List of thermal conductivities

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

In heat transfer, the thermal conductivity of a substance, k, is an intensive property that indicates its ability to conduct heat.

Thermal conductivity is often measured with laser flash analysis. Alternative measurements are also established.

Mixtures may have variable thermal conductivities due to composition.

Note that this table shows thermal conductivity in units of watts per metre per Kelvin (W·m−1·K−1). This is the current metric unit of measurement. Prior to this, however, thermal conductivity was measured in terms of BTUs per foot per hour per degree Fahrenheit. A value for the former can be computed from the latter by multiplying by 1.728.1 To convert from W/m K to Btu/hr.ft.F multiply by 0.5777892052

Material Thermal conductivity W·m−1·K−1 Temperature [K] Electrical conductivity @ 293 K
Ω−1·m−1
Notes
Acrylic Glass (Plexiglas V045i) 0.172-0.192-0.23 2962 7.143E-152 - 5.0E-142
Air 0.024456-0.0257
0.0262 (1 bar)8
0.0457 (1 bar)8
27345-2937-2986
3008
6008
hiAerosols2.959-loAerosols7.839×10−15 (78.03%N2,21%O2,+0.93%Ar,+0.04%CO2) (1 atm)
Alcohols OR Oils 0.167-0.11010-0.2167-0.21210 2937-2986-30010
Aluminium, pure 204.311-2054-22012-2377131415-2506
214.611
249.311
293711-29861415
36611
47811
37,450,00014 - 37,740,00016
Aluminium nitride 17013-17517-19017 29317 1×10^−1117
Aluminium oxide, pure 2618-307-3518-3913-4019 29371819 1×10^−12-1819
Ammonia, saturated 0.50710 30010
Argon 0.0166-0.0177215-0.01791520 298615-3001520
Beryllium oxide 21813-26021-30021 29321 1×10^−1221
Bismuth 7.9715 30015
Brass Cu63% 12522 29622 15,150,00022 - 16,130,00022 (Cu63%, Zn37%)
Brass Cu70% 109423 - 12123 2934-29623 12,820,00023 - 16,130,00023 (Cu70%, Zn30%)
Brick 0.154-0.64-0.696-1.316 2934-2986
Bronze 2612
4224-501124
29311-29624
5,882,00024 - 7,143,00024
Sn25%12
(Cu89%, Sn11%)24
Calcium silicate 0.06325 37325
Carbon dioxide 0.01466-0.0146526-0.016820(sat. liquid 0.08727) 2986-27326-30020(29327)
Carbon nanotubes, bulk 2.5 (multiwall)28 - 35 (single wall, disordered mats)28 - 200(single wall, aligned mats)28 30028 "bulk" refers to a group of nanotubes either arranged or disordered, for a single nanotube, see "carbon nanotube, single" .28
Carbon nanotube, single 3180 (multiwall)2930-3500 (single wall)31
(SWcalc.6,6002932-37,0002932)
3202930-30031
(3002932-1002932)
(Lateral)10−1633 - (Ballistic)10833) values only for one single SWNT(length:2.6 μm, diameter:1.7 nm) and CNT. "Single", as opposed to "bulk" quantity (see "carbon nanotubes, bulk" ) of many nanotubes, which should not be confused with the denomination of nanotubes themselves which can be singlewall(SWNT) or multiwall(CNT)28
Concrete 0.84 - 1.287 - 1.65 34 - 2.5 34 2937 ~61-67%CaO
Copper, pure 3854-3861112-3907-40161535
368.711
353.111
293467111535
57311
87311
59,170,00035 - 59,590,00016 International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) pure =1.7×10−8Ω•m
=58.82×106Ω−1•m−1

For main article, see: Copper in heat exchangers.

Cork 0.044 - 0.077 2937
Cotton or Plastic Insulation-foamed 0.0367 2937
Diamond, impure 1,000436 27336 - 2934 1×10^−16~37 Type I (98.1% of Gem Diamonds) (C+0.1%N)
Diamond, natural 2,20038 29338 1×10^−16~37 Type IIa (99%12C and 1%13C)
Diamond, isotopically enriched 3,32038-41,0002939(99.999% 12C calc.200,00039) 29338-1042939(~8039) (Lateral)10−1637 - (Ballistic)10837 Type IIa isotopically enriched (>99.9%12C)
Epoxy, thermally conductive 0.68240 - 1.038 - 1.38441
Expanded polystyrene - EPS 0.036-0.0334636((PS Only)0.142-0.1342) 9836-298636(29642) 1×10^−1442 (PS+Air+CO2+CnH2n+x)
Extruded polystyrene - XPS 0.029 - 0.39 98-298
Fiberglass or Foam-glass 0.0457 2937
Gallium arsenide 5636 30036
Glass 0.84-0.937(SiO2pure113-SiO296%1.243-1.443) 2934743 10−144445-10−1243-10−104445 <1% Iron oxides
Glycerol 0.28510-0.297 30010-2937
Gold, pure 3144-31511-318121546 29311-2981546 45,170,00016 - 45,450,00046
Granite 1.7347 - 3.9847 (72%SiO2+14%Al2O3+4%K2O etc.)
Graphene (4840±440)48 - (5300±480)48 29348 100,000,00049
Graphite, natural 25-47050 29350 5,000,000-30,000,00050
Helium II >10000051 2.2 liquid Helium in its superfluid state below 2.2 K
Hydrogen 0.181952 290 Hydrogen gas at room temperature.
Ice 1.64-2.17-2.236-2.2253 29347 - 2733653
Indium phosphide 8036 30036
Iron, pure 71.812-72.711-79.54-806-80.236-80.41554
55.411
34.611
293411-2986-300153654
57311
127311
9,901,00054 - 10,410,00016
Iron, cast 55612 2986 (Fe+(2-4)%C+(1-3)%Si)
Lead, pure 34.7411-35.0612-35.31555
29.811
293411-2986-3001555
57311
4,808,00016 - 4,854,00055
Limestone 1.2647 - 1.3347 Mostly CaCO3
Marble 2.0747-2.086-2.94647 2986 Mostly CaCO3
Methane 0.0306-0.0328156 2986-27356
Mineral Insulation or Wool(Felt/Glass/Rock) 0.04467 2937-2986
Nickel 90.915-916 298615
Nitrogen, pure 0.02344-0.0246-0.0258315-0.0262036 2934-2986-300152036 (N2) (1 atm)
Oxygen, pure (gas) 0.02384-0.0246-0.026320-0.0265815 2934-2986-3001520 (O2) (1 atm)
Paper 0.056 2986
Perlite, (1 atm) 0.0316 2986
Perlite in partial vacuum 0.001376 2986
Plastic, fiber-reinforced 0.2357 - 0.757 - 1.067 2937 - 29657 10−1557 - 10057 10-40%GF or CF
Polyethylene High Density 0.426 - 0.516 2986
Polymer, High-Density 0.3357 - 0.5257 29657 10−1657 - 10257
Polymer, Low-density 0.0457 - 0.167 - 0.257 - 0.3357 2937 - 29657 10−1757 - 10057
Polyurethane foam 0.026 - 0.0216 2986
Quartz (single crystal) 1236 \parallel to c axis, 6.836 \perp to c axis 30036
Quartz-Fused or Vitreous Silica or Fused Silica 1.4658-37
1.436
293758
32336
1.333E-1844 - 10−1658
Rice hulls (ash) 0.06259
Rice hulls (whole) 0.035959
Rubber (92%) 0.1636 30336 1×10^−13~44
Sandstone 1.8347 - 2.9047
2.160 - 3.960
~95-71%SiO2
~98-48%SiO2, ~16-30% Porosity
Silica Aerogel 0.00336(carbon black9%~0.004261)-0.00861-0.01761-0.026-0.0336 9836 - 298636 Foamed Glass
Silver, pure 4064-40711-41812
42713-4296153662-43015
293411
29861562-3001536
61,350,00062 - 63,010,00016 Highest electrical conductivity of any metal
Silver, sterling 36163
Snow, dry 0.056-0.114-0.256 2736
Sodium chloride 35.1 - 6.5 - 4.8564 80 - 289 - 40064
Soil, dry w/ organic matter 0.15765-1.1565-27 2937 composition may vary
Soil, saturated 0.67-47 2937 composition may vary
Solder, Sn/63% Pb/37% 5066
Lead free solder, Sn/95.6% Ag/3.5% Cu/0.9%, Sn/95.5% Ag/3.8% Cu/0.7% (SAC) ~6066
Steel, carbon 361112-436 50.24-5461112 293411-2986 (Fe+(1.5-0.5)%C)
Steel, stainless 16.31267-16.768-1869-2469 296676869 1,176,00068 - 1,786,00069 (Fe, Cr12.5-25%, Ni0-20%, Mo0-3%, Ti0-trace)
Thermal grease, silver-based 0.94+70
Thermal tape 0.6071
Titanium, pure 15.612-19.011-21.91572-22.511 29311-3001572 1,852,00072 - 2,381,00016
Titanium Alloy 5.873 29673 595,20073 (Ti+6%Al+4%V)
Tungsten, Pure 17337 29337 18,940,00037
Water 0.56374-0.59674-0.647-0.60910 27374-2934774-30010 Pure10−637-Sweet10−3±137-Sea174 <474%(NaCl+MgCl2+CaCl2)
Water vapor 0.0166-0.02479 (101.3 kPa)75
0.0471 (1 bar)8
29375-3986
6008
Wood, +>=12% water 0.0909176-0.1636-0.2176-0.47 29836-2937 Species-Variable76
Wood, oven-dry 0.044-0.0556-0.0769276-0.124-0.17676 2934-2986 Balsa6-Cedar76-Hickory76/Oak6
Zinc, Pure 11637 29337 16,950,00037
Zinc oxide 2113
Material Thermal conductivity W·m−1·K−1 Temperature [K] Electrical conductivity @ 293 K Ω−1·m−1 Notes

See also

References

  1. ^ Roger N. Wright (3 December 2010). "Wire Technology: Process Engineering and Metallurgy". Elsevier. p. 281. ISBN 978-0-12-382093-8{{inconsistent citations}} 
  2. ^ a b c d e http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Polymethylmethacrylate.html
  3. ^ http://www.plexiglas.com/tds/4b.pdf
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am HyperPhysics, most from Young, Hugh D., University Physics, 7th Ed., Addison Wesley, 1992. Table 15-5. (most data should be at 293 K (20 °C; 68 °F))
  5. ^ a b http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/air-properties-d_156.html
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/thermal-conductivity-d_429.html
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar Hukseflux Thermal Sensors
  8. ^ a b c d e f "Thermal conductivity of gases", CRC Handbook, p. 6–195.
  9. ^ a b Pawar, S. D.; Murugavel, P.; Lal, D. M. (2009). "Effect of relative humidity and sea level pressure on electrical conductivity of air over Indian Ocean". Journal of Geophysical Research 114: D02205. Bibcode:2009JGRD..11402205P. doi:10.1029/2007JD009716. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/thermal-conductivity-liquids-d_1260.html
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/thermal-conductivity-metals-d_858.html
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m http://www.engineersedge.com/properties_of_metals.htm
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Greg Becker, Chris Lee, and Zuchen Lin (July 2005). "Thermal conductivity in advanced chips — Emerging generation of thermal greases offers advantages". Advanced Packaging: pp.2–4. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  14. ^ a b c http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Aluminium.html
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Thermal conductivities of the elements (data page)
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Electrical resistivities of the elements (data page)
  17. ^ a b c d http://www.goodfellow.com/E/AluminiumNitride'.html
  18. ^ a b c d http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Alumina.html
  19. ^ a b c Alumina (Al2O3) - Physical, Mechanical, Thermal, Electrical and Chemical Properties - Supplier Data by Ceramaret
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h http://www.engineersedge.com/heat_transfer/thermal-conductivity-gases.htm
  21. ^ a b c d http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Beryllia.html
  22. ^ a b c d http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Brass.html
  23. ^ a b c d e http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Brass'.html
  24. ^ a b c d e f http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Bronze.html
  25. ^ a b http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/calcium-silicate-insulation-k-values-d_1171.html
  26. ^ a b http://encyclopedia.airliquide.com/encyclopedia.asp?GasID=26
  27. ^ a b http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/carbon-dioxide-d_1000.html
  28. ^ a b c d e f "Carbon nanotubes : Reinforced metal matrix composites" by A.Agarwal, S.R.Bakshi and D.Lahiri, CRC Press, 2011 (ch.1, p.8, chart 1.1 : physical properties of carbon materials )
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h "Carbon Nanotubes: Thermal Properties" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  30. ^ a b Kim, P.; Shi, L.; Majumdar, A.; McEuen, P. L. et al. (2001-06-01). "Thermal transport measurements of individual multiwalled nanotubes". Physical Review Letters 87 (21): 215502–215506. arXiv:cond-mat/0106578. Bibcode:2001PhRvL..87u5502K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.87.215502. PMID 11736348. 
  31. ^ a b Pop, Eric; Mann, David; Wang, Qian; Goodson, Kenneth; Dai, Hongjie et al. (2005-12-22). "Thermal conductance of an individual single-wall carbon nanotube above room temperature". Nano Letters 6 (1): 96–100. arXiv:cond-mat/0512624. Bibcode:2006NanoL...6...96P. doi:10.1021/nl052145f. PMID 16402794. 
  32. ^ a b c d Berber, Savas; Kwon, Young-Kyun; Tománek, David (2000-02-23). "Unusually high thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes". Physical Review Letters 84 (20): 4613–4616. arXiv:cond-mat/0002414. Bibcode:2000PhRvL..84.4613B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.4613. PMID 10990753. 
  33. ^ a b Li, Qingwen; Li, Yuan; Chikkannanavar, S. B.; Zhao, Y. H.; Dangelewicz, A. M.; Zheng, L. X.; Doorn, S. K. et al. (2007). "Structure-Dependent Electrical Properties of Carbon Nanotube Fibers". Advanced Materials 19 (20): 3358–3363. doi:10.1002/adma.200602966. 
  34. ^ a b International Standard EN-ISO 10456:2007 'Building materials and products - Hygrothermal properties - Tabulated design values and procedures for determining declared and design thermal values'
  35. ^ a b c http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Copper.html
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad CRC handbook of chemistry and physicsverification needed(subscription required)(HTTP cookies required)
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Other references listed within Wikipedia (this table may not be cited, pure elements are sourced from Chemical elements data references, otherwise an in-table linked-page must list the relevant references)
  38. ^ a b c d Anthony, T. R.; Banholzer, W. F.; Fleischer, J. F.; Wei, Lanhua; Kuo, P. K.; Thomas, R. L.; Pryor, R. W. (1989-12-27). "Thermal conductivity of isotopically enriched 12C diamond". Physical Review B 42 (2): 1104–1111. Bibcode:1990PhRvB..42.1104A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.42.1104. 
  39. ^ a b c d Wei, Lanhua; Kuo, P. K.; Thomas, R. L.; Anthony, T. R.; Banholzer, W. F. (1993-02-16). "Thermal conductivity of isotopically modified single crystal diamond". Physical Review Letters 70 (24): 3764–3767. Bibcode:1993PhRvL..70.3764W. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.70.3764. PMID 10053956. 
  40. ^ "MG 832TC Thermally Conductive Epoxy". 
  41. ^ "OMEGABOND OB-100/101/200 Thermally Conductive Epoxies" (PDF). 
  42. ^ a b c d http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Polystyrene.html
  43. ^ a b c d http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Silica.html
  44. ^ a b c d Serway, Raymond A. (1998). Principles of Physics (2nd ed.). Fort Worth, Texas; London: Saunders College Pub. p. 602. ISBN 0-03-020457-7. 
  45. ^ a b Griffiths, David (1999) [1981]. "7. Electrodynamics". In Alison Reeves (ed.). Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. p. 286. ISBN 0-13-805326-X. OCLC 40251748. 
  46. ^ a b c http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Gold.html
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h Marble Institute of America (2 values are usually given: the highest and lowest test scores)
  48. ^ a b c Balandin, Alexander A.; Ghosh, Suchismita; Bao, Wenzhong; Calizo, Irene; Teweldebrhan, Desalegne; Miao, Feng; Lau, Chun Ning et al. (2008-02-20). "Superior Thermal Conductivity of Single-Layer Graphene". Nano Letters ASAP 8 (3): 902–907. Bibcode:2008NanoL...8..902B. doi:10.1021/nl0731872. PMID 18284217. 
  49. ^ Physicists Show Electrons Can Travel More Than 100 Times Faster in Graphene
  50. ^ a b c Properties of Graphite
  51. ^ Clifford A. Hampel (1968). The Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. pp. 256–268. ISBN 0-442-15598-0. 
  52. ^ M. J. Assael, S. Mixafendi, W. A. Wakeham (1 July 1986). "The Viscosity and Thermal Conductivity of Normal Hydrogen in the Limit of Zero Density" (PDF). NIST. Retrieved 2 April 2015. 
  53. ^ a b http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/ice-thermal-properties-d_576.html
  54. ^ a b c http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Iron.html
  55. ^ a b c http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Lead.html
  56. ^ a b http://encyclopedia.airliquide.com/Encyclopedia.asp?GasID=41
  57. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o http://www.goodfellow.com/Home.aspx?LangType=2057
  58. ^ a b c http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Quartz-Fused.html
  59. ^ a b http://esrla.com/pdf/ricehullhouse.pdf
  60. ^ a b http://edoc.gfz-potsdam.de/gfz/get/15306/0/69070f5918278d63d23cfce5cbad024a/15306.pdf
  61. ^ a b c http://energy.lbl.gov/ECS/aerogels/sa-thermal.html Thermal Properties - Silica Aerogels
  62. ^ a b c http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Silver.html
  63. ^ S. Vandana (1 December 2002). "Alternative Energy". APH. p. 45. ISBN 978-81-7648-349-0{{inconsistent citations}} 
  64. ^ a b http://www.almazoptics.com/NaCl.htm
  65. ^ a b Soil Sci Journals
  66. ^ a b "Thermal Conductivity-of Solders". 
  67. ^ a b http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Stainless-Steel-AISI-302.html
    http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Stainless-Steel-AISI-304.html
    http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Stainless-Steel-AISI-310.html
    http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Stainless-Steel-AISI-316.html
    http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Stainless-Steel-AISI-321.html
  68. ^ a b c http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Stainless-Steel-17-7PH.html
  69. ^ a b c d http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Stainless-Steel-AISI-410.html
  70. ^ NREL Review of Thermal Greases (Free PDF Form Available Through Search Engines)
  71. ^ [1]
  72. ^ a b c http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Titanium.html
  73. ^ a b c http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Titanium-Aluminium-Vanadium.html
  74. ^ a b c d e f "2.7.9 Physical properties of sea water". Kaye and Laby - National Physical Laboratory. Retrieved 2010-01-25. 
  75. ^ a b "Thermal conductivity of saturated H2O and D2O, CRC Handbook, p. 6–4.
  76. ^ a b c d e f g "Physical Properties and Moisture Relations of Wood" (PDF). 

External links