Korean shamanism, today known as Muism (Korean: 무교 Mugyo, "religion of the mu [shamans]")12 or sometimes Sinism (신교 Singyo, "religion of the gods", with sin or shin being the Hangul character 신, derivative of the Hanja 神),3 encompasses a variety of indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Korean people and the Korean sphere.4 In contemporary South Korea, the most used term is "Muism" and a shaman is known as a mudang (무당, 巫堂) or tangol (당골). The role of the mudang, usually a woman, is to act as intermediary between a spirit entity, spirits or gods and human beings.
Mudang are hired by those who want the help of the spiritual world. Shamans hold gut, or services, in order to gain good fortune for clients, cure illnesses by exorcising negative or 'bad' spirits that cling to people, or propitiate local or village gods. Such services are also held to guide the spirit of a deceased person to higher realms.
Although many Koreans converted to Buddhism when it was introduced to the country in the 4th century, leading to the development of Korean schools, it remained a minor, élite religion in comparison to Sinism. In facts, Muism remained the predominant religion of the Koreans (90% of the population) until the 19th century, practiced in concert with the official Korean Confucianism.5 In the 20th century, a series of factors have concurred to its destruction, leading to the dismemberment of the fabric of Korean society, which has ultimately paved the way for the growth of Christianity and Buddhism, currently dominant in South Korea.65
During the Japanese rule over Korea, the Japanese showed Korean Muism as backwards in the attempt to replace it with State Shinto, although during the same period academic study on Muist matter flourished.7 For a brief period in the 1940s, after the demise of the Japanese rule in the peninsula, Muism became identified with the pure Korean national essence.8 This changed abruptly with the division of Korea and the consequential northern Socialist governments and the southern pro-Christian governments, both contributing to the further erosion of the Korean traditional religion.9 A revival is currently underway in South Korea.1011 In North Korea, according to government figures roughly 16% of the population is Muist.12
Muism is distinguished by seeking to resolve human problems through a meeting of humanity and the spirits. This can be seen clearly in the various types of gut (굿) that are widely practiced. Korean shamanism is genetically related, and thus similar in many ways, to ancient Japanese Shinto, and to the Siberian, Mongolian, and Manchurian religious traditions. As highlighted by anthropological study, the Korean ancestral god Dangun is related to the Uralo-Altaic Tengri, that is the Heaven, the shaman and the prince.13 Korean mudang resemble the yuta found on the religious tradition of the Ryukyu Islands, or the miko of Shinto.
Jeju Island is a center of Muism.14 Korean shamanism has exerted influence on the formation of some of the Korean new religions, such as Cheondoism and Jeungsanism. According to various sociological studies, also many Christian churches in Korea make use of practices rooted in shamanism.15
Korean Muist temples are generically called myo (meaning "temple") or gung ("palace"). Historically, the Korean traditional religion also included the institutional worship of the originating gods of a kinship in ancestral temples, the sadang (사당, meaning "shrine"), similarly to other East Asian cultures. Muist temples are distinguished by the use of the taegeuk symbol on their doorways, and many of them have gates similar to Shinto torii. The worship of kinship gods has been nearly entirely obliterated due to the political disarray of the 20th century, with only few, mostly unused, shrines still surviving. However, recently there have been cases of reconstruction of shrines and reactivation of traditional rites in some villages.16
- 1 Origins
- 2 Place in society
- 3 Revival as cultural society
- 4 Types of mudang
- 5 Shinbyeong (spirit sickness)
- 6 Rituals or gut (굿)
- 7 Regional shaman rites
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Belief in a world inhabited by spirits is probably the oldest form of Korean religious life, dating back to prehistoric times. Shamanism has its roots in ancient, land-based cultures, dating at least as far back as 40,000 years. The shaman was known as "magician, medicine man, mystic and poet" (Eliade, 1974). What set him apart from other healers or priests was his ability to move at will into trance states. During a trance, the shaman’s soul left his body and travelled to other realms, where helping spirits guided him in his work. The shaman provided healing on many levels; physical, psychological and spiritual. The work of the shaman was based on the holistic model, which took into consideration, not only the whole person, but the individual’s interaction with his environment, both his inner and outer world. The soul is considered the place of life breath, where a human's essence (life energy) resides, and any physical illness is inextricably linked with sickness of the soul. Illness of the mind has its origins (root cause) in soul loss, intrusion or possession.
There is a rather unorganized pantheon of gods, spirits, and ghosts, ranging from the "god generals" who rule the different aspects of heaven to mountain spirits (sansin). This pantheon also includes gods who inhabit trees, sacred caves, and piles of stones, as well as earth spirits, the tutelary gods of households and villages, mischievous goblins, and the ghosts of deceased individuals that in many cases met violent or tragic ends. These spirits are said to have the power to influence or to change the fortunes of living men and children.
The rites themselves have gone through a number of changes through the Silla and Goryeo periods. Even during the Joseon Dynasty, which was heavily Confucian, shamanistic rites persisted. In the past such shamanic rites included agricultural rites, such as prayers for abundant harvest.
With a shift away from agriculture in modern Korea this has largely been lost, and modern-day mudang are more focused on the fulfillment of the spiritual or mundane needs of urban people.
There is no notion of salvation or moral and spiritual perfection (that aspect of spiritual life ordinarily being the purview of Buddhist practice). The shaman is a professional who is consulted by clients whenever the need is felt. From the Joseon era on, shamans held low social status and were members of the cheonmin (천민) class. This discrimination has continued into modern times.
Animistic beliefs are strongly associated with the culture of agricultural, fishing and the common villages and are primarily a phenomenon found in rural communities. Shamans also treat the ills of city people, however, especially recent migrants from the countryside who find adjustment to an impersonal urban life stressful.
The government has discouraged belief in shamanism as superstition and for many years minimized its persistence in Korean life. Yet in a climate of growing nationalism and cultural self-confidence, the dances, songs, and incantations that compose the gut have come to be recognized as an important aspect of Korean culture.
Beginning in the 1970s, rituals that formerly had been kept out of foreign view began to resurface, and occasionally even the manager of a Western-style hotel or other executive could even be seen attending a shamanic exorcism in the course of opening a new branch in Seoul. Some of these aspects of gut have been designated valuable cultural properties that need to be preserved and passed on to future generations.
The future of shamanism itself was uncertain in the late 1980s. However, observers believed that many of shamanism's applications would probably be performed by the psychiatric profession as the government expands mental health treatment facilities in the future
Mudang can be categorized into two basic archetypes: sessǔmu, who inherit the right to perform the shamanic rituals and kangshinmu, who are initiated into their mudang status through a ceremony. Sessŭmu historically lived in the southern part of the Korean peninsula, while kangshimu were found throughout the peninsula and contiguous areas inhabited by Koreans, but were mostly concentrated in the north (modern-day North Korea) and the contiguous areas of China and the central part of the peninsula around the Han River.18
Kangshinmu are historically found throughout Korea, but are especially concentrated in the central and northern regions of the peninsula and in the lands contiguous to the northern part of the peninsula. The essential characteristic of the kangshinmu is that the shaman becomes one with a god or spirit as part of her ceremony. There are two types of kangshinmu: one shares its name with the general Korean word for shaman, mudang; the other is called the myǒngdu.18
A person becomes a kangshinmu by participating in an initiation ceremony known as a naerim-gut, during which she undergoes a state known as a shinbyeong (神病. The kangshinmu-initiate is said to be possessed by a spirit during the ceremony. The act of possession is said to be accompanied by physical pain and psychosis. Believers would assert that the physical and mental symptoms are not subject to medical treatment, but may only be cured through acceptance of and full communion with the spirit.19
A mudang is a type of shaman that has become possessed by a god, called a momju. Mudang perform fortune telling using their spiritual powers derived from their possession. They preside over a gut involving song and dance. A subcategory of this type, called sǒnmudang or posal, are thought to have power through a spiritual experience, but are not considered worthy to preside over an orthodox gut. Certain shamans in this category are male and are called paksu.20
Myǒngdu differ from the basic type of mudang in that they receive the spirit of a dead person (usually a young child relative of the Myǒngdu) rather than being possessed by a god. The myǒngdu invites the spirit to a shrine in her dwelling. Myǒngdu are found primarily in the Honam area of Korea.21
Seseummu, found in the area south of the Han River, have their status as shamans passed on through family bloodlines. Two types of mudang are considered seseummu: shimbang and tang'ol.
Shimbang are similar to the kangshimu types of mudang in that the godhead and importance of spirituality are emphasized. However, unlike with kangshimu, the right to conduct ceremonies is hereditary. Moreover, a shimbang differs from a kangshimu in that their bodies are not possessed by spirits or gods during the gut ritual. Rather, the shimbang contacts the god through a medium (mujǒmgu) and does not become one with the god. In addition, the shimbang does not maintain a shrine.22
Tang'ol are a type of mudang found mostly in the southernmost areas of the Korean peninsula and especially in the Yeongnam area (Gyeongsang-do) and the Honam area (Jeolla-do). The tang'ol of Honam each had individual districts (tang'olp'an) in which they had the exclusive right to perform certain shamanic ceremonies or gut. The gut performed by the tang'ol involve song and dance that serve to entertain a god or goddess, but there is interaction with or channeling of the god. Both the rights of succession and the ceremonies themselves have been systematized through the years so that they now bear the characteristics of a religious institution. Unlike other types of mudang, tang'ol do not receive a god as part of an initiation ceremony. A tang'ol will not have a shrine in her home and will not generally have a defined belief system in a particular god.23
The central feature of a shaman's initiation is her affliction with an illness known as a shinbyeong. This is also called the "spirit sickness" or "self-loss" and characterized by a loss of appetite, insomnia, visual and auditory hallucinations. A ritual called a naerim-gut cures this illness, which also serves to induct the new shaman.24
The symptoms of a mudang's shinbyeong differ, depending on the mudang's cultural background as well as her surrounding environment. For example, in the most basic, frequent type of shinbyeong, the initiate is afflicted with the characteristic symptoms without apparent cause. The mudang cannot eat and becomes weak physically and psychologically. In another type of shinbyeong, these basic symptoms are preceded by physical illness. In yet another, the shinbyeong is caused by a psychotic episode. In a type of shinbyeong that is relatively rare, the mudang's mental state becomes weakened through external shock. Another rarely occurring type of shinbyeong, called the "dream appearance type", the shinbyeong is triggered by a dream in which the mudang sees a god, spirit, or unusual occurrence, accompanied by a revelation.25
The symptoms of the shinbyeong can last a surprisingly long time: an average of 8 years and as many as 30. Most mudang have little appetite during their shinbyeong, some suffer from indigestion and partake only on a limited diet. The body of the mudang becomes weak and is subject to pain and cramping accompanied by bloody stool in some cases. Physical symptoms progress to include mental illness. The initiate has a generally restless mind and is said to experience dreams in which she communicates with gods or spirits. Eventually dreams and reality become blurred and the mudang suffers hallucinations. In some cases, the mental illness becomes so extreme that the mudang leaves home and wanders through mountains and rice fields. The symptoms are said not to be susceptible to normal medical treatment and such treatment is believed to only exacerbate them. Rather, the symptoms are alleviated through the ritual of gangshinje, a type of gut in which the mudang receives her god or spirit.26
In the fourth version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), published by the American Psychiatric Association,27 the diagnosis of shinbyeong, or shin-byung, is based on the following criteria:
- somatic complaints (general weakness, dizziness, fear, anorexia, insomnia, gastrointestinal problems)
- subsequent dissociation and possession by ancestral spirits
In the tradition of Muism, the shinbyeong is considered a structured religious experience demonstrating the vertical connection between god and humanity and showing that "god in some form exists in human consciousness." It is a form of revelation that causes the shaman to become one with god and, consequently, change her patterns of thought. The shinbyeong is dissociated from reality and enters a higher form of consciousness.28
The gut is a shamanic ritual during which the shaman offers a sacrifice to the spirits. Through singing and dancing the shaman begs the spirits to intervene in the fortunes of the humans in question. The shaman wears a very colourful costume and normally speaks in trance. During a gut a shaman changes his or her costume several times.
There are three elements of a gut. Firstly, there are the spirits as the object of folk beliefs. Secondly, there are the believers who pray to those spirits. Finally, there is the shaman mediating between the two.
The actual form of gut varies between regions. The unfolding and style of the shamanic rite depends largely on the objective of the ceremony. The individual character and abilities of the shaman bring a unique character to the respective ritual to be performed.
The main variations of gut are naerim-gut, dodang-gut and ssitgim-gut and shamans are either of hereditary lineage or spirit-possessed.
This gut is an initiation rite. As part of the rite, someone becomes a shaman by being possessed by a spirit. This ritual causes the shinbyeong a temporary acute psychotic manic episode.24
This communal rite is common in central provinces in South Korea. Its aim is to wish for the well-being and prosperity of a particular village or hamlet. This rite is normally held annually or once every few years. It is always held either around the New Year or in spring or autumn. The dodang-gunt is distinguished by giving prominent roles to the female mudang.
This rite is used to cleanse the spirit of a deceased person. Since ancient times there is a Korean belief that when somebody dies, their body cannot enter the world of the dead because of the impurity of their spirit. The ssitgim-gunt washes away this impurity. It is observed mainly in the provinces in the south west of South Korea.
