Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθύς, ikhthus, "fish"; and λόγος, logos, "study"), also known as Fish Science, is the branch of biology devoted to the study of fish. This includes bony fishes (Osteichthyes), cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes), and jawless fish (Agnatha). While a large number of species have been discovered and described, approximately 250 new species are officially described by science each year. According to FishBase, 32,200 species of fish had been described by March 2012.1
The study of fish dates from the Upper Paleolithic Revolution (with the advent of 'high culture'). The science of ichthyology was developed in several interconnecting epochs, each with various significant advancements.
The study of fish receives its origins from human's desire to feed, clothe, and equip themselves with useful implements. According to Michael Barton, a prominent ichthyologist and professor at Centre College, "the earliest ichthyologists were hunters and gatherers who had learned how to obtain the most useful fish, where to obtain them in abundance, and at what times they might be the most available". Early cultures manifested these insights in abstract and identifiable artistic expressions.
Informal, scientific descriptions of fish are represented within the Judeo-Christian tradition. The kashrut forbade the consumption of fishes without scales or appendages. Theologians and ichthyologists speculate that the apostle Peter and his contemporaries harvested the fish that are today sold in modern industry along the Sea of Galilee, presently known as Lake Kinneret. These fish include cyprinids of the genera Barbus and Mirogrex, cichlids of the genus Sarotherodon, and Mugil cephalus of the family [
Aristotle incorporated ichthyology into formal scientific study. Between 335 BC–322 BC, he provided the earliest taxonomic classification of fish, accurately describing 117 species of Mediterranean fish. Furthermore, Aristotle documented anatomical and behavioral differences between fish and marine mammals. After his death, some of his pupils continued his ichthyological research. Theophrastus, for example, composed a treatise on amphibious fish. The Romans, although less devoted to science, wrote extensively about fish. Pliny the Elder, a notable Roman naturalist, compiled the ichthyological works of indigenous Greeks, including verifiable and ambiguous peculiarities such as the sawfish and mermaid respectively. Pliny's documentation was the last significant contribution to ichthyology until the European Renaissance.
The writings of three sixteenth century scholars, Hippolito Salviani, Pierre Belon, and Guillaume Rondelet, signify the conception of modern ichthyology. The investigations of these individuals were based upon actual research in comparison to ancient recitations. This property popularized and emphasized these discoveries. Despite their prominence, Rondelet's De Piscibus Marinum is regarded as the most influential, identifying 244 species of fish.
The incremental alterations in navigation and shipbuilding throughout the Renaissance marked the commencement of a new epoch in ichthyology. The Renaissance culminated with the era of exploration and colonization, and upon the cosmopolitan interest in navigation came the specialization in naturalism. Georg Marcgrave of Saxony composed the Naturalis Brasilae in 1648. This document contained a description of 100 species of fish indigenous to the Brazilian coastline. In 1686, John Ray and Francis Willughby collaboratively published Historia Piscium, a scientific manuscript containing 420 species of fish, 178 of these newly discovered. The fish contained within this informative literature were arranged in a provisional system of classification.
The classification used within the Historia Piscium was further developed by Carolus Linnaeus, the "father of modern taxonomy". His taxonomic approach became the systematic approach to the study of organisms, including fish. Linnaeus was a professor at the University of Uppsala and an eminent botanist; however, one of his colleagues, Peter Artedi, earned the title "father of ichthyology" through his indispensable advancements. Artedi contributed to Linnaeus's refinement of the principles of taxonomy. Furthermore, he recognized five additional orders of fish: Malacopterygii, Acanthopterygii, Branchiostegi, Chondropterygii, and Plagiuri. Artedi developed standard methods for making counts and measurements of anatomical features that are modernly exploited. Another associate of Linnaeus, Albertus Seba, was a prosperous pharmacist from Amsterdam. Seba assembled a cabinet, or collection, of fish. He invited Artedi to utilize this assortment of fish; unfortunately, in 1735, Artedi fell into an Amsterdam canal and drowned at the age of 30.
Linnaeus posthumously published Artedi's manuscripts as Ichthyologia, sive Opera Omnia de Piscibus (1738). His refinement of taxonomy culminated in the development of the binomial nomenclature which is in use by contemporary ichthyologists. Furthermore, he revised the orders introduced by Artedi, placing significance on pelvic fins. Fishes lacking this appendage were placed within the order Apodes; fishes containing abdominal, thoracic, or jugular pelvic fins were termed Abdominales, Thoracici, and Jugulares respectively. However, these alterations were not grounded within evolutionary theory. Therefore, it would take over a century until Charles Darwin would provide the intellectual foundation from which we would be permitted to perceive that the degree of similarity in taxonomic features was a consequence of phylogenetic relationship.
Close to the dawn of the nineteenth century, Marcus Elieser Bloch of Berlin and Georges Cuvier of Paris made attempts to consolidate the knowledge of ichthyology. Cuvier summarized all of the available information in his monumental Histoire Naturelle des Poissons. This manuscript was published between 1828 and 1849 in a 22 volume series. This documentat describes 4,514 species of fish, 2,311 of these new to science. It remains one of the most ambitious treatises of the modern world. Scientific exploration of the Americas advanced our knowledge of the remarkable diversity of fishes. Charles Alexandre Lesueur was a student of Cuvier. He made a cabinet of fishes dwelling within the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River regions.
Adventurous individuals such as John James Audubon and Constantine Samuel Rafinesque figure in the faunal documentation of North America. These persons often traveled with one another. Rafinesque wrote Ichthyologia Ohiensis in 1820. In addition, Louis Agassiz of Switzerland established his reputation through the study of freshwater fishes and the first comprehensive treatment of paleoichthyology, Poissons Fossiles. In the 1840s, Agassiz moved to the United States, where he taught at Harvard University until his death in 1873.
Albert Günther published his Catalogue of the Fishes of the British Museum between 1859 and 1870, describing over 6,800 species and mentioning another 1,700. Generally considered one of the most influential ichthyologists, David Starr Jordan wrote 650 articles and books on the subject as well as serving as president of Indiana University and Stanford University.
|Publication||Frequency||Date of Publication||Affiliated Company|
|Copeia||Quarterly||27 December 1913||American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists|
|Journal of Applied Ichthyology||Bi-monthly||1985||Blackwell Publishing|
|Ichthyological Bulletin||Irregular||January 1956||Rhodes University|
Members of this list meet one or more of the following criteria: 1) Author of 50 or more fish taxon names, 2) Author of major reference work in ichthyology, 3) Founder of major journal or museum, 4) Person most notable for other reasons who has also worked in ichthyology.
- Alexander Emanuel Agassiz
- Louis Agassiz
- HIM Emperor Akihito of Japan
- Gerald R. Allen
- Peter Artedi
- Herbert R. Axelrod
- William O. Ayres, California
- Spencer Fullerton Baird
- Tarleton Hoffman Bean
- Lev Berg, Russia
- Henry Bryant Bigelow
- Pieter von Bleeker, East Indies
- Marcus Elieser Bloch
- George Albert Boulenger
- Warren E. Burgess
- Eugenie Clark
- Leonard Compagno
- Edward Drinker Cope
- Georges Cuvier
- Francis Day, India
- Francis Buchanan-Hamilton, Scottish
- Carl H. Eigenmann
- Rosa Smith Eigenmann
- William N. Eschmeyer
- Barton Warren Evermann
- Henry Weed Fowler
- Joseph Paul Gaimard
- Samuel Garman
- Charles Henry Gilbert
- Theodore Nicholas Gill
- Charles Frédéric Girard
- George Brown Goode
- Albert Günther
- Albert William Herre
- Carl L. Hubbs
- David Starr Jordan
- Maurice Kottelat, Swiss
- Bernard Germain de Lacépède
- Carl Linnaeus
- Seth Eugene Meek
- Ambat Gopalan Kutty Menon Zoological Survey of India3
- George S. Myers
- Joseph S. Nelson Fishes of the World
- John Treadwell Nichols, China, founder of Copeia
- John Roxborough Norman
- Peter Simon Pallas
- Wilhelm Peters
- Felipe Poey
- Jean René Constant Quoy
- Constantine Samuel Rafinesque
- John E. Randall
- Charles Tate Regan
- John Richardson
- Donn E. Rosen
- Eduard Rüppell
- Johann Gottlob Schneider
- H.M. Smith
- J.L.B. Smith
- Edwin Chapin Starks
- Franz Steindachner
- Shigeho Tanaka
- Ethelwynn Trewavas, English
- Achille Valenciennes
- Johann Julius Walbaum
- Stanley H. Weitzmann
- Francis Willughby
- Pierre Carbonnier
- FishBase: April 2009 Update. Retrieved 14 March 2012.
- "Panhellenic Society of Technologists Ichthyologists".
- A. G. K. Menon, Current Science, 83 (6), 25 September 2002.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ichthyology.|
- Bond, Carl E (1996) Biology of Fishes. Saunders. ISBN 0-03-070342-5.
- Nelson, Joseph S (2006) Fishes of the World. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-25031-7.
- Michael Barton (2007) Bond's Biology of Fishes, Third Edition. Julet. ISBN 0-12-079875-1.
- Pauly D, Froese R, Palomares ML and Stergiou KI Fish on line A guide to learning and teaching ichthyology using the FishBase Information System.