Index of biology articles

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Biology is the study of life and its processes. Biologists study all aspects of living things, including all of the many life forms on earth and the processes in them that enable life. These basic processes include the harnessing of energy, the synthesis and duplication of the materials that make up the body, the reproduction of the organism and many other functions. Biology, along with chemistry and physics is one of the major disciplines of natural science.

A

ABO blood groupsabscisic acidabsorption spectrumabyssal zoneacetylcholineacetyl CoAacidacid precipitationacoelomateacrosomeactinaction potentialactive siteadaptive radiationaddress-message conceptadenosine 5’-triphosphateadenylyl cyclaseadrenal glandsadrenodoxinaerobic organismage structureagonistAIDSalbuminaldehydesaldosteronealgaeallantoisalleleallometric growthallopatric speciationallosteric binding siteallosteric effectorallosteric enzymeallosteric siteallozymealpha helixamino acidaminoacyl-tRNA synthetasesamino groupamniocentesisamniotesamphipathic moleculeanabolismanaerobic organismanaerobic respirationandrogensanemiaaneuploidyangiospermantheranthraxantibioticantibodyanticodonantidiuretic hormoneantigenapical dominanceapical meristemapolipoproteinapoplastapoptosisaquaporinsArchaeaarchegoniumarteriosclerosisarteryarthritisascusasexual reproductionatomic numberATPATP synthaseatrioventricular valveatriumautoimmune diseaseautonomic nervous systemautosomeauxinsaxillary budaxon

B

bacteriabacteriochlorinbarkBarr bodybasal bodybasal metabolic ratebasebase pairbasement membranebasidiomycetesbasidiumB cellbenthic zonebeta sheetbinary fissionbinding sitebioassaybiodiversitybioenergeticsbiogeochemical cyclesbiological magnificationbioluminescencebiomebiopolymersbiospherebloodblood-brain barrierblottingbond energybook lungsbottleneck effectBowman capsulebrain stembronchioleBrønsted acidBrønsted baseBrownian movementbryophytesbubonic plaguebuddingbulk flow

C

C3 plantC4 plantcalcitonincalmodulincalorieCalvin cyclecancercapillarycapsidcarbohydratecarbon fixationcarboxyl groupcardiac musclecardiac outputcardiovascular systemcarotenoidscartilagecatabolismcatabolite activator proteincatalystcatecholamineceliac diseasecellcell cyclecell-mediated immunitycell membranecellular respirationcellulosecentral nervous systemcentriolecentrosomecerebellumcerebral cortexcerebrumchaperoninchemiosmosischemoautotrophchemoheterotrophchemoreceptorchiralitychi-square testchitinchlamydosporechlorophyllchloroplastcholeracholesterolchromatinchromophorechromosomechytridcircadian rhythmcloning vectorclosed circulatory systemcobalamincodominancecodoncoenzymecofactorcollagencollecting ductcommensalismcompetitive exclusion principlecompetitive inhibitorcomplementary DNAcomplement systemcondensation reactionconidiumcork cambiumcorpus luteum cortexcotransportcotyledonscovalent bondcrossing overcuticlecyanobacteriacyclic AMPcyclincyclin-dependent kinasecytochromecytochrome-c oxidasecytochrome P-450cytokinescytoplasmcytotoxic T cell

D

daltonDarwinian fitnessDarwinismdecomposersdehydrogenasedeletiondenaturationdendritedenguedenitrificationdeoxyribonucleic aciddeoxyribosedepolarizationdesmosomedeuterostomesdiabetes mellitusdiastolediffusiondigestiondihybrid crossdikaryondikaryoticdisaccharideDNA ligaseDNA methylationDNA polymerasedouble circulationdouble helixDown syndromedrupeduodenumdynein

E

ecdysoneecological nicheecologyecosystemeffector cellelectrochemical gradientelectronelectron acceptorelectronegativityelectron-transport chainenantiomer

F

facilitated diffusionFADHFADH2fatfeedback inhibitionFehling solutionfemalefermentation (biochemistry)fetusFick's law of diffusionfitnessfitness landscapeflagellumflavin adenine dinucleotideflavineflaviviridaeflowerfluid mosaic modelfood webfoot and mouth diseasefossilFrancis CrickFrancis Galtonfree energyfundamental nichefungi

G

G3Pgametegametophytegastrulagel electrophoresisgenegenetic driftgene duplicationgene poolgenetic codegenetic equilibriumgenetic fingerprintgenetic recombinationgeneticsgene regulatory networkgenetic carriergene therapygenomegenome projectgenomicsgenotypegeologic timeGeorge W. BeadleglucoseglycolipidglycolysisglycomeglycomicsglycoproteinglycoproteinGobind KhoranaGolgi apparatusGondwanagradientgravitational biologygravitropismGregor Mendelground tissuegrowth curveGuthrie test

H

habitatHACEK organismhalobacteriahaploidHardy-Weinberg principleheartHela cellhelper T cellHepadnaviridaehepatitis Bherbivoreheredityhereditary diseasehermaphroditeherpetologyHershey–Chase experimentheterochromatinheterotrophheterozygoteHfr cellhibernationhierarchy of lifeHill reactionHis taghistonehomeoboxhomeostasishomologous recombinationhomologyhomoplasyhomozygotehomunculushorizontal gene transferhormonehosthousehold genehumanHuman Genome Projecthumoral immunityhybrid (biology)hybridizationhydrolysishydrolytic enzymehygienehyperpolarization (biology)

I

ichthyologyimmune cellimmune systemimmunologyinbreeding – inducibility – infectious disease carrierinfertilityinner matrixinsectinsectivoresinsulinintermediate filamentintermembrane spaceinterphaseintestineintroninvasive speciesion channelisoenzymeisotonic (exercise physiology)

J

James WatsonJean-Baptiste Lamarckjoint

K

K-selectionKary Mulliskaryoplasmkaryotypekeratinkeystone specieskidneykinesiologykinetic energyKlinefelter syndromeknock-out mouseKonrad LorenzKrebs cycle (or citric acid cycle) – kwashiorkor

L

Lac repressor – lactic acid autotroph – lagging strandlambda phagelarvaleading strandleafWhite blood cellslichenlife formlifelight reactionslimbic systemlimnologyLineweaver-Burke-diagramlipaselipidliverlocuslong-term potentiationLouis PasteurlungLynn MargulisLyon hypothesislysislysozymelytic cycle

M

macroecologymacroevolutionmacromoleculesmajor histocompatibility complex (MHC) – malariamaleMalpighi layermonophyleticmarburg virusMarcello MalpighiMarfan syndromemarine biologymass extinctionmathematical biologymatingMax Delbrückmeiosismembrane transportermemorymemory cellMendelian inheritancemeristemMesowearmetabolismmetaphasemetapopulationmetazoaMichaelis-Menten kineticsmicrobemicrobiologymicroevolutionmicrofilamentmicrosatellitemicroscopemicrotubulesMiller–Urey experimentmimicryMitchell hypothesismitochondrial membranemitochondrionmitosismitotic spindlemodern evolutionary synthesismolecular biologymolecular clockmolecular evolutionmolecular geneticsmolecular phylogenymolluscmonoclonal antibodymorphogenesismorphometricsmorulaMRIMTT assayMuller's ratchetmultiresistancemusclemutagenmutationmutational meltdownMutualism (biology)mycologymyosin

N

NADNADHNADPHnatural environmentnatural selectionnephronnervous systemneural plateneural tubeneuronneuroscienceneurospora crassaneurotransmitterneurulaneutral theory of molecular evolutionnichenitrogen cyclenon-competitive inhibition – non cyclic electron flow – nondisjunctionN-terminusnuclear laminanucleolusnucleonnucleosidenucleosomenucleotidenutrition

O

Okazaki fragmentolfactiononcogeneoperator (biology)operonorganorganelleorganismorigin of lifeOscar HertwigosmosisosmoregulationOswald Averyoutbreakoutline of biochemical techniquesovalbumineovaryovumoxidationoxidative decarboxylationoxidative phosphorylation

P

Pangaeapaleontologyparallel evolutionparaphyleticparasitismparasitologyparthenogenesispassive transportPatau syndromepaternity testPCRPCR mutagenesispentose phosphate pathwaypeptidepeptide bondperipheral proteinperoxisome – Pfeffer cell – phagephagocytosisphenotypephloemphospholipidphospholipid bilayerphosphorylationphotobiologyphotolysisphotonphotophosphorylationphotorespirationphotosynthesisphotosynthesisphotosystem Iphotosystem IIphycobilinphycobiliproteinphycocyaninphycologyphylogeneticsphylogenyphylogenetic treephysiologypigmentplacentaplanktonplantplantaeplant physiologyplant sexualityplasma membraneplasmidplasmolysisplastidplate tectonicspoint mutationpollenizerpollinationpollinatorpolymerase chain reactionpolypeptidepolyploidypolysaccharidepopulationpopulation dynamicspopulation ecologypopulation geneticspotential energypredationpregnancyprimary nutritional groupsprimary structureprimerprionprokaryoteprometaphasepromoterprophageprophaseproprioceptionproteasomeprotein biosynthesisproteinprotein translocationproteolysisproteomeproteomicsprotistprotistaproton pumpprotozoapseudopodpteridophytePunnett squarepurinepunctuated equilibriumpyrimidinepyruvate oxidation

Q

quaternary structure

R

r-selectionradiobiologyreceptor (biochemistry)receptor (immunology)recombinationRed Queenredox reactionredox systemreductionreflexRenal corpusclerepeatsreplication bubblerepressorreproductionreproductive systemrespiration (physiology)restriction enzymeretrovirusreverse geneticsRFLPRh blood group systemribosomeRNARNA virusRobert Kochrootrough ERRuBPRudolf Steiner – resendes vasco

S

saprobesarcoplasmic reticulumscientific classificationsecondary metabolitesecondary structuresecond messengerseedseed plantselectionsequencingserumsemenSewall Wrightsexual reproductionsexual selectionshigellashootsignal transductionsilkSir Charles Lyellsister chromatidskeletonskin cellsleepsmooth ERsociobiologyspeciationspeciesHans SpemannspermspermatidspermatogenesisspermiogenesisspliceosomesplicingsporesporophyteSSRIstarchstemstem cellStem cell chipsticky endstomastomachstreptomycinstructural biologystructural genesubstratesubstrate-level phosphorylationsurface area-to-volume ratiosymbiosissymbiogenesissynapomorphysynapsesyngamysystematicssystems biology

T

T celltaphonomytaxistaxontaxonomytelomeretelophasetertiary structuretestate amoebaetestesTheodor BilharzTheodor BoverithermoclinethermoregulationThomas Hunt MorganThomas MalthusthylakoidTobacco mosaic virustobacco mosaic virustorporTrait (biological)transcriptiontranscription factortranscriptional regulationtransformationtransgressive phenotypetransport vesicletransposonTraube celltrophic leveltropismtubulintumorturgorTurner syndrometwin

U

urea cycle

V

vaccinevacuolevaricella-zoster virusvascular cambiumvascular tissueveinvertebratevesiclevesicular stomatitis virusvestibular systemvicariancevirologyviral classificationvirusviral evolutionvisible lightvisionvitamin

W

water cyclewavelengthWobble base pairwood

X

xanthophyllX chromosomexenobiologyX-ray diffractionxylem

Y

Y chromosomeyellow fever

Z

zona pellucidazoologyzygote

See also