During the sequential performance of the twelve segments that comprise a typical chaesugut, more than half of the costumes the mansin wears are male. The most interactive and dynamic portions of the gut usually occur during the mansin's possession by the pyolsang (spirits of the other world) and the greedy taegam (the overseer), which require male costumes. This cross-dressing serves several purposes. First, since the mansin is often possessed by both male and female spirits and can thus become an icon of the opposite sex, it is reasonable that she use the attire of both sexes. But in a context in which women are publicly demeaned, where their symbolic value is reduced by strong Confucian ideology, the female mansin's cross-dressing becomes complex and multi-functional.29
In semiotic terms, the costume is an icon for the person or the spirit it represents. The mansin in the costume assumes the role of that icon, thereby becoming a female signifying a male; she is a cross-sex icon about 75% of the time during a typical gut. In the context of the gut, the mansin is a sexually liminal being; by signifying a man, she not only has access to the male authority in the Confucian order, she provides the female audience an opportunity to interact with that authority in ways that would, in a public context, be unthinkable. Her performance is often a parody of the male authority figures; she often makes off-color jokes and ribald comments, and argues with the audience.29
|Hamgyeong-do Manmukgut||Performed three days after a death in order to open a passage way to the land of the dead.||Hamgyeong-do|
|Pyeongan-do Darigut||This gut is dedicated to the spirit of a deceased person and facilitates the entry into the land of the dead. Its procedures resemble some Buddhist procedures.||Pyeongan-do|
|Hwanghae-do Naerimgut||This initiation rite is a traditional nerium-gunt.||Hwanghae-do|
|Hwanghae-do Jinogwigut||This gut is performed for the dead. It guides to paradise by salvation of angry spirits.||Hwanghae-do|
|Ongjin Baeyeonsingut||This rite is a fishermen's rite in honour of the dragon king of the sea. Its purpose is wishing for abundant catch and communal peace all year round.||Hwanghae-do|
|Yangju Sonorigut||This is a cattle worship rite. It is performed for good harvests, good luck and prosperity of the local community. It is one of the most sophisticated shamanistic performances in Korea.||Yangju, Gyeonggi|
|Seoul Danggut||This gut is for peace and abundant harvest.||Mt. Jeongbalsan, Dapsimni- dong, Sinnae- dong, Mt. Bonghwasan, Seoul|
|Seoul Jinogwigut||This rite is for the dead, to prepare passage way to the land of the dead. It is supposed to lead the deceased person to paradise in 49 days after death. This goes back to Taoist beliefs that every person has seven souls, one of which ascends to heaven every seven days.||Seoul|
|Gyeonggi-do Dodanggut||This rite is held every second month of the lunar calendar. It wards off evil spirits from a community. Well-being to the villagers is induced by worshipping the tutelary grandparents at the tutelary shrines.||Dingmak area, Jangmal area in Bucheon, Gyeonggi|
|Gangneung Danogut||This rite is a large-scale gut. It involves dozens of shamans praying to the mountain deity for communal safety from wild animals. There are also prayers for abundant crops and catches of fish. Masked dance dramas and colourful folk games surround this rite.||Gangneung, Gangwon-do|
|Eunsan Byeolsingut||This rite is dedicated to the tutelary spirits of the villages. It includes a struggle of General Boksin and the reverend priest Dochim who recovered the sovereignty of the Baekje Kingdom. Part of the rite is held before guardian totem poles.||Eunsan- ri, Buyeo- gun, South Chungcheong|
|Suyongpo Sumanggut||This gut is dedicated to persons who died at sea and leads them to the land of the dead.||Yeongil- gun, North Gyeongsang|
|Gangsa-ri Beomgut||This communal gut is held once every three years. Shamans pray for the protection from tigers, abundant catch at sea and communal peace.||Gangsa-ri, Yeongil-gun, North Gyeongsang|
|Geojedo Byeolsingut||This rite is held at every fishing village in order to pray for abundant catch and communal peace.||Geoje, South Gyeongsang|
|Tongyeong Ogwisaenamgut||This gut is held to console the spirits of a person drowned at sea and leading to the land of the dead.||Tongyeong, South Gyeongsang|
|Wido Ttibaegut||This is a fishermen's rite and involves many tutelary spirits wishing for good fortune||Wido Island, Buan-gun, North Jeolla|
|Jindo Ssitgimgut||This rite helps cleansing the spirits of deceased persons. It is also performed at the first anniversary of a death.||Jindo Islands, Jangsando Islands, South Jeolla|
|Jejudo Singut||This rite helps a shaman being promoted to a higher rank of shamanship. This is also an initiation rite, and a shaman holds this gut three times in their life.||Jeju|
|Jejudo Yeongdeunggut||This rite is held in the second month of the lunar calendar. It is held to worship the Yeongdeungsin, the goddess of the sea, who will grant safety and abundant catches.||Coastal areas, Jeju|
|Jejudo Muhongut||This rite is held to cleanse the spirits of someone drowned at sea and guide this person to the land of the dead.||Jeju|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shamanism of Korea.|
- Chang Soo-kyung, Kim Tae-gon. Korean Shamanism – Muism. Jimoondang, 1998.
- Choi Joon-sik. Folk-religion: The Customs in Korea.
- Margaret Stutley. Shamanism: A Concise Introduction. Routledge, 2003.
- Pyong Gap Min. Preserving Ethnicity Through Religion in America: Korean Protestants and Indian Hindus Across Generations. New York University Press, 2010. ISBN 081479615X. p. 44
- Andrew Eungi Kim. Political Insecurity, Social Chaos, Religious Void and the Rise of Protestantism in Late Nineteenth-Century Korea. In: Social History. Vol. 26, No. 3 (October 2001). pp. 267-281
- Sorensen, pp. 11-22
- Sorensen, p. 23
- Sorensen, pp. 24-27
- Chongho Kim. Korean Shamanism: The Cultural Paradox. Ashgate Publishing, 2003.
- Choe Sang-hun. Shamanism Enjoys Revival in Techno-Savvy South Korea. The New York Times, 2007.
- "Religious Intelligence UK report". Religious Intelligence. Religious Intelligence. Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved 2009-07-04.
- Sorensen, p. 19-20
- Brian Miller. Jeju's mythical past still alive and well. 2008.
- Andrew E. Kim. Korean Religious Culture and Its Affinity to Christianity. Korea University, Sociology of Religion, 2000.
- Heonik Kwon. Healing the Wounds of War: New Ancestral Shrines in Korea. The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol. 24-4-09, June 15, 2009.
- Demick, Barbara (2010). Nothing to Envy: Ordinary Lives in North Korea (UK ed.). Granta Publications. ISBN 978-1-84708-141-4.
- Kim 1998, pp. 32–33
- Kim 1998, pp. 41–42
- Kim 1998, pp. 28–29
- Kim 1998, p. 32
- Kim 1998, pp. 31–32
- Kim 1998, pp. 29–30
- Kim 1998, pp. 42–43
- Kim 1998, pp. 43–44
- Kim 1998, pp. 48–49
- American Psychiatric Association (2000). "Glossary of Culture-Bound Syndromes: shin-byung". Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) (Washington, D.C.). DSM-IV.
- Kim 1998, pp. 52–53
- Fenkl, Heinz Insu. "Dancing on Knives: An Introduction to the Politics of Sexuality and Gender in Korean Shamanism". Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- Kim, Tae-kon (1998). Korean Shamanism—Muism. Jimoondang Publishing Company. ISBN 89-88095-09-X Translated by Chang Soo-kyung.
- Clark W. Sorensen, University of Washington. The Political Message of Folklore in South Korea's Student Demonstrations of the Eighties: An Approach to the Analysis of Political Theater. Paper presented at the conference "Fifty Years of Korean Independence", sponsored by the Korean Political Science Association, Seoul, Korea, July 1995.
- Hogarth, hyun-key Kim (1998). "Kut: Happyness through reciprocity". International Society for Shamanistic Research. Bibliotheca Shamanistica 7 (Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó). ISBN 963-05-7545-0
- Korean Shamanism from Christian Perspectives An article about "gut" ritual analyzed through Christian spiritual notions
- Village guardians
- What is Shamanism?
- Dancing on Knives: An Introduction to the Politics of Sexuality and Gender in Korean Shamanism
- Knife Dancing Ceremonydead link
- In the age of the Internet, Korean shamans regain popularity by Choe Sang-Hun, July 6, 2007, in the International Herald Tribune
- Korea Society Podcast: Journey to the Grave, Dance to Paradise: Shamanic Rituals for the Dead
- Website of the Korea Tourism Organization
- Spiritual City: Seoul's Sacred Places (official Seoul city Tourism)
- 한국의 신흥종교
- 民間信仰 Overview in Jeollanam-do
- 말뭉치 용례 검색