John N. Gray

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John Gray
Born (1948-04-17) 17 April 1948 (age 66)
South Shields, County Durham
Era 20th-century philosophy
21st-century philosophy
Region Western philosophy
Main interests Political philosophy, history of ideas

John Nicholas Gray (born 17 April 1948) is an English political philosopher with interests in analytic philosophy and the history of ideas.1 He retired as School Professor of European Thought at the London School of Economics and Political Science. Gray contributes regularly to The Guardian, The Times Literary Supplement and the New Statesman, where he is the lead book reviewer.

Gray has written several influential books, including False Dawn: The Delusions of Global Capitalism (1998), which argues that free market globalization is an unstable Enlightenment project currently in the process of disintegration, Straw Dogs: Thoughts on Humans and Other Animals (2003), which attacks philosophical humanism, a worldview which Gray sees as originating in religious ideologies, and Black Mass: Apocalyptic Religion and the Death of Utopia (2007), a critique of utopian thinking in the modern world. Gray sees volition, and hence morality, as an illusion, and portrays humanity as a ravenous species engaged in wiping out other forms of life. Gray writes that 'humans ... cannot destroy the Earth, but they can easily wreck the environment that sustains them.'2

Academic career

Gray was born into a working-class family, with a docker-turned-carpenter father,3 in South Shields, then in County Durham. He attended grammar school in South Shields.4 He studied at Exeter College, Oxford, reading Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE), completing his B.A., M.Phil. and D.Phil.

He formerly held posts as lecturer in political theory at the University of Essex, fellow and tutor in politics at Jesus College, Oxford, and lecturer and then professor of politics at the University of Oxford. He has served as a visiting professor at Harvard University (1985–86) and Stranahan Fellow at the Social Philosophy and Policy Center, Bowling Green State University (1990–1994), and has also held visiting professorships at Tulane University’s Murphy Institute (1991) and Yale University (1994). He was Professor of European Thought at the London School of Economics and Political Science until his retirement from academic life in early 2008.

Political and philosophical thought

Among philosophers, he is known for a thoroughgoing rejection of Rawlsianism and for exploration of the uneasy relationship between value pluralism and liberalism in the work of Isaiah Berlin.5

Gray's political thought is famous for its mobility across the political spectrum over the years. As a student, Gray was on the left and continued to vote Labour into the mid-1970s; by 1976 he had shifted towards a right-liberal New Right position, convinced that the world was changing irrevocably through technological inventions, realigned financial markets and new economic power blocs, and that the left failed to comprehend the magnitude and nature of this change.6 In the 1990s Gray became an advocate for environmentalism and New Labour. Gray considers the conventional (left-wing/right-wing) political spectrum of conservatism and social democracy as no longer viable.7

More recently, he has criticised neoliberalism, the global free market and some of the central currents in Western thinking, such as humanism, while moving towards aspects of green thought, drawing on the Gaia theory of James Lovelock. It is perhaps for this critique of humanism that Gray is best known.8

Central to the doctrine of humanism, in Gray’s view, is the inherently utopian belief in meliorism, namely that humans are not limited by their biological natures and that advances in ethics and politics are cumulative or that they can alter or improve the human condition, in the same way that advances in science and technology have altered or improved living standards.8

Gray contends, in opposition to this view, that history is not progressive, but cyclical. Human nature, he argues, is an inherent obstacle to cumulative ethical or political progress.8 Seeming improvements, if there are any, can very easily be reversed: one example he has cited has been the use of torture by the United States against terrorist suspects.910 "What's interesting," Gray said in an interview in 032c magazine, "is that torture not only came back, but was embraced by liberals, and defended by liberals. Now there are a lot of people, both liberal and conservative, who say, 'Well, it's a very complicated issue.' But it wasn't complicated until recently. They didn't say that five or ten years ago."11

Furthermore, he argues that this belief in progress, commonly imagined to be secular and liberal, is in fact derived from an erroneous Christian notion of humans as morally autonomous beings categorically different from other animals. This belief, and the corresponding idea that history makes sense, or is progressing towards something, is in Gray’s view merely a Christian prejudice.8

In Straw Dogs, he argues that the idea that humans are self-determining agents does not pass the acid test of experience. Those Darwinist thinkers who believe humans can take charge of their own destiny to prevent environmental degradation are, in this view, not naturalists, but apostles of humanism.8

He identifies the Enlightenment as the point at which the Christian doctrine of salvation was taken over by secular idealism and became a political religion with universal emancipation as its aim.8 Communism, fascism and "global democratic capitalism" are characterised by Gray as Enlightenment 'projects' which have led to needless suffering, in Gray's view, as a result of their ideological allegiance to this religion.12

Agonistic liberalism

The term agonistic liberalism appears in John Gray's book Isaiah Berlin from 1995. Gray uses this phrase to describe what he believes is Berlin's theory of politics, namely his support for both value pluralism and liberalism.

More generally, agonistic liberalism could be used to describe any kind of liberalism which claims that its own value commitments do not form a complete vision of politics and society, and that one instead needs to look for what Berlin calls an "uneasy equilibrium" between competing values. Under Gray's understanding, many contemporary liberal theorists would fall in this category, for instance John Rawls and Karl Popper.

Agonistic liberalism is an alternative to Berlin's theory of value pluralism and liberalism. While Berlin claimed equal validity for conflicting liberal views, agonistic liberalism holds that over time solutions may be found that determines which values are correct.13

Agonistic liberalism is the theory that conflict rather than discussion is the basis of social change.14

Acclaim

Gray’s work has been praised by, amongst others, the novelists J. G. Ballard, Will Self and John Banville, the theologian Don Cupitt, the journalist Bryan Appleyard, the political scientist David Runciman, the investor and philanthropist George Soros and the environmental scientist James Lovelock.81516171819

He has discussed James Lovelock's new ideas on evolution's next step; a species beyond human species that will be better able to co-exist with other species on this planet in the distant future.

His 1998 book False Dawn was praised by George Soros as "a powerful analysis of the deepening instability of global capitalism" which "should be read by all who are concerned about the future of the global economy".18 John Banville praised Black Mass, saying that 'Gray's assault on Enlightenment ideas of progress is timelier than ever'.20

His 2002 book Straw Dogs: Thoughts on Humans and Other Animals has received particular praise. J. G. Ballard wrote that the book "challenges most of our assumptions about what it means to be human, and convincingly shows that most of them are delusions" and described it "a powerful and brilliant book", "an essential guide to the new millennium" and "the most exhilarating book I have read since Richard Dawkins's The Selfish Gene."21 Self called the book "a contemporary work of philosophy devoid of jargon, wholly accessible, and profoundly relevant to the rapidly evolving world we live in" and wrote "I read it once, I read it twice and took notes. I arranged to meet its author so I could publicise the book – I thought it that good."1521

In 2002, Straw Dogs was named a book of the year by J. G. Ballard in The Daily Telegraph; by George Walden in The Sunday Telegraph; by Will Self, Joan Bakewell, Jason Cowley and David Marquand in the New Statesman; by Andrew Marr in The Observer; by Jim Crace in The Times; by Hugh Lawson Tancred in The Spectator; by Richard Holloway in the Glasgow Herald; and by Sue Cook in The Sunday Express.

Nassim Nicholas Taleb has written that he considers John N. Gray the modern thinker for whom he has the most respect, calling him "prophetic".22

Criticism

Gray’s Straw Dogs has been criticised by Terry Eagleton "mixing nihilism and New Ageism in equal measure, Gray scoffs at the notion of progress for 150 pages before conceding that there is something to be said for anaesthetics. The enemy in his sights is not so much a Straw Dog as a Straw Man: the kind of starry-eyed rationalist who passed away with John Stuart Mill, but who he has to pretend still rules the world".23 Danny Postel also took issue with Straw Dogs. Postel stated Gray's claim that environmental destruction was the result of humanity's flawed nature, would be "welcome news to the captains of industry and the architects of the global economy; the ecological devastation they leave in their wake, according to Gray, has nothing to do with their exploits."24 Postel also claimed that too much of Straw Dogs rested on "blanket assertion", and criticised Gray's use of the term "plague of people" as an outdated " neo-Malthusian persiflage about overpopulation".24 Postel strongly condemned Gray for outlining "complete political passivity. There is no point whatsoever in our attempting to make the world a less cruel or more livable place."24

Quotations

To affirm that humans thrive in many different ways is not to deny that there are universal human values. Nor is it to reject the claim that there should be universal human rights. It is to deny that universal values can only be fully realized in a universal regime. Human rights can be respected in a variety of regimes, liberal and otherwise. Universal human rights are not an ideal constitution for a single regime throughout the world, but a set of minimum standards for peaceful coexistence among regimes that will always remain different.
 
— John Gray, Two Faces of Liberalism
The core of the belief in progress is that human values and goals converge in parallel with our increasing knowledge. The twentieth century shows the contrary. Human beings use the power of scientific knowledge to assert and defend the values and goals they already have. New technologies can be used to alleviate suffering and enhance freedom. They can, and will, also be used to wage war and strengthen tyranny. Science made possible the technologies that powered the industrial revolution. In the twentieth century, these technologies were used to implement state terror and genocide on an unprecedented scale. Ethics and politics do not advance in line with the growth of knowledge – not even in the long run.
 
— John Gray, essay "Joseph Conrad, Our Contemporary" in Heresies
The most pitiless warriors against drugs have always been militant progressives. In China, the most savage attack on drug use occurred when the country was convulsed by a modern western doctrine of universal emancipation – Maoism. It is no accident that the crusade against drugs is led today by a country wedded to the pursuit of happiness – the United States. For the corollary of that improbable quest is a puritan war on pleasure.
 
