Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation
|L-1049 Super Constellation|
|National origin||United States|
|First flight||14 July 1951|
|Introduction||15 December 1951|
|Primary user||Eastern Air Lines, Trans World Airlines|
|Number built||259 (Commercial)
|Developed from||Lockheed L-049 Constellation|
|Variants||Lockheed C-121 Constellation
Lockheