanford||31 October 1984||30 October 1987|
|Admiral Sir John "Sandy" Woodward||31 October 1987||30 October 1989|
|Admiral Sir Jeremy Black||31 October 1989||30 March 1991|
|Admiral Sir John Kerr||31 March 1991||30 March 1993|
|Admiral Sir Michael Layard||31 March 1993||30 March 1994|
|Admiral Sir Michael Boyce||31 March 1994||30 March 1997|
|Admiral Sir John Brigstocke||31 March 1997||18 January 2000|
|Vice Admiral Sir Peter Spencer||19 January 2000||28 January 2003|
|Vice-Admiral Sir James Burnell-Nugent||29 January 2003||25 October 2005|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Adrian Johns||25 October 2005||15 July 2008|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Alan Massey||15 July 2008||19 July 2010|
|Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Montgomery||19 July 2010||9 October 2012|
|Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope||9 October 2012||present|
- Although 30 years younger, USS Constitution is the oldest commissioned warship still afloat.
- Lavery, Ships of the Line, vol. 1, p. 175.
- "Facts & Figures". HMS-Victory. Retrieved 2012-04-27.
- UK CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Lawrence H. Officer (2010) "What Were the UK Earnings and Prices Then?" MeasuringWorth.
- Warwick. Voices from the Battle of Trafalgar. pp. 200–1.
- Eastland, Jonathan; Ballantyne, Iain (2011). HMS Victory - First Rate 1765. Barnsley: Seaforth Publishing, Pen and Sword Books. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-84832-094-9.
- Sarton, George (1946), "Floating Docks in the Sixteenth Century", Isis 36 (3/4): 153–154
- "HMS Victory handed to First Sea Lord in Portsmouth". BBC News. 10 October 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- Royal Navy HMS VICTORY minisite "Commanding Officer"
- "UK-Bristol: Future Support Arrangements for HMS VICTORY @ Portsmouth Naval Base". Retrieved 2010-01-26.
- "£50million boost for HMS Victory". Retrieved 2012-06-23.
- Lavery, Brian (2003) The Ship of the Line Volume 1: The development of the battlefleet 1650–1850. Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-252-8.
- Longridge, Charles. N. The Anatomy of Nelson's Ships. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-077-7.
- MacDougall, Philip (1987). The Chatham Dockyard Story. Meresborough Books. ISBN 0-948193-30-1.
- Warwick, Peter. Voices from the Battle of Trafalgar. David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-2000-9.
- Winfield, Rif (2007) British Warships in the Age of Sail 1714–1792: Design, Construction, Careers and Fates. Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84415-700-6.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: HMS Victory (ship, 1765)|
- The home of HMS Victory Official website
- HMS Victory Royal Navy website
- Royal Navy — The Fleet — HMS Victory