|• Also spelled||Al-Khalīl (official)
|• Type||City (from 1997)|
|• Head of Municipality||Daoud Zatari|
|• Jurisdiction||74,102 dunams (74.102 km2 or 28.611 sq mi)|
Hebron (Arabic: الخليل (help·info) al-Khalīl; Hebrew: חֶבְרוֹן (help·info), Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian: Ḥeḇrôn ISO 259-3: Ḥebron; Ottoman Turkish Halilürrahman, Ancient Greek Hebrṓn, Χεβρών) is a Palestinian3456 city located in the southern West Bank, 30 km (19 mi) south of Jerusalem. Nestled in the Judaean Mountains, it lies 930 meters (3,050 ft) above sea level. It is the largest city in the West Bank, and the second largest in the Palestinian territories after Gaza, and home to approximately 250,000 Palestinians,27 and between 500 and 850 Jewish settlers concentrated in Otniel settlement and around the old quarter.89101112 The city is divided into two sectors: H1, controlled by the Palestinian Authority and H2, roughly 20% of the city, administered by Israel.13 The settlers are governed by their own municipal body, the Committee of the Jewish Community of Hebron. The city is most notable for containing the traditional burial site of the biblical Patriarchs and Matriarchs and is therefore considered the second-holiest city in Judaism after Jerusalem.14 The city is also venerated by Muslims for its association with Abraham15 and was traditionally viewed as one of the "four holy cities of Islam."16171819
Hebron is a busy hub of West Bank trade, responsible for roughly a third of the area's gross domestic product, largely due to the sale of marble from quarries.20 It is locally well known for its grapes, figs, limestone, pottery workshops and glassblowing factories, and is the location of the major dairy product manufacturer, al-Junaidi. The old city of Hebron is characterized by narrow, winding streets, flat-roofed stone houses, and old bazaars. The city is home to Hebron University and the Palestine Polytechnic University2122 and notably has no cinemas or places of entertainment.13 Hebron is detached to cities of ad-Dhahiriya, Dura, Yatta, the surrounding villages with no borders.
Hebron is also the largest Palestinian governorate with its population of 600,364 (2010).23
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Urban development
- 5 Political status
- 6 Intercommunal violence
- 7 Historic sites
- 8 Religious traditions
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 External links
The name "Hebron" traces back to two Semitic roots, which coalesce in the form ḥbr, having reflexes in Hebrew and Amorite and denoting a range of meanings from "colleague", "unite" or "friend". In the proper name Hebron, the original sense may have been alliance.24
The Arabic term derives from the Qur'anic epithet for Abraham, Khalil al-Rahman (إبراهيم خليل الرحمن) "Beloved of the Merciful" or "Friend of God".2526 Arabic Al-Khalil thus precisely translates the ancient Hebrew toponym Ḥebron, understood as ḥaber (friend).27
Archaeological excavations reveal traces of strong fortifications dated to the Early Bronze Age, covering some 24-30 dunams centered around Tell er-Reumeidah. The city flourished in the 17th–18th centuries BCE before being destroyed by fire, and was resettled in the late Middle Bronze Age.2829 Hebron was originally a Canaanite royal city.30 Abrahamic legend associates the city with the Hittites. It has been conjectured that Hebron might have been the capital of Shuwardata of Gath, an Indo-European contemporary of Jerusalem's regent, Abdi-Kheba.,31 although the Hebron hills were almost devoid of settlements in the Late Bronze Age.32 In the narrative of the later Hebrew conquest, Hebron was one of two centres under Canaanite control and ruled by the three sons of Anak (benê/yelîdê hā'ănaq),33 descendants of the Nephilim34 The Book of Genesis mentions that it was formerly called Kirjath-arba, or "city of four", possibly referring to the four pairs or couples who were buried there, or four tribes, or four quarters35 four hills,36 or a confederated settlement of four families.37
The story of Abraham's purchase of the Cave of the Patriarchs from the Hittites constitutes a seminal element in what was to become the Jewish attachment to the land38 in that it signified the first 'real estate' of Israel long before the conquest under Joshua.39 In settling here, Abraham is described as making his first covenant, an alliance with two local Amorite clans who became his ba’alei brit or masters of the covenant.40 The Abrahamic traditions associated with Hebron are nomadic, and may also reflect a Kenite element, since the nomadic Kenites are said to have long occupied the city,41 and Heber is the name for a Kenite clan.42
The Hebron of the Bible was centered on what is now known as Tel Rumeida, while its ritual centre was located at Elonei Mamre.43 It is said to have been wrested from the Canaanites by either Joshua, who is said to have wiped out all of its previous inhabitants, 'destroying everything that drew breath, as the Lord God of Israel had commanded.'44 or Judah or Caleb.45 The town itself, with some contiguous pasture land, is then said to have been granted to the Levites of the clan of Kohath, while the fields of the city, as well as its surrounding villages were assigned to Caleb,4647 who expels the three giants, Sheshai, Ahiman, and Talmai, who ruled the city. Later, the biblical narrative has King David reign from Hebron for some seven years. It is there that the elders of Israel come to him to make a covenant before Elohim and anoint him king of Israel.48 It was in Hebron again that Absalom has himself declared king and then raises a revolt against his father David.49 It became one of the principal centers of the Tribe of Judah and was classified as one of the six traditional Cities of Refuge.50
Hebron continued to constitute an important local economic centre, given its strategic position along trading routes, but, as is shown by the discovery of seals at Lachish with the inscription lmlk Hebron (to the king. Hebron),27 it remained administratively and politically dependent on Jerusalem.51
After the destruction of the First Temple, most of the Jewish inhabitants of Hebron were exiled, and according to the conventional view,52 their place was taken by Edomites in about 587 BCE. Some Jews appear to have lived there after the return from the Babylonian exile, however.53 During the Maccabean period, Hebron was plundered by Judah Maccabee in 167 BCE.5455 The city appears to have long resisted Hasmonean dominance, however, and indeed as late as the First Jewish–Roman War was still considered Idumean.56 Herod the Great built the wall which still surrounds the Cave of the Patriarchs. During the first war against the Romans, Hebron was captured and plundered by Simon Bar Giora, a Sicarii leader, without bloodshed. The "little town" was later laid to waste by Vespasian's officer Cerealis.57 Josephus wrote that he "slew all he found there, young and old, and burnt down the town." After the defeat of Simon bar Kokhba in 135 CE, innumerable Jewish captives were sold into slavery at Hebron's Terebinth slave-market.5859
The city was part of the Byzantine Empire in Palaestina Prima province at the Deocese of the East. The Byzantine emperor Justinian I erected a Christian church over the Cave of Machpelah in the 6th century CE, which was later destroyed by the Sassanid general Shahrbaraz in 614 when Khosrau II's armies besieged and took Jerusalem.60 The Jews were not permitted to reside in Hebron under Byzantine rule.14 The sanctuary itself however was spared by the Persians, in deference to the Jews who were numerous in the Sassanid army.61
Hebron was one of the last cities of Palestina Prima to fall to the Islamic invasion in the 7th century, possibly the reason why Hebron is not mentioned in any traditions of the Arab conquest.62 After the fall of the city, Jerusalem's conqueror, Caliph Omar ibn al-Khattab permitted the Jews to return and allowed them to construct a small synagogue within the Herodian precinct.63 When the Rashidun Caliphate established rule over Hebron in 638, they converted the Byzantine church at the site of Abraham's tomb into a mosque.14 It became an important station on the caravan trading route from Egypt, and also as a way-station for pilgrims making the yearly hajj from Damascus.64 Trade greatly expanded, in particular with Bedouins in the Negev (al-Naqab) and the population to the east of the Dead Sea (Baḥr Lūṭ). According to Anton Kisa, Jews from Hebron (and Tyre) founded the Venetian glass-industry in the 9th century.65 Islam did not view the town significant before the 10th-century, it being almost absent in Muslim literature of the period.66 Jerusalemite geographer al-Muqaddasi, writing in 985 described the town as follows:
'Habra (Hebron) is the village of Abraham al-Khalil (the Friend of God)...Within it is a strong fortress...being of enormous squared stones. In the middle of this stands a dome of stone, built in Islamic times, over the sepulchre of Abraham. The tomb of Isaac lies forward, in the main building of the mosque, the tomb of Jacob to the rear; facing each prophet lies his wife. The enclosure has been converted into a mosque, and built around it are rest houses for the pilgrims, so that they adjoin the main edifice on all sides. A small water conduit has been conducted to them. All the countryside around this town for about half a stage has villages in every direction, with vineyards and grounds producing grapes and apples called Jabal Nahra...being fruit of unsurpassed excellence...Much of this fruit is dried, and sent to Egypt. In Hebron is a public guest house continuously open, with a cook, a baker and servants in regular attendance. These offer a dish of lentils and olive oil to every poor person who arrives, and it is set before the rich, too, should they wish to partake. Most men express the opinion this is a continuation of the guest house of Abraham, however, it is, in fact from the bequest of [the sahaba (companion) of the prophet Muhammad Tamim-al Dari and others.... The Amir of Khurasan...has assigned to this charity one thousand dirhams yearly, ...al-Shar al-Adil bestowed on it a substantial bequest. At present time I do not know in all the realm of al-Islam any house of hospitality and charity more excellent than this one.'67
The custom, known as the 'table of Abraham' (simāt al-khalil), was similar to the one established by the Fatimids, and in Hebron's version, it found its most famous expression. The Persian traveller Nasir-i-Khusraw who visited Hebron in 1047 records in his Safarnama that
- "... this Sanctuary has belonging to it very many villages that provide revenues for pious purposes. At one of these villages is a spring, where water flows out from under a stone, but in no great abundance; and it is conducted by a channel, cut in the ground, to a place outside the town (of Hebron), where they have constructed a covered tank for collecting the water...The Sanctuary (Mashad), stands on the southern border of the town....it is enclosed by four walls. The Mihrab (or niche) and the Maksurah (or enclosed space for Friday-prayers) stand in the width of the building (at the south end). In the Maksurah are many fine Mihrabs.68 He further recorded that "They grow at Hebron for the most part barley, wheat being rare, but olives are in abundance. The [visitors] are given bread and olives. There are very many mills here, worked by oxen and mules, that all day long grind the flour, and further, there are working girls who, during the whole day are baking bread. The loaves are [about three pounds] and to every persons who arrives they give daily a loaf of bread, and a dish of lentils cooked in olive-oil, also some raisins....there are some days when as many as five hundred pilgrims arrive, to each of whom this hospitality is offered."6970
Geniza documents from this period refer only to "the graves of the patriarchs" and reveal there was an organised Jewish community in Hebron who had a synagogue near the tomb, and were occupied with accommodating Jewish pilgrims and merchants. During the Seljuk period, the community was headed by Saadia b. Abraham b. Nathan, who was known as the "haver of the graves of the patriarchs."71
The Caliphate lasted in the area until 1099, when the Christian Crusader Godfrey de Bouillon took Hebron and renamed it "Castellion Saint Abraham".72 It was designated capital of the southern district of the Crusader Kingdom73 and given to the bishop Gerard of Avesnes, as the fief of Saint Abraham,74 As a Frankish garrison of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, its defence was precarious being 'little more than an island in a Moslem ocean'.75 The Crusaders converted the mosque and the synagogue into a church. In 1106, an Egyptian campaign thrust into southern Judea and almost succeeded the following year in wresting Hebron back from the crusaders under Baldwin I of Jerusalem, who personally led the counter-charge to beat the Muslim forces off.In the year 1113 during the reign of Baldwin II of Jerusalem, according to Ali of Herat (writing in 1173), a certain part over the cave of Abraham had given way, and "a number of Franks had made their entrance therein". And they discovered "(the bodies) of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob", "their shrouds having fallen to pieces, lying propped up against a wall...Then the King, after providing new shrouds, caused the place to be closed once more". Similar information is given in Ibn at Athir's Chronicle under the year 1119; "In this year was opened the tomb of Abraham, and those of his two sons Isaac and Jacob ...Many people saw the Patriarch. Their limbs had nowise been disturbed, and beside them were placed lamps of gold and of silver."76 The Damascene nobleman and historian Ibn al-Qalanisi in his chronicle also alludes at this time to the discovery of relics purported to be those of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, a discovery which excited eager curiosity among all three communities in the southern Levant, Muslim, Jewish, and Christian.7778 Towards the end of the period of Crusader rule, in 1166 Maimonides visited Hebron and wrote,
'On Sunday, 9 Marheshvan (17 October), I left Jerusalem for Hebron to kiss the tombs of my ancestors in the Cave. On that day, I stood in the cave and prayed, praise be to God, (in gratitude) for everything'.79
A royal domain, Hebron was handed over to Philip of Milly in 1161 and joined with the Seigneurie of Transjordan. A bishop was appointed to Hebron in 1168 and the new cathedral church of St Abraham was built in the southern part of the Haram.80 In 1167, the episcopal see of Hebron was created along with that of Kerak and Sebastia (the tomb of John the Baptist).81
In 1170, Benjamin of Tudela visited the city, which he called by its Frankish name, St.Abram de Bron. He reported:
Here there is the great church called St. Abram, and this was a Jewish place of worship at the time of the Mohammedan rule, but the Gentiles have erected there six tombs, respectively called those of Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah, Jacob and Leah. The custodians tell the pilgrims that these are the tombs of the Patriarchs, for which information the pilgrims give them money. If a Jew comes, however, and gives a special reward, the custodian of the cave opens unto him a gate of iron, which was constructed by our forefathers, and then he is able to descend below by means of steps, holding a lighted candle in his hand. He then reaches a cave, in which nothing is to be found, and a cave beyond, which is likewise empty, but when he reaches the third cave behold there are six sepulchres, those of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, respectively facing those of Sarah, Rebekah and Leah.82
The Kurdish Muslim Saladin retook Hebron in 1187 – again with Jewish assistance according to one late tradition, in exchange for a letter of security allowing them to return to the city and build a synagogue there.83 The name of the city was changed back to Al-Khalil. A Kurdish quarter still existed in the town during the early period of Ottoman rule.84 Richard the Lionheart retook the city soon after. Richard of Cornwall, brought from England to settle the dangerous feuding between Templars and Hospitallers, whose rivalry imperiled the treaty guaranteeing regional stability stipulated with the Egyptian Sultan As-Salih Ayyub, managed to impose peace on the area. But soon after his departure, feuding broke out and in 1241 the Templars mounted a damaging raid on what was, by now, Muslim Hebron, in violation of agreements.85
In 1244, the Kharesmians destroyed the town, but left the sanctuary untouched.61 In 1260, after Mamluk Sultan Baibars defeated the Mongol army, the minarets were built onto the sanctuary. Six years later, while on pilgrimage to Hebron, Baibars promulgated an edict forbidding Christians and Jews from entering the sanctuary,86 and the climate became less tolerant of Jews and Christians than it had been under the prior Ayyubid rule. The edict for the exclusion of Christians and Jews was not strictly enforced until the middle of the 14th-century and by 1490, not even Muslims were permitted to enter the underground caverns.87
The mill at Artas was built in 1307 where the profits from its income were dedicated to the Hospital in Hebron.88 Between 1318–20, the Na'ib of Gaza and much of coastal and interior Palestine ordered the construction of Jawli Mosque to enlarge the prayer space for worshipers at the Ibrahimi Mosque.89
Hebron was visited by some important rabbis over the next two centuries, among them Nachmanides (1270) and Ishtori HaParchi (1322) who noted the old Jewish cemetery there. Sunni imam Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (1292–1350) was penalised by the religious authorities in Damascus for refusing to recognise Hebron as a Muslim pilgrimage site, a view also held by his teacher Ibn Taymiyyah.90
The Italian traveller, Meshulam of Volterra (1481) found not more that twenty Jewish families living in Hebron.9192 and recounted how the Jewish women of Hebron would disguise themselves with a veil in order to pass as Muslim women and enter the Cave of the Patriarchs without being recognized as Jews.93
Minute descriptions of Hebron were recorded in Stephen von Gumpenberg’s Journal (1449), by Felix Fabri (1483) and by Mejr ed-Din94 It was in this period, also, that the Mamluk Sultan Qa'it Bay revived the old custom of the Hebron "table of Abraham," and exported it as a model for his own madrasa in Medina.95 This became an immense charitable establishment near the Haram, distributing daily some 1,200 loaves of bread to travellers of all faiths.96
The expansion of the Ottoman Empire along the southern Mediterranean coast under sultan Selim I coincided with the establishment of Inquisition commissions by the Catholic Monarchs in Spain, which ended centuries of the Iberian convivencia (coexistence). The ensuing expulsions of the Jews drove many Sephardi Jews into the Ottoman provinces, and a slow influx of Jews to the Holy Land took place, with some notable Sephardi kabbalists settling in Hebron.9798 Over the following two centuries, there was a significant migration of Bedouin tribal groups from the Arabian Peninsula into Palestine. Many settled in three separate villages in the Wādī al Khalīl, and their descendants later formed the majority of Hebron.99
The Jewish community fluctuated between 8-10 families throughout the 16th century, and suffered from severe financial straits in the first half of the century.100 In 1540, renowned kabbalist Malkiel Ashkenazi bought a courtyard from the small Karaite community, in which he established the Sephardi Abraham Avinu Synagogue.101 In 1659, Abraham Pereyra of Amsterdam founded the Hesed Le'Abraham yeshiva in Hebron which attracted many students.102 In the early 18th century, the Jewish community suffered from heavy debts, almost quadrupling from 1717–1729,103 and were "almost crushed" from the extortion practiced by the Turkish pashas. In 1773 or 1775, a large/substantial amount of money was extorted from the Jewish community, who paid up to avert a threatened catastrophe, after a false allegation was made accusing them of having murdered the son of a local sheikh and throwing his body into a cesspit. Emissaries from the community were frequently sent overseas to solicit funds,104 but often money was still scarce.105 In 1807 the community did however succeed in purchasing a 5-dunam (5,000 m²) plot where Hebron's wholesale market stands today.citation needed
During the Ottoman period, the dilapidated state of the patriarchs' tombs was restored to a semblance of sumptuous dignity.106 Ali Bey, one of the few foreigners to gain access, reported in 1807 that,
'all the sepulchres of the patriarchs are covered with rich carpets of green silk, magnificently embroidered with gold; those of the wives are red, embroidered in like manner. The sultans of Constantinople furnish these carpets, which are renewed from time to time. Ali Bey counted nine, one over the other, upon the sepulchre of Abraham.'107
Hebron also became known throughout the Arab world for its glass production, abetted by Bedouin trade networks which brought up minerals from the Dead Sea, and the industry is mentioned in the books of 19th century Western travelers to Ottoman Syria. For example, Ulrich Jasper Seetzen noted during his travels in Ottoman Syria in 1808–09 that 150 persons were employed in the glass industry in Hebron,108 based on 26 kilns.109 In 1844, Robert Sears wrote that Hebron's population of 400 Arab families "manufactured glass lamps, which are exported to Egypt. Provisions are abundant, and there is a considerable number of shops."110 Early 19th century travellers also remarked on Hebron's flourishing agriculture. Apart from glassware, it was a major exporter of dibse, grape sugar,111 from the famous Dabookeh grapestock characteristic of Hebron.112
A Peasant Arab revolt broke out in April 1834 when Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt announced he would recruit troops from the local Muslim population.113 Hebron, headed by its nazir Abd ar-Rahman Amr, declined to supply its quota of conscripts for the army and suffered badly from the Egyptian campaign to crush the uprising. The town was invested and when its defences fell on 4 August it was sacked by Ibrahim Pasha's army.114115116 An estimated 500 Muslims from Hebron were killed in the attack and some 750 were conscripted. 120 youths were abducted and put at the disposal of Egyptian army officers. Most of the Muslim population managed to flee beforehand to the hills. Many Jews fled to Jerusalem, but during the general pillage of the town at least five were killed.117 In 1838, the total population was estimated at 10,000.115 When the Government of Ibrahim Pasha fell in 1841, the local clan-head Abd ar-Rahman Amr once again resumed the reins of power as the Sheik of Hebron. Due to his extortionate demands for cash from the local population, most of the Jewish population fled to Jerusalem.118 In 1846, the Ottoman Governor-in-chief of Jerusalem (serasker), Kıbrıslı Mehmed Emin Pasha, waged a campaign to subdue rebellious sheiks in the Hebron area, and while doing so, allowed his troops to sack the town. Though it was widely rumoured that he secretly protected Abd ar-Rahman,119 the latter was deported together with other local leaders (such as Muslih al-'Azza of Bayt Jibrin), but he managed to return to the area in 1848.120
By 1850, the Jewish population consisted of 45-60 Sephardi families, some 40 born in the town, and a 30-year old Ashkenazi community of 50 families, mainly Polish and Russian,121122 the Lubavitch Hasidic movement having established a community in 1823.123 The ascendency of Ibrahim Pasha devastated for a time the local glass industry for, aside from the loss of life, his plan to build a Mediterranean fleet led to severe logging in Hebron's forests, and firewood for the kilns grew rarer. At the same time, Egypt began importing cheap European glass, the rerouting of the hajj from Damascus through Transjordan eliminated Hebron as a staging point, and the Suez canal (1869) dispensed with caravan trade. The consequence was a steady decline in the local economy.124
At this time, the town was divided into four quarters: the Ancient Quarter (Harat al-Kadim) near the Cave of Machpelah; to its south, the Quarter of the Silk Merchant (Harat al-Kazaz), inhabited by Jews; the Mameluke-era Sheikh's Quarter (Harat ash Sheikh) to the north-west;and further north, the Dense Quarter (Harat al-Harbah).125126 In 1855, the newly appointed Ottoman pasha ("governor") of the sanjak ("district") of Jerusalem, Kamil Pasha, attempted to subdue the rebellion in the Hebron region. Kamil and his army marched towards Hebron in July 1855, with representatives from the English, French and other Western consulates as witnesses. After crushing all opposition, Kamil appointed Salama Amr, the brother and strong rival of Abd al Rachman, as nazir of the Hebron region. After this relative quiet reigned in the town for the next 4 years.127128 Hungarian Jews of the Karlin Hasidic court settled in another part of the city in 1866.129 According to Nadav Shragai Arab-Jewish relations were good, and Alter Rivlin, who spoke Arabic and Syrian-Aramaic, was appointed Jewish representative to the city council.129 Hebron suffered from a severe drought during 1869–71 and food sold for ten times the normal value.130 From 1874 the Hebron district as part of the Sanjak of Jerusalem was administered directly from Istanbul.131
Late in the 19th century the production of Hebron glass declined due to competition from imported European glass-ware, however, the products of Hebron continued to be sold, particularly among the poorer populace and travelling Jewish traders from the city.132 At the World Fair of 1873 in Vienna, Hebron was represented with glass ornaments. A report from the French consul in 1886 suggests that glass-making remained an important source of income for Hebron, with four factories earning 60,000 francs yearly.133 While the economy of other cities in Palestine was based on solely on trade, Hebron was the only city in Palestine that combined agriculture, livestock herding and trade, including the manufacture of glassware and processing of hides. This was because the most fertile lands were situated within the city limits.134 They city, nevertheless, was considered unproductive and had a reputation "being an asylum for the poor and the spiritual.".135 Differing in architectural style from Nablus, whose wealthy merchants built handsome houses, Hebron’s main characteristic was its semi-urban, semi-peasant dwellings.134
Hebron was 'deeply Bedouin and Islamic',136 and 'bleakly conservative' in its religious outlook,137 with a strong tradition of hostility to Jews.138139 It had a reputation for religious zeal in jealously protecting its sites from Jews and Christians, but both the Jewish and Christian communities were apparently well integrated into the town's economic life.99 As a result of its commercial decline, tax revenues diminished significantly, and the Ottoman government, avoiding meddling in complex local politics, left Hebron relatively undisturbed, to become 'one of the most autonomous regions in late Ottoman Palestine.'.140
The Jewish community was under French protection until 1914. The Jewish presence itself was divided between the traditional Sephardi community, Orthodox and anti-Zionist,141 whose members spoke Arabic and adopted Arab dress, and the more recent influx of Ashkenazis. They prayed in different synagogues, sent their children to different schools, lived in different quarters and did not intermarry.142
The British occupied Hebron on 8 December 1917. Most of Hebron was owned by old Islamic charitable endowments (waqfs), with about 60% of all the land in and around Hebron belonging to the Tamīm al-Dārī waqf.143 In 1922, its population stood at 17,000.144 During the 1920s, Abd al-Ḥayy al-Khaṭīb was appointed Mufti of Hebron. Before his appointment, he had been a staunch opponent of Haj Amin, supported the Muslim National Associations and had good contacts with the Zionists.145 Later, al-Khaṭīb became one of the few loyal followers of Haj Amin in Hebron.146 During the late Ottoman period, a new ruling elite had emerged in Palestine. They later formed the core of the growing Arab nationalist movement in the early 20th century. During the Mandate period, delegates from Hebron constituted only 1 per cent of the political leadership.147 The Palestinian Arab decision to boycott the 1923 elections for a Legislative Council was made at the fifth Palestinian Congress, after it was reported by Murshid Shahin (an Arab pro-zionist activist) that there was intense resistance in Hebron to the elections.148
At this time following attempts by the Lithuanian government to draft yeshiva students into the army, the Lithuanian Knesses Yisroel relocated to Hebron, after consultations between Rabbi Nosson Tzvi Finkel, Yechezkel Sarna and Moshe Mordechai Epstein.150151 and by 1929 had attracted some 265 students from Europe and the United States.152 The majority of the Jewish population lived on the outskirts of Hebron along the roads to Be'ersheba and Jerusalem, renting homes owned by Arabs, a number of which were built for the express purpose of housing Jewish tenants, with a few dozen within the city around the synagogues.153 During the 1929 Hebron massacre, Arab rioters slaughtered some 64 to 67 Jewish men, women and children154155 and wounded 60, and Jewish homes and synagogues were ransacked; 435 Jews survived by virtue of the shelter and assistance offered them by their Arab neighbours, who hid them.156 Some Hebron Arabs, including Ahmad Rashid al-Hirbawi, president of Hebron chamber of commerce, supported the return of Jews after the massacre.157 Two years later, 35 families moved back into the ruins of the Jewish quarter, but on the eve of the Palestinian Arab revolt (April 23, 1936) the British Government decided to move the Jewish community out of Hebron as a precautionary measure to secure its safety. The sole exception was the 8th. generation Hebronite Ya'akov ben Shalom Ezra, who processed dairy products in the city, blended in well with its social landscape and resided there under the protection of friends. In November 1947, in anticipation of the UN partition vote, the Ezra family closed its shop and left the city.158
At the beginning of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Egypt took control of Hebron. Between May and October, Egypt and Jordan tussled for dominance in Hebron and its environs. Both countries appointed military governors in the town, hoping to gain recognition from Hebron officials. The Egyptians managed to persuade the pro-Jordanian mayor to support their rule, at least superficially. But local opinion turned against them when they imposed taxes. Villagers surrounding Hebron resisted and skirmishes broke out in which some were killed.159 By late 1948, part of the Egyptian forces from Bethlehem to Hebron had been cut off from their lines of supply and Glubb Pasha sent 350 Arab Legionnaires and an armoured car unit to Hebron to reinforce them there. When the Armistice was signed, the city thus fell under Jordanian military control. The armistice agreement between Israel with Jordan intended to allow Israeli Jewish pilgrims to visit Hebron, but, as Israel did not reciprocate in kind, this did not occur.160
In December 1948, the Jericho Conference was convened to decide the future of the West Bank which was held by Jordan. Hebron notables, headed by mayor Muhamad 'Ali al-Ja'bari, voted in favour of becoming part of Jordan and to recognise Abdullah I of Jordan as their king. The subsequent unilateral annexation benefited the Arabs of Hebron, who during the 1950s, played a significant role in the economic development of Jordan.161162
Although a significant number of people relocated to Jerusalem from Hebron during the Jordanian period,163 Hebron itself saw a considerable increase in population with 35,000 settling in the town.164 During this period, signs of the previous Jewish presence in Hebron were removed.165
After the Six-Day War in June 1967, Israel occupied Hebron along with the rest of the West Bank. In an attempt to reach a land for peace deal, Yigal Allon proposed that Israel annex 45% of the West Bank and return the remainder to Jordan.166 According to the Allon Plan, the city of Hebron would lie in Jordanian territory, and in order to determine Israel's own border, Allon suggested building a Jewish settlement adjacent to Hebron.167 David Ben-Gurion also considered that Hebron was the one sector of the conquered territories that should remain under Jewish control and be open to Jewish settlement.168 Apart from its symbolic message to the international community that Israel's rights in Hebron were, according to Jews, inalienable,169 settling Hebron also had theological significance in some quarters.170 For some, the capture of Hebron by Israel had unleashed a messianic fervor.171
Rabbi Yechezkel Sarna, a survivor of the 1929 massacre, now wished to reopen the former Hebron Yeshiva.172 In the spring of 1968, without government consent, Rabbi Moshe Levinger together with a group of Israelis posing as Swiss tourists rented the main hotel in Hebron173 and then refused to leave. The Labor government's survival depended on the National Religious Party, and was reluctant to evacuate the settlers, given the massacre that occurred decades earlier. After heavy lobbying by Levinger, the settlement gained the tacit support of Levi Eshkol and Yigal Allon, while it was opposed by Abba Eban and Pinhas Sapir.174 After more than a year and a half of agitation, and a bloody attack during Sukkot (October 9, 1968), in which a grenade was thrown, apparently by an Arab boy,175 onto the mosque stairs wounding 47 Israeli and foreign visitors,176 the government agreed to legitimize Levinger's wildcat settlement.177 Much of the ensuing settlement was planned and financed by the Movement for Greater Israel.178
In 1971, with the assistance of the Israeli and Jordanian governments, the Islamic University was founded.179180 Immediately after the 1967 war, mayor al-Ja'bari had unsuccessfully promoted the creation of an autonomous Palestinian entity in the West Bank, and by 1972, he was advocating for a confederal arrangement with Jordan instead. al-Ja'bari nevertheless consistently fostered a conciliatory policy towards to Israel.181 He was ousted by Fahad Qawasimi in the 1976 mayoral election, which marked a shift in support for pro-PLO nationalist leaders.182
In 1979, a group of settlers led by Miriam Levinger moved into the Dabouia, the former Hadassah Hospital in central Hebron, then under Arab administration. They turned it into a bridgehead for Jewish resettlement inside Hebron,183 and found the Committee of The Jewish Community of Hebron near the Abraham Avinu Synagogue. The take-over created severe conflict with Arab shopkeepers in the same area, who appealed twice to the Israeli Supreme Court, without success.184 With this precedent, in February of the following year, the Government legitimized residency in the city of Hebron proper.185 The pattern of settlement followed by an outbreak of hostilities with local Palestinians was repeated later at Tel Rumeida.186 The most violent episode occurred on the 2 May 1980 when 6 yeshiva students died, on the way home from Sabbath prayer at the Tomb of the Patriarchs, in a grenade and firearm attack.187 The event provided a major motivation for settlers near Hebron to join the Jewish Underground.188 On July 26, 1983, Israeli settlers attacked the Islamic University and shot three people dead and injured over thirty others.189
Supporters of Jewish resettlement within Hebron see their program as the reclamation of an important heritage dating back to Biblical times, which was dispersed or, it is argued, stolen by Arabs after the massacre of 1929.190191 The purpose of settlement is to return to the 'land of our forefathers',192 and the Hebron model of reclaiming sacred sites in Palestinian territories has pioneered a pattern for settlers in Bethlehem and Nablus.193 Many reports, foreign and Israeli, are sharply critical of the behaviour of Hebronite settlers.194195
Following the 1995 Oslo Agreement and subsequent 1997 Hebron Agreement, Palestinian cities were placed under the exclusive jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority, with the exception of Hebron,4 which was split into two sectors: H1 is controlled by the Palestinian Authority and H2 controlled by Israel.197198 Around 120,000 Palestinians live in H1, while around 30,000 Palestinians along with around 700 Israelis remain under Israeli military control. As of 2009, a total of 86 Jewish families lived in Hebron.199 The IDF (Israel Defense Forces) may not enter H1 unless under Palestinian escort. Palestinians cannot approach areas where settlers live without special permits from the IDF.200 The Jewish settlement is widely considered to be illegal by the international community, although the Israeli government disputes this.201
The Palestinian population in H2 has greatly declined due to the impact of Israeli security measures which include extended curfews, strict restrictions on movement,202 the closure of Palestinian commercial activities near settler areas and settler harassment.203204205206
