Molar ionization energies of the elements

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These tables list values of molar ionization energies, measured in kJ mol−1. This is the energy per mole necessary to remove electrons from gaseous atoms or atomic ions. The first molar ionization energy applies to the neutral atoms. The second, third, etc., molar ionization energy applies to the further removal of an electron from a singly, doubly, etc., charged ion. For ionization energies measured in the unit eV, see Ionization energies of the elements (data page). All data from rutherfordium onwards is predicted.

1st–10th

number symbol name 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th
 
1 H hydrogen 1312.0
2 He helium 2372.3 5250.5
3 Li lithium 520.2 7298.1 11,815.0
4 Be beryllium 899.5 1757.1 14,848.7 21,006.6
5 B boron 800.6 2427.1 3659.7 25,025.8 32,826.7
6 C carbon 1086.5 2352.6 4620.5 6222.7 37,831 47,277.0
7 N nitrogen 1402.3 2856 4578.1 7475.0 9444.9 53,266.6 64,360
8 O oxygen 1313.9 3388.3 5300.5 7469.2 10,989.5 13,326.5 71,330 84,078.0
9 F fluorine 1681.0 3374.2 6050.4 8407.7 11,022.7 15,164.1 17,868 92,038.1 106,434.3
10 Ne neon 2080.7 3952.3 6122 9371 12,177 15,238 19,999.0 23,069.5 115,379.5 13,1432
11 Na sodium 495.8 4562 6910.3 9543 13,354 16,613 20,117 25,496 28,932 141,362
12 Mg magnesium 737.7 1450.7 7732.7 10,542.5 13,630 18,020 21,711 25,661 31,653 35,458
13 Al aluminium 577.5 1816.7 2744.8 11,577 14,842 18,379 23,326 27,465 31,853 38,473
14 Si silicon 786.5 1577.1 3231.6 4355.5 16,091 19,805 23,780 29,287 33,878 38,726
15 P phosphorus 1011.8 1907 2914.1 4963.6 6273.9 21,267 25,431 29,872 35,905 40,950
16 S sulfur 999.6 2252 3357 4556 7004.3 8495.8 27,107 31,719 36,621 43,177
17 Cl chlorine 1251.2 2298 3822 5158.6 6542 9362 11,018 33,604 38,600 43,961
18 Ar argon 1520.6 2665.8 3931 5771 7238 8781 11,995 13,842 40,760 46,186
19 K potassium 418.8 3052 4420 5877 7975 9590 11,343 14,944 16,963.7 48,610
20 Ca calcium 589.8 1145.4 4912.4 6491 8153 10,496 12,270 14,206 18,191 20,385
21 Sc scandium 633.1 1235.0 2388.6 7090.6 8843 10,679 13,310 15,250 17,370 21,726
22 Ti titanium 658.8 1309.8 2652.5 4174.6 9581 11,533 13,590 16,440 18,530 20,833
23 V vanadium 650.9 1414 2830 4507 6298.7 12,363 14,530 16,730 19,860 22,240
24 Cr chromium 652.9 1590.6 2987 4743 6702 8744.9 15,455 17,820 20,190 23,580
25 Mn manganese 717.3 1509.0 3248 4940 6990 9220 11,500 18,770 21,400 23,960
26 Fe iron 762.5 1561.9 2957 5290 7240 9560 12,060 14,580 22,540 25,290
27 Co cobalt 760.4 1648 3232 4950 7670 9840 12,440 15,230 17,959 26,570
28 Ni nickel 737.1 1753.0 3395 5300 7339 10,400 12,800 15,600 18,600 21,670
29 Cu copper 745.5 1957.9 3555 5536 7700 9900 13,400 16,000 19,200 22,400
30 Zn zinc 906.4 1733.3 3833 5731 7970 10,400 12,900 16,800 19,600 23,000
31 Ga gallium 578.8 1979.3 2963 6180
32 Ge germanium 762 1537.5 3302.1 4411 9020
33 As arsenic 947.0 1798 2735 4837 6043 12,310
34 Se selenium 941.0 2045 2973.7 4144 6590 7880 14,990
35 Br bromine 1139.9 2103 3470 4560 5760 8550 9940 18,600
36 Kr krypton 1350.8 2350.4 3565 5070 6240 7570 10,710 12,138 22,274 25,880
37 Rb rubidium 403.0 2633 3860 5080 6850 8140 9570 13,120 14,500 26,740
38 Sr strontium 549.5 1064.2 4138 5500 6910 8760 10,230 11,800 15,600 17,100
39 Y yttrium 600 1180 1980 5847 7430 8970 11,190 12,450 14,110 18,400
40 Zr zirconium 640.1 1270 2218 3313 7752 9500
41 Nb niobium 652.1 1380 2416 3700 4877 9847 12,100
42 Mo molybdenum 684.3 1560 2618 4480 5257 6640.8 12,125 13,860 15,835 17,980
43 Tc technetium 702 1470 2850
44 Ru ruthenium 710.2 1620 2747
45 Rh rhodium 719.7 1740 2997
46 Pd palladium 804.4 1870 3177
47 Ag silver 731.0 2070 3361
48 Cd cadmium 867.8 1631.4 3616
49 In indium 558.3 1820.7 2704 5210
50 Sn tin 708.6 1411.8 2943.0 3930.3 7456
51 Sb antimony 834 1594.9 2440 4260 5400 10,400
52 Te tellurium 869.3 1790 2698 3610 5668 6820 13,200
53 I iodine 1008.4 1845.9 3180
54 Xe xenon 1170.4 2046.4 3099.4
55 Cs caesium 375.7 2234.3 3400
56 Ba barium 502.9 965.2 3600
57 La lanthanum 538.1 1067 1850.3 4819 5940
58 Ce cerium 534.4 1050 1949 3547 6325 7490
59 Pr praseodymium 527 1020 2086 3761 5551
60 Nd neodymium 533.1 1040 2130 3900
61 Pm promethium 540 1050 2150 3970
62 Sm samarium 544.5 1070 2260 3990
63 Eu europium 547.1 1085 2404 4120
64 Gd gadolinium 593.4 1170 1990 4250
65 Tb terbium 565.8 1110 2114 3839
66 Dy dysprosium 573.0 1130 2200 3990
67 Ho holmium 581.0 1140 2204 4100
68 Er erbium 589.3 1150 2194 4120
69 Tm thulium 596.7 1160 2285 4120
70 Yb ytterbium 603.4 1174.8 2417 4203
71 Lu lutetium 523.5 1340 2022.3 4370 6445
72 Hf hafnium 658.5 1440 2250 3216
73 Ta tantalum 761 1500
74 W tungsten 770 1700
75 Re rhenium 760 1260 2510 3640
76 Os osmium 840 1600
77 Ir iridium 880 1600
78 Pt platinum 870 1791
79 Au gold 890.1 1980
80 Hg mercury 1007.1 1810 3300
81 Tl thallium 589.4 1971 2878
82 Pb lead 715.6 1450.5 3081.5 4083 6640
83 Bi bismuth 703 1610 2466 4370 5400 8520
84 Po polonium 812.1
85 At astatine 899.003
86 Rn radon 1037
87 Fr francium 380
88 Ra radium 509.3 979.0
89 Ac actinium 499 1170 1900 4700
90 Th thorium 587 1110 1978 2780
91 Pa protactinium 568 1128 1814 2991
92 U uranium 597.6 1420 1900 3145
93 Np neptunium 604.5 1128 1997 3242
94 Pu plutonium 584.7 1128 2084 3338
95 Am americium 578 1158 2132 3493
96 Cm curium 581 1196 2026 3550
97 Bk berkelium 601 1186 2152 3434
98 Cf californium 608 1206 2267 3599
99 Es einsteinium 619 1216 2334 3734
100 Fm fermium 627 1225 2363 3792
101 Md mendelevium 635 1235 2470 3840
102 No nobelium 642 1254 2643 3956
103 Lr lawrencium 470 1428 2228 4910
104 Rf rutherfordium 579.9 1389.4 2296.4 3077.9
105 Db dubnium 664.8 1546.7 2378.4 3298.8 4305.2
106 Sg seaborgium 757.4 1732.9 2483.5 3415.6 4561.8 5715.8
107 Bh bohrium 742.9 1688.5 2566.5 3598.9 4727.8 5991.7 7226.8
108 Hs hassium 733.3 1756.0 2827.0 3637.5 4940.0 6175.1 7535.5 8857.4
109 Mt meitnerium 800.8 1823.6 2904.2 3859.4 4920.8
110 Ds darmstadtium 955.2 1891.1 3029.6 3955.9 5113.7
111 Rg roentgenium 1022.7 2074.4 3077.9 4052.4 5306.7
112 Cn copernicium 1154.9 2170.0 3164.7 4245.4 5499.7
113 Uut ununtrium 704.9 2238.5 3023.3 4351.5 5692.6
114 Fl flerovium 823.9 1601.6 3367.3 4399.7 5847.0
115 Uup ununpentium 538.4 1756.0 2653.3 4679.5 5721.6
116 Lv livermorium 723.6 1331.5 2846.3 3811.2 6078.6
117 Uus ununseptium 742.9 1785.0–
 1920.1
118 Uuo ununoctium 839.4 1563.1
119 Uue ununennium 463.1 1698.1
120 Ubn unbinilium 578.9 895.4–
 918.5
121 Ubu unbiunium 429.4
122 Ubb unbibium 540.4 1090.4 1968.5 2618.9

11th–20th

number symbol name 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th
11 Na sodium 159,076
12 Mg magnesium 169,988 189,368
13 Al aluminium 42,647 201,266 222,316
14 Si silicon 45,962 50,502 235,196 257,923
15 P phosphorus 46,261 54,110 59,024 271,791 296,195
16 S sulfur 48,710 54,460 62,930 68,216 311,048 337,138
17 Cl chlorine 51,068 57,119 63,363 72,341 78,095 352,994 380,760
18 Ar argon 52,002 59,653 66,199 72,918 82,473 88,576 397,605 427,066
19 K potassium 54,490 60,730 68,950 75,900 83,080 93,400 99,710 444,880 476,063
20 Ca calcium 57,110 63,410 70,110 78,890 86,310 94,000 104,900 111,711 494,850 527,762
21 Sc scandium 24,102 66,320 73,010 80,160 89,490 97,400 105,600 117,000 124,270 547,530
22 Ti titanium 25,575 28,125 76,015 83,280 90,880 100,700 109,100 117,800 129,900 137,530
23 V vanadium 24,670 29,730 32,446 86,450 94,170 102,300 112,700 121,600 130,700 143,400
24 Cr chromium 26,130 28,750 34,230 37,066 97,510 105,800 114,300 125,300 134,700 144,300
25 Mn manganese 27,590 30,330 33,150 38,880 41,987 109,480 118,100 127,100 138,600 148,500
26 Fe iron 28,000 31,920 34,830 37,840 44,100 47,206 122,200 131,000 14,0500 152,600
27 Co cobalt 29,400 32,400 36,600 39,700 42,800 49,396 52,737 134,810 145,170 154,700
28 Ni nickel 30,970 34,000 37,100 41,500 44,800 48,100 55,101 58,570 148,700 159,000
29 Cu copper 25,600 35,600 38,700 42,000 46,700 50,200 53,700 61,100 64,702 163,700
30 Zn zinc 26,400 29,990 40,490 43,800 47,300 52,300 55,900 59,700 67,300 17,1200
36 Kr krypton 29,700 33,800 37,700 43,100 47,500 52,200 57,100 61,800 75,800 80,400
38 Sr strontium 31,270
39 Y yttrium 19,900 36,090
42 Mo molybdenum 20,190 22,219 26,930 29,196 52,490 55,000 61,400 67,700 74,000 80,400

21st–30th

number symbol name 21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th
21 Sc scandium 582,163
22 Ti titanium 602,930 639,294
23 V vanadium 151,440 661,050 699,144
24 Cr chromium 157,700 166,090 721,870 761,733
25 Mn manganese 158,600 172,500 181,380 785,450 827,067
26 Fe iron 163,000 173,600 188,100 195,200 851,800 895,161
27 Co cobalt 167,400 178,100 189,300 204,500 214,100 920,870 966,023
28 Ni nickel 169,400 182,700 194,000 205,600 221,400 231,490 992,718 1,039,668
29 Cu copper 174,100 184,900 1988,00 210,500 222,700 239,100 249,660 1,067,358 1,116,105
30 Zn zinc 179,100
36 Kr krypton 85,300 90,400 96,300 101,400 111,100 116,290 282,500 296,200 311,400 326,200
42 Mo molybdenum 87,000 93,400 98,420 104,400 121,900 127,700 133,800 139,800 148,100 154,500

Notes

References