— John Gray, Straw Dogs
What could be more natural for a species that has exterminated its animal kin than to look into a mirror and find that it is not alone?
 
— John Gray, Straw Dogs
People need to believe that order can be glimpsed in the chaos of events.
 
— John Gray, Heresies

BBC Radio

In August/September 2011 John Gray presented a series of talks for BBC Radio 4. Across six talks for A Point of View25 he reflected on a range of topical issues, including:

  • Greece and the Meaning of Folly:26 Taking the myth of the Trojan Horse as his starting point, he explores what he sees as the modern day folly unfolding in Europe.
  • Kim Philby:27 Why Kim Philby and so many others failed to predict the future.
  • The Revolution of Capitalism:28 Why an increasing number of people believe that Karl Marx was right.
  • Cats, Birds and Humans:29 Why the human animal needs contact with something other than itself.
  • Believing in Belief:30 Argues if the scientific and rationalist attack on religion is misguided.
  • Churchill, Chance and the Black Dog:31 The chance encounters that made Winston Churchill Britain's wartime Prime Minister.
  • A Point of View: podcast32

Bibliography

Books about Gray

Film appearances

References

  1. ^ "John Gray at the Writers' Festival - Part 1 - The Philosopher's Zone - ABC Radio National (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". Abc.net.au. 2008-06-28. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  2. ^ John Gray, Straw Dogs: Thoughts on Humans and Other Animals, (Granta Books 2002), p. 12. ISBN 1-86207-512-3
  3. ^ "John Gray interview: how an English academic become the world’s pre-eminent prophet of doom". Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  4. ^ "The NS Profile: John Gray". Newstatesman.com. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  5. ^ Cherniss, Joshua; Hardy, Henry. "Isaiah Berlin". In Zalta, Edward N. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2007 Edition). Retrieved 2007-07-04.  §4. Ethical Thought and Value Pluralism.
  6. ^ "Ethics Man: John Gray's New Moral World". Onlinelibrary.wiley.com. 2003-01-10. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  7. ^ False Dawn: The Delusions of Global Capitalism
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Straw Dogs: Thoughts on Humans and Other Animals
  9. ^ A Modest Proposal For Preventing Torturers in Liberal Democracies From Being Abused, and For Recognising Their Benefit to The Publicdead link
  10. ^ "Going nowhere: Laurie Taylor interviews John Gray". Newhumanist.org.uk. 2007-05-31. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  11. ^ "John Gray: Post-American Age". 032c. Retrieved 11 February 2013. 
  12. ^ The darkness within. John Gray on why the left is in flight from "human nature". John Gray. Published in New Statesman 16 September 2002
  13. ^ Talisse, Robert B. "Liberalism, Pluralism, and Political Justification", THE HARVARD REVIEW OF PHILOSOPHY vol.XIII no.2 2005, p. 60
  14. ^ Martin, James. "Piero Gobetti's agonistic liberalism". History of European Ideas Volume 32, Issue 2, June 2006, Pages 205-222
  15. ^ a b "John Gray: forget everything you know". The Independent. 
  16. ^ Cowley, Jason (19 September 2002). "Observer review: Straw Dogs by John Gray". The Guardian. 
  17. ^ Appleyard, Bryan. "John Gray's apocalypse". The Times. 
  18. ^ a b False Dawn: The Delusions of Global Capitalism
  19. ^ Black Mass: Apocalyptic Religion and the Death of Utopia
  20. ^ Gray's Anatomy: Selected Writings
  21. ^ a b "Straw Dogs: Thoughts on Humans and Other Animals: Amazon.co.uk: John Gray: Books". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  22. ^ "Granta Books". Granta Books. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  23. ^ Terry Eagleton (2002-09-07). "Review: Straw Dogs by John Gray | Books". The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  24. ^ a b c Postel, Danny (22 December 2003). "Gray's Anatomy". The Nation. Retrieved 25 April 2013. 
  25. ^ "BBC Radio 4 - A Point of View - Available now". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  26. ^ "BBC Radio 4 - A Point of View, Greece and the Meaning of Folly". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-08-21. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  27. ^ "BBC Radio 4 - A Point of View, Kim Philby". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-08-28. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  28. ^ "BBC Radio 4 - A Point of View, John Gray: The revolution of capitalism". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-09-04. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  29. ^ "BBC Radio 4 - A Point of View, Cats, birds and humans". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-09-11. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  30. ^ "BBC Radio 4 - A Point of View, Believing in Belief". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-09-18. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  31. ^ "BBC Radio 4 - A Point of View, Churchill, chance and the black dog". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-09-25. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 
  32. ^ "podcast". Bbc.co.uk. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2013-08-09. 

External links

Articles

The Guardian

The Independent

The Observer

Profiles

Interviews

Reviews of his work