Israeli organization B'Tselem states that there have been "grave violations" of Palestinian human rights in Hebron because of the "presence of the settlers within the city." The organization cites regular incidents of "almost daily physical violence and property damage by settlers in the city", curfews and restrictions of movement that are "among the harshest in the Occupied Territories", and violence by Israeli border policemen and the IDF against Palestinians who live in the city's H2 sector.208209210 According to Human Rights Watch, Palestinian areas of Hebron are frequently subject to indiscriminate firing by the IDF, leading to many casualties.211 One former IDF soldier, with experience in policing Hebron, has testified to Breaking the Silence, that on the briefing wall of his unit a sign describing their mission aim was hung that read: "To disrupt the routine of the inhabitants of the neighbourhood."212 Hebron mayor Mustafa Abdel Nabi invited the Christian Peacemaker Teams to assist the local Palestinian community in opposition to what they describe as Israeli military occupation, collective punishment, settler harassment, home demolitions and land confiscation.213
The 1994 Shamgar Commission of Inquiry concluded that Israeli authorities had consistently failed to investigate or prosecute crimes committed by settlers against Palestinians. Hebron IDF commander Noam Tivon said that his foremost concern is to "ensure the security of the Jewish settlers" and that Israeli "soldiers have acted with the utmost restraint and have not initiated any shooting attacks or violence."214
Survivors and descendants of that prior community are mixed. Some support the project of Jewish redevelopment, others commend living in peace with Hebronite Arabs, while a third group recommend a full pullout.215 Descendants supporting the latter views have met with Palestinian leaders in Hebron.216 In 1997 one group of descendants dissociated themselves from the settlers by calling them an obstacle to peace.216 On May 15, 2006, a member of a group who is a direct descendant of the 1929 refugees,217 urged the government to continue its support of Jewish settlement, and allow the return of eight families evacuated the previous January from homes they set up in emptied shops near the Avraham Avinu neighborhood.215 Beit HaShalom, established in 2007 under disputed circumstances, was under court orders permitting its forced evacuation.218219220221222 All the Jews were expelled on December 3, 2008.223
Sheik Farid Khader heads the Ja’abari tribe, consisting of some 35,000 people, is considered one of the most important tribes in Hebron. For years, members of the J'abari tribe were the mayors of Hebron. Khader regularly meets with settlers and Israeli government officials, and is a strong opponent of the both the concept of Palestinian State and the Palestinian Authority itself. Khader believes that Jews and Arabs must learn to coexist.224
In 2012, Israel Defense Forces called for the immediate removal of a new settlement, because it was seen as a provocation.225 The IDF has enforced settler demands against the flying of Palestinian flags on a Hebronite rooftop contiguous to settlements, though no rule forbids the practice.226
In 1820, it was reported that there were about 1,000 Jews in Hebron,227 In 1838, Hebron had an estimated 1,500 taxable Muslim households, in addition to 41 Jewish tax-payers. Taxpayers consisted here of male heads of households who owned even a very small shop or piece of land. 200 Jews and one Christian household were under 'European protections'. The total population was estimated at 10,000.115 In 1842, it was estimated that about 400 Arab and 120 Jewish families lived in Hebron, the latter having been diminished in number following the destruction of 1834.228
|1538||749 h||7 h||20 h||776 h||(h = households) Source: Cohen & Lewis|
|1817||500||Source: Israel Foreign Ministry.230|
|1820||1,000||Source: William Turner.227|
|1824||60 h||(40 h Sephardim, 20 h Ashkenasim) Source: The Missionary Herald.231|
|1832||400 h||100 h||500 h||(h = households) Source: Augustin Calmet, Charles Taylor, Edward Robinson232|
|1838||700||Source: Israel Foreign Ministry.230|
|1839||1295 f||1 f||241||(f = families) Source: David Roberts233234|
|1840||700-800||Source: James A. Huie.235|
|1851||400||Source: Clorinda Minor.236|
|1881||800||5,000||Source: The Friend.237|
|1890||1,490||Source: Jewish Encyclopedia|
|1895||1,400||The encyclopedia of Hasidism|
|1906||1,100||14,000||(690 Sephardim, 410 Ashkenasim) Source: Jewish Encyclopedia|
|1922||16,074||73||430||16,577||British Mandate Census|
|1922||1,500||17,000||Source: First Encyclopaedia of Islam.144|
|1929||700||Source: Israel Foreign Ministry.230|
|1930||0||Source:Israel Foreign Ministry.230|
|1931||17,277||109||134||17,532||Source: British Mandate Census238|
|2007||n/a||n/a||500 241||163,146||Census 2007242|
Historically, the city consisted of four densely populated quarters: the suq and Harat al-Masharqa adjacent to the Ibrahimi mosque, the silk merchant quarter (Haret Kheitun) to the south and the Sheikh quarter (Haret al-Sheikh) to the north. It is believed the basic urban structure of the city had been established by the Mamluk period, during which time the city also had Jewish, Christian and Kurdish quarters.243
In the mid 19th-century, Hebron was still divided into four quarters, but the Christian quarter had disappeared.243 The sections included the ancient quarter surrounding the cave of Machpelah, the Haret Kheitun (inhabited by the Jews, Haret el-Yahud), the Haret el-Sheikh and the Druse quarter.244 As Hebron's population gradually increased, inhabitants preferred to build upwards rather than leave the safety of their neighbourhoods. By the 1880s, better security provided by the Ottoman authorities allowed the town to expand and a new commercial centre, Bab el-Zawiye, emerged.245 As development continued, new spacious and taller structures were built to the north-west.246 In 1918, the town consisted of dense clusters of residential dwellings along the valley, rising onto the slopes above it.247 By the 1920s, the town was made up of seven quarters: el-Sheikh and Bab el-Zawiye to the west, el-Kazzazin, el-Akkabi and el-Haram in the centre, el-Musharika to the south and el-Kheitun in the east.248 Urban sprawl had spread onto the surrounding hills by 1945.247 The large population increase under Jordanian rule resulted in about 1,800 new houses being built, most of them along the Hebron-Jerusalem highway, stretching northwards for over 3 miles (5 km) at a depth of 600 ft (200m) either way. Some 500 houses were built elsewhere on surrounding rural land. There was less development to the south-east, where housing units extended along the valley for about 1 mile (1.5 km).164
In an attempt to enhance the view of the Ibrahami Mosque, Jordan demolished whole blocks of ancient houses opposite its entrance, which also resulted in improved access to the historic site.249 The Jordanians also demolished the old synagogue located in the el-Kazzazin quarter. In 1976, Israel recovered the site which had been converted into an animal pen, and by 1989, a settler courtyard had been established there.250
Today, the area along the north-south axis to the east comprises the modern town of Hebron (also called Upper Hebron, Khalil Foq). It was established towards the end of the Ottoman period, its inhabitants being upper and middle class Hebronites who from there from the crowded old city, Balde al-Qadime (also called Lower Hebron, Khalil Takht).251 The northern part of Upper Hebron includes some up-scale residential districts and also houses the Hebron University, private hospitals and the only two hotels in the city. The main commercial artery of the city is located here, situated along the Jerusalem Road, and includes modern multi-storey shopping malls. Also in this area are villas and apartment complexes built on the krum, rural lands and vineyards, which used to function as recreation areas during the summer months until the early Jordanian period.251 The southern part is where the working-class neighbourhoods are located, along with large industrial zones and the Hebron Polytechnic University.251
The main municipal and governmental buildings are located in the centre of the city. This area includes high-rise concrete and glass developments and also some distinct Ottoman era one-storey family houses, adorned with arched entrances, decorative motifs and ironwork. Hebron's domestic appliance and textile markets are located here along two parallel roads which lead to the entrance of the old city.251 Many of these have been relocated from the old commercial centre of the city, known as the vegetable market (hesbe), which was closed down by the Israeli military during the 1990s. The vegetable market is now located in the square of Bab el-Zawiye.251
Under the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine passed by the UN in 1947, Hebron was envisaged to become part of an Arab state. While the Jewish leaders accepted the partition plan, the Arab leadership (the Arab Higher Committee in Palestine and the Arab League) rejected it, opposing any partition.252253 The aftermath of the 1948 war saw the city occupied and later unilaterally annexed by the kingdom of Jordan in a move supported by local Hebron officials. Following the Six-Day War of 1967, Israel occupied Hebron. In 1997, in accordance with the Hebron Agreement, Israel withdrew from 80 per cent of Hebron which was handed over to the Palestinian Authority. Palestinian police would assume responsibilities in Area H1 and Israel would retain control in Area H2.
