Kidepo Valley National Park
|Kidepo Valley National Park|
|Name origin: from the Dodoth verb akidep, meaning ‘to pick up’|
|Region||Northern Region, Uganda|
|Biome||East Sudanian Savanna|
|Management||Uganda Wildlife Authority|
|Easiest access||air, road|
|IUCN category||II - National Park|
Kidepo Valley National Park is a 1,442 square kilometres (557 sq mi) national park in the Karamoja region in northeast Uganda. Kidepo is rugged savannah, dominated by the 2,750 metres (9,020 ft) Mount Morungole and transected by the Kidepo and Narus rivers.
Kidepo Valley National park is located in Kaabong District, in the northeastern corner of Uganda. The park is located approximately 220 kilometres (140 mi), by road northwest of Moroto, the largest town in the sub-region. Its location is approximately 520 kilometres (320 mi), by road, northeast of Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest city.1
The northwestern boundary of the park runs along the international frontier with South Sudan and abuts against the Kidepo Game Reserve.
Dodoth pastoralists and Ik farmers lived in the area before it was gazetted as a game reserve by the British colonial government in 1958. The purpose was both to protect the animals from hunting and to prevent further clearing of bush for tsetse fly-control.23 The eviction of the resident people and the resultant famine, especially among the Ik, is cited in contemporary protected area management as an example of the unacceptable consequences of not taking community needs into account when designating reserves.4 The newly independent Government of Uganda under Milton Obote converted the reserve into the Kidepo Valley National Park in 1962.
The first Chief Warden of the National Park was Ian Ross, a Briton. In 1972 Paul Ssali, a Ugandan, replaced him. Their handover and training was the subject of the 1974 American documentary film, "The Wild and the Brave." 56
The park consists of the two major valley systems of the Kidepo and Narus Rivers. The valley floors lie between 3,000 feet (910 m) and 4,000 feet (1,200 m) AMSL.7
Kanangarok (also spelled Kananorok or Kanatarok) is a tepid hot spring in the extreme north of the Park, beside the South Sudanese boundary. This spring is the most permanent source of water in the park. The soil in the park is clayey. In the Kidepo Valley black chalky clay and sandy-clay loam predominate, while the Narus Valley has freer-draining red clays and loams.2
Most of the park is open tree savannah. Because of differences in rainfall — with annual averages of 89 centimetres (35 in) in Narus and 64 centimetres (25 in) in the Kidepo basin — vegetation and animal populations vary between the two valleys.8
Primary grasses in the Narus Valley are the shorter red oat grass and taller bunchy Guinea grass and fine thatching grass.27 Common trees in the drier areas are red thorn acacias, desert dates, and to a lesser extent drumstick trees. The iconic sausage trees and fan palms line the water courses.7 Euphorbia candelabrum and the shorter monkey bread (or camel's foot) and Buffalo thorn trees are also found.8
Perennial water makes River Kidepo an oasis in the semi-desert which hosts over 86 mammal species including lion, cheetah, leopard, bat-eared fox, giraffe — as well as almost 500 bird species.9
The park is managed by the Uganda Wildlife Authority.
The administration of the park is led by a Chief Warden. This position has been held by the following wardens:
- 1958-1962 Tony Henley10
- 1964-1972 Ian Ross
- 1972- ? Paul Ssali
- -1981 A.M.K. Bendebule (died in air crash in the park)11
- 1994- Peter Lotyang
- 1996 Anjelo Ajoka
- 1998 (acting) Daniel Aleper 12
- 2001-2002 Joseph Sentongo 13
- 2003-2006 Kuloao Okwongo 14
- 2008 Henry Tusubira 15
During the 1960s Kidepo had a sustainable Rothschild giraffe population of over 400 animals. By 1992 this had been poached down to only three animals, including a single female. In 1997 Warden Peter Möller obtained funding from the Frankfurt Zoological Society to translocate giraffes from Kenya's Lake Nakuru National Park. Three females and one male were flown to Kidepo. The largest female died of transport injuries and the male was eaten by lions shortly after being released.16
Game viewing is possible by vehicle on dirt roads that crisscross the southern and western parts of the park. A few trunk roads are improved with murram and are passable in all weather.
- Uganda Wildlife Authority
- Kaabong District
- Narus River
- Kidepo River
- Kidepo Game Reserve
- Road Distance Between Kampala and Kidepo with Map
- Spinage, Clive Alfred (12). African Ecology: Benchmarks and Historical Perspectives (1. ed. ed.). Berlin: Springer. p. 710. ISBN 3642228712.
- Laban MacOpiyo (May 2011). Pastoralists’ Livelihoods In The Kidepo Valley Area of Northern Uganda (Report). African Union. http://www.au-ibar.org/index.php?option=com_phocadownload&view=category&download=326%3Abaseline-study-for-uganda&id=26%3Areports-and-documents&Itemid=152&start=180&lang=en.
- Harmon, David (1998). J. Baird Callicott and Michael Nelson, ed. Cultural Diversity, Human Subsistence, and the National Park Ideal. The Great New Wilderness Debate. Athens: University of Georgia. pp. 217–230.
- Ross, Jay (January 5, 1983). "Warden Task isn't Easy". The Washington Post.
- Heminway, John (1983). No man's land : the last of White Africa. (1. ed. ed.). New York: Dutton. p. 243. ISBN 0525241965.
- Ross, Iain; Harrington, G. (1968). "The Practical Aspects Of Implementing A Controlled Burning Scheme In The Kidepo Valley National Park". E. Afr. Wildl. J. 6: 101–105. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.1968.tb00907.x.
- Field, C. R.; Ross, I. C. (1 March 1976). "The savanna ecology of Kidepo Valley National Park.". African Journal of Ecology 14 (1): 1–15. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2028.1976.tb00148.x.
- Fauna of Kidepo National Park
- Wieland, Terry (2000). A view from a tall hill : Robert Ruark in Africa. Camden, Me.: Countrysport Press. ISBN 978-0892726509.
- IUCN Bulletin: 26. March 1981 http://www.rhinoresourcecenter.com/pdf_files/131/1312448924.pdf
|url=missing title (help). Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- Okech, Oscar (10 March 1998). "Uganda: Bush Fires Rage In Kidepo". New Vision. Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- "Uganda expects tourism boost".
- "About 2,000 Sudanese cross into Uganda to seek water". Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- "North Eastern Uganda- South Sudan Road Commissioned". Retrieved 11 July 2012.
- Kalema, Gladys (March 1998). "Translocation of Rotschilds giraffes Giraffa camelopardalis rothschildi from Kenya to Uganda". In Pritpal, Soorae. Re-introduction News (Nairobi: IUCN) (15): 8. Retrieved 11 July 2012.