An international unarmed observer force—the Temporary International Presence in Hebron (TIPH) was subsequently established to help the normalization of the situation and to maintain a buffer between the Palestinian Arab population of the city and the Jews residing in their enclave in the old city.
Hebron was the one city excluded from the interim agreement of September 1995 to restore rule over all Palestinian West Bank cities to the Palestinian Authority.197 Since The Oslo Agreement, violent episodes have been recurrent in the city. The Cave of the Patriarchs massacre took place on February 25, 1994 when Baruch Goldstein, an Israeli physician and resident of Kiryat Arba, opened fire on Muslims at prayer in the Ibrahimi Mosque, killing 29, and wounding 125 before the survivors overcame and killed him.254 Standing orders for Israeli soldiers on duty in Hebron disallowed them from firing on fellow Jews, even if they were shooting Arabs.255 This event was condemned by the Israeli Government, and the extreme right-wing Kach party was banned as a result.256 The Israeli government also tightened restrictions on the movement of Palestinians in H2, closed their vegetable and meat markets, and banned Palestinian cars on Shuhada Street.257 The park near the Cave of the Patriarchs for recreation and barbecues is off-limits for Arab Hebronites.258
Over the period of the First Intifada and Second Intifada, the Jewish community was subjected to attacks by Palestinian militants, especially during the periods of the intifadas; which saw 3 fatal stabbings and 9 fatal shootings in between the first and second Intifada (0.9% of all fatalities in Israel and the West Bank) and 17 fatal shootings (9 soldiers and 8 settlers) and 2 fatalities from a bombing during the second Intifada,259 and thousands of rounds fired on it from the hills above the Abu-Sneina and Harat al-Sheikh neighbourhoods. 12 Israeli soldiers were killed (Hebron Brigade commander Colonel Dror Weinberg and two other officers, 6 soldiers and 3 members of the security unit of Kiryat Arba) in an ambush.260 Two Temporary International Presence in Hebron observers were killed by Palestinian gunmen in a shooting attack on the road to Hebron261262263 On March 27, 2001, a Palestinian sniper targeted and killed the Jewish baby Shalhevet Pass. The sniper was caught in 2002.citation needed
In the 1980s Hebron, became the center of the Kach movement, a designated terrorist organization,264 whose first operations started there, and provided a model for similar behaviour in other settlements.265 Hebron is one of the three West Bank towns from where the majority of suicide bombers originate. In May 2003, three students of the Hebron Polytechnic University carried out three separate suicide attacks.266 In August 2003, a 29-year-old preacher from Hebron killed 23 and injured over 130 in a bus bombing in Jerusalem.citation needed
The most famous historic site in Hebron is the Cave of the Patriarchs. The Herodian era structure is said to enclose the tombs of the biblical Patriarchs and Matriarchs. The Isaac Hall now serves as the Ibrahimi mosque, while the Abraham and Jacob Hall serve as a synagogue. The tombs of other biblical figures (Abner ben Ner, Otniel ben Kenaz, Ruth and Jesse) are also located in the city.
The Oak of Sibta (Oak of Abraham) is an ancient tree which, in non-Jewish tradition,267 is said to mark the place where Abraham pitched his tent. The Russian Orthodox Church owns the site and the nearby Abraham's Oak Holy Trinity Monastery, consecrated in 1925.
Hebron is one of the few cities to have preserved its Mamluk architecture. Many structures were built during the period, especially Sufi zawiyas.268 Mosques from the era include the Sheikh Ali al-Bakka and Al-Jawali mosque. The early Ottoman Abraham Avinu Synagogue in the city's historic Jewish quarter was built in 1540 and restored in 1738.
Some Jewish traditions regarding Adam place him in Hebron after his expulsion from Eden. Another has Cain kill Abel there. A third has Adam and Eve buried in the cave of Machpelah. A Jewish-Christian tradition had it that Adam was formed from the red clay of the field of Damascus, near Hebron.269270 During the Middle Ages, pilgrims and the inhabitants of Hebron would eat the red earth as a charm against misfortune.271272 Others report that the soil was harvested for export as a precious medicinal spice in Egypt, Arabia, Ethiopia and India and that the earth refilled after every digging.269 Legend also tells that Noah planted his vineyard on Mount Hebron.273 In medieval Christian tradition, Hebron was one of the three cities where Elizabeth lived. It is thus possibly the birthplace of John the Baptist.274275
One Islamic tradition has it that the Prophet alighted in Hebron during his night journey from Mecca to Jerusalem, and the mosque in the city is said to conserve one of his shoes.276 Another tradition states that the prophet Muhammad arranged for Hebron and its surrounding villages to become part of Tamim al-Dari's domain; this was implemented during Umar's reign as caliph. According to the arrangement, al-Dari and his descendants were only permitted to tax the residents for their land and the waqf of the Ibrahimi Mosque was entrusted to them.277
- Hebron glass
- Shabab Al-Khaleel, the towns football team.
- Temporary International Presence in Hebron
- Hebron Yeshiva
- Palestinian Child Arts Center
- List of burial places of biblical figures
- List of people from Hebron
- Tel Rumeida
- Hebron City Profile - ARIJ
- 1 2 Hebron page 80, Hebron is 45 square kilometres (17 sq mi) in area and has a population of 250,000, according to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics for the year 2007. The figure given here refers to the population of the city of Hebron itself.
- Kamrava 2010, p. 236.
- Alimi 2013, p. 178.
- Rothrock 2011, p. 100.
- Beilin 2004, p. 59.
- Freedland 2012, p. 21.
- David Shulman 'Hope in Hebron,' at New York Review of Books 22 March 2013.
- Sherlock 2010;
- Campbell 2004, p. 63; Gelvin 2007, p. 190 Levin 2005, p. 26;Loewenstein 2007, p. 47;Wright 2008, p. 38.
- Medina 2007 for the figure of 700 settlers.
- Katz & Lazaroff 2007,Freedland 2012, p. 21 for the figure of 800 settlers.
- An Introduction to the City of Hebron
- Scharfstein 1994, p. 124.
- Emmett 2000, p. 271.
- Dumper 2003, p. 164
- Salaville 1910, p. 185:'For these reasons after the Arab conquest of 637 Hebron "was chosen as one of the four holy cities of Islam.'
- Aksan & Goffman 2007, p. 97: 'Suleyman considered himself the ruler of the four holy cities of Islam, and, along with Mecca and Medina, included Hebron and Jerusalem in his rather lengthy list of official titles.'
- Honigmann 1993, p. 886.
- Zacharia 2010.
- Hasasneh 2005.
- Flusfeder 1997.
- Hebron Governorate pp. 59, 60
- Cazelles 1981, p. 195 compares Amorite ḫibrum. Two roots are in play, ḥbr/ḫbr. The root has magical overtones, and develops pejorative connotations in late Biblical usage.
- Qur'an 4:125/Surah 4 Aya (verse) 125], Qur'an (source text at the Wayback Machine (archived October 27, 2009))
- Büssow 2011, p. 194 n.220
- Shalom 2007, p. 104
- Negev & Gibson 2001, pp. 225–5.
- Na'aman 2006, p. 180
- Towner 2001, pp. 144–45:'[T]he city was a Canaanite royal center long before it became Israelite.'
- Albright 2000, p. 110
- Na'aman 2006, pp. 77–78
- Na'aman 2006, p. 361 These non-semitic names perhaps echo a tradition of a group of elite professional troops (Philistines, Hittites),formed in Canaan whose ascendency was overthrow by the West-semitic clan of Caleb, which would have migrated from the Negev.
- Joshua 10:3, 5, 3–39; 12:10, 13.Na'aman 2006, p. 177 doubts this tradition. 'The book of Joshua is not a reliable source for either a historical or a territorial discussion of the Late Bronze Age, and its evidence must be disregarded.'
- Mulder 2004, p. 165
- Alter 1996, p. 108.
- Hamilton 1995, p. 126.
- Finkelstein & Silberman 2001, p. 45.
- Lied 2008, pp. 154–62, 162
- Elazar 1998, p. 128: (Genesis.ch. 23)
- Smith 1903, p. 200.
- Kraeling 1825, p. 179.
- Magen 2007, p. 185.
- Glick 1994, p. 46, citing Joshua 10:36-42 and the influence this has had on certain settlers in the West Bank.
- Gottwald 1999, p. 153:'certain conquests claimed for Joshua are elsewhere attributed to single tribes or clans, for example, in the case of Hebron (in Joshua:10:36–37, Hebron's capture is attributed to Joshua; in Judges 1:10 to Judah; in Judges 1:20 and Joshua 14:13–14; 15:13–14.'
- Joshua 21:3 – 12: I Chronicles 6:54–56.
- Bratcher & Newman 1996, p. 262.
- Gottwald 1999, p. 173, citing 2 Samuel, 5:3.
- 2 Samuel 15:7–10.
- Japhet 1993, p. 148. See Joshua, ch. 20, 1–7.
- Jericke 2003, pp. 26ff.,31.
- Carter 1999, pp. 96–99 Carter challenges this view on the grounds that it has no archeological support.
- Josephus 1860, p. 334 Josephus Flavius, Antiquities of the Jews, Bk. 12, ch.8, para.6.
- Duke 2010, pp. 93–94 is sceptical.'This should be considered a raid on Hebron instead of a conquest based on subsequent events in the book of I Maccabees.'
- Duke 2010, p. 94
- Josephus 1860, p. 701 Josephus, The Jewish War, Bk 4, ch. 9, p. 9.
- Schürer, Millar & Vermes 1973, p. 553 n.178 citing Jerome, in Zachariam 11:5; in Hieremiam 6:18; Chronicon paschale.
- Hezser 2002, p. 96.
- Norwich 1999, p. 285
- Salaville 1910, p. 185
- Gil 1997, pp. 56–57cites the late testimony of two monks, Eudes and Arnoul CE 1119-1120:'When they (the Muslims) came to Hebron they were amazed to see the strong and handsome structures of the walls and they could not find an opening through which to enter, then the Jews happened to come, who lived in the area under the former rule of the Greeks (that is the Byzantines), and they said to the Muslims: give us (a letter of security) that we may continue to live (in our places) under your rule (literally-amongst you) and permit us to build a synagogue in front of the entrance (to the city). If you will do this, we shall show you where you can break in. And it was so'.
- Hiro 1999, p. 166.
- Büssow 2011, p. 195
- Forbes 1965, p. 155, citing Anton Kisa et al.,Das Glas im Altertum, 1908.
- Gil 1997, pp. 205
- Al-Muqaddasi 2001, pp. 156–57. For an older translation see Le Strange 1890, pp. 309–10 p. 309 and p. 310
- Le Strange 1890, pp. 310–11 p. 310 and p. 311.
- Le Strange 1890, p. 315 and p. 315
- Singer 2002, p. 148.
- Gil 1997, p. 206
- Robinson & Smith 1856, p. 78:'The Castle of St. Abraham' was the generic Crusader name for Hebron.'
- Israel tourguide, Avraham Lewensohn, 1979. p. 222.
- Runciman 1965 (a), p. 307. Runciman also (pp. 307–08) notes that Gerard of Avesnes was a knight from Hainault held hostage at Arsuf, north of Jaffa, who had been wounded by Godfrey's own forces during the siege of the port, and later returned by the Muslims to Godfrey as a token of good will.
- Runciman 1965 (b), p. 4
- Le Strange 1890, pp. 317–18 p. 317 and p. 318.
- Kohler 1896, pp. 447ff.
- Runciman 1965 (b), p. 319.
- Kraemer 2001, p. 422.
- Boas 1999, p. 52.
- Richard 1999, p. 112.
- Benjamin 1907, p. 25.
- Gil 1997, p. 207. Note to editors. This account, always in Moshe Gil, refers to two distinct events, the Arab conquest from Byzantium, and the Kurdish-Arab conquest from Crusaders. In both the manuscript is a monkish chronicle, and the words used, and event described is identical. We may have a secondary source confusion here.
- Shalom 2003, p. 297.
- Runciman 1965 (c), p. 219
- Micheau 2006, p. 402
- Murphy-O'Connor 1998, p. 274.
- Sharon 1997, pp. 117–18.
- Dandis, Wala. History of Hebron. 2011-11-07. Retrieved on 2012-03-02.
- Meri 2004, pp. 362–63.
- Kosover 1966, p. 5.
- David 2010, p. 24.
- Lamdan 2000, p. 102.
- Robinson & Smith 1856, pp. 440–42, n.1.
- Singer 2002, p. 148
- Robinson & Smith 1856, p. 458.
- Idel 2005, p. 131
- Green 2007, pp. xv–xix.
- Büssow 2011, p. 195.
- David 2010, p. 24. Tahrir registers document 20 households in 1538/9, 8 in 1553/4, 11 in 1562 and 1596/7. Gil however suggests the tahrir records of the Jewish population may be understated.
- Schwarz 1850, p. 397
- The Cross and the Pear Tree: A Sephardic Journey, Victor Perera – 1996. p. 104.
- Barnay 1992, pp. 89–90 gives the figures of 12,000 quadrupling to 46,000 Kuruş.
- The Jew in the American world: a source book, Jacob Rader Marcus - 1996. p. 85. e.g. in 1770, they received financial assistance from North American Jews which amounted in excess of £100.
- Mediene Remnants: Yiddish Sources in the Netherlands Outside of Amsterdam, R. T. Van Luit, Tehilah Van Luit – 2009, p. 42. e.g. in 1803, the rabbis and elders of the Jewish community were imprisoned after failing to pay their debts.
- Conder 1830, p. 198.
- Conder 1830, p. 198. The source was a manuscript, The Travels of Ali Bey, vol. ii, pp. 232–33.
- Schölch 1993, p. 161.
- Büssow 2011, p. 198
- Sears 1844, p. 260.
- Shaw 1808, p. 144
- Finn 1868, p. 39.
- Krämer 2011, p. 68
- Kimmerling & Migdal 2003, pp. 6–11, esp. p. 8
- Robinson & Smith 1856, p. 88.
- Schwarz 1850, p. 403.
- Schwarz 1850, pp. 398–99.
- Schwarz 1850, pp. 398–400
- Finn 1878, pp. 287ff.
- Schölch 1993, pp. 234–35.
- Schwarz 1850, p. 401
- Wilson 1847, pp. 355–381, 372:The rabbi of the Ashkenazi community, who said they numbered 60 mainly Polish and Russian emigrants, professed no knowledge of the Sephardim in Hebron (p.377).
- Sicker 1999, p. 6.
- Büssow 2011, pp. 198–99.
- Wilson 1847, p. 379.
- Wilson 1881, p. 195 mentions a different set of names, the Quarter of the Cloister Gate (Harat Bab ez Zawiyeh);the Quarter of the Sanctuary (Haret el Haram), to the south-east.
- Schölch 1993, pp. 236–37.
- Finn 1878, pp. 305–308.
- Shragai 2008.
- History of the Jews of the Netherlands Antilles, Volume 2, Isaac Samuel Emmanuel, Suzanne A. Emmanuel, American Jewish Archives, 1970. p. 754: "Between 1869 and 1871 Hebron was plagued with a severe drought. Food was so scarce that the little available sold for ten times the normal value. Although the rains came in 1871, there was no easing of the famine, for the farmers had no seed to sow. The [Jewish] community was obliged to borrow money from non-Jews at exorbitant interest rates in order to buy wheat for their fold. Their leaders finally decided to send their eminent Chief Rabbi Eliau [Soliman] Mani to Egypt to obtain relief."
- Khalidi 1998, p. 218.
- Schölch 1993, pp. 161–62 quoting David Delpuget Les Juifs d´Alexandrie, de Jaffa et de Jérusalem en 1865, Bordeaux, 1866, p. 26.
- Schölch 1993, pp. 161–62.
- Taraki 2006, pp. 12–14
- Taraki Giacaman 2006, pp. 12–14: "Throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and well into the twentieth, Hebron was a peripheral, "borderline" community, attracting poor itinerant peasants and those with Sufi inclinations from its environs. The tradition of shorabat Sayyidna Ibrahim, a soup kitchen surviving into the present day and supervised by the awqaf, and that of the Sufi zawaya gave the city a reputation for being an asylum for the poor and the spiritual, cementing the poor cast of a town supporting the unproductive and the needy (Ju'beh 2003). This reputation was bound to shed a conservative, dull cast on the city, a place not known for high living, dynamism, or innovativeness."
- Kimmerling & Migdal 2003, p. 41
- Gorenberg 2007, p. 145.
- Laurens 1999, p. 508.
- Renan 1864, p. 93 remarked of the town that it was 'one of the bulwarks of Semitic ideas, in their most austere form.'
- Büssow 2011, p. 199.
- Kimmerling & Migdal 2003, p. 92.
- Campos 2007, pp. 55–56
- Kupferschmidt 1987, pp. 110–11.
- E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936, Volume 4, BRILL, 1993. ISBN 9004097961. p. 887.
- Cohen 2008, p. 64.
- Kupferschmidt 1987, p. 82: "In any event, after his appointment, Abd al-Hayy al-Khatib not only played a prominent role in the disturbances of 1929, but, in general, appeared as one of the few loyal adherents of Hajj Amin in that town."
- Tarākī 2006, pp. 12–14.
- Cohen 2008, pp. 19–20.
- Kupferschmidt 1987, p. 237
- Wein 1993, pp. 138–39,
- Bauman 1994, p. 22
- Krämer 2011, p. 232.
- Segev 2001, p. 318.
- Kimmerling & Migdal 2003, p. 92
- Post-holocaust and anti-semitism - Issues 40-75 - Page 35 Merkaz ha-Yerushalmi le-ʻinyene tsibur u-medinah, Temple University. Center for Jewish Community Studies – 2006: “After the 1929 riots in Mandatory Palestine, the non-Jewish French writer Albert Londres asked him why the Arabs had murdered the old, pious Jews in Hebron and Safed, with whom they had no quarrel. The mayor answered: "ln a way you behave like in a war. You don't kill what you want. You kill what you find. Next time they will all be killed, young and old." Later on, Londres spoke again to the mayor and tested him ironically by saying: "You cannot kill all the Jews. There are 150,000 of them." Nashashibi answered "in a soft voice, 'Oh no, it'll take two days.”
- Segev 2001, pp. 325–26: The Zionist Archives preserves lists of Jews who were saved by Arabs; one list contains 435 names.
- The Tangled Truth, Benny Morris
- Campos 2007, pp. 56–57
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- Palestine, Sarah Irving – 2012, p. 171: "After 1948 the Israeli and Jordanian governments drew up an agreement allowing Jewish pilgrims to visit Hebron, but the pact broke down after Christian Arabs were denied their side of the bargain: access to Nazareth."
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- Auerbach 2009, p. 79: "Under Jordanian rule, the last vestiges of a Jewish historical presence in Hebron were obliterated. The Avraham Avinu synagogue, already in ruins, was razed; a pen for goats, sheep, and donkeys was built on the site."
- Gorenberg 2004, pp. 80–83.
- Gorenberg 2007, pp. 138–39
- Sternhell 1999, p. 333
- Sternhell 1999, p. 337:'In building this new Jewish town, one was sending a message to the international community: for the Jews, the sites connected with Jewish history are inalienable, and if later, for circumstantial reasons, the state of Israel is obliged to give one or another of them up, the step is not considered final.'
- Gorenberg 2007, p. 151: 'David's kingdom was a model for the messianic kingdom. David began in Hebron, so settling Hebron would lead to final redemption.'
- Segev 2008, p. 698: "Hebron was considered a holy city; the massacre of Jews there in 1929 was imprinted on national memory along with the great pogroms of Eastern Europe. The messianic fervor that characterized the Hebron settlers was more powerful than the awakening that led people to settle in East Jerusalem: while Jerusalem had already been annexed, the future of Hebron was still unclear."
- Segev 2008, p. 698:'The prime minister invited the elderly rabbi [Sarna] to see him. They spoke for three or four hours, Eshkol later told members of the General Staff. he thought the rabbi would ask for a particular building, but Sarna said "I want you to clear out the whole street for me." Eshkol thought he might have misunderstood, but Sarna explained that as soon as the war began, Israel "should have slaughtered the Arabs of Hebron one by one."
- Gorenberg 206, p. 356.
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- Falah 1985, p. 251:Three families, whose houses bordered on the mosque were eventually held responsible, had their homes demolished and a 17th.century gate to the mosque was bulldozed to allow paving.
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″Those who still live on Shuhada Street can’t enter their own homes from the street. Some use the rooftops to go in and out, climbing from one roof to another before issuing into adjacent homes or alleys. Some have cut gaping holes in the walls connecting their homes to other (often deserted) houses and thus pass through these buildings until they can exit into a lane outside or up a flight of stairs to a passageway on top of the old casba market. According to a survey conducted by the human-rights organization B’Tselem in 2007, 42 per cent of the Palestinian population in the city center of Hebron (area H2)—some 1,014 families—have abandoned their homes and moved out, most of them to area H1, now under Palestinian control.″
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|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Hebron|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hebron.|
- Hebron Chamber of Commerce
- Israeli Ministry of Foreign affairs
- Photographs of Hebron
- RamallahOnline - Photos of Hebron
- Hebron.com - English
- Collection of Palestinian articles on Hebron published by "This Week in Palestine"
- Sephardic Studies 1839 Sephardic census of Ottoman-controlled Hebron.
- ArchNet.org. "Hebron". Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: MIT School of Architecture and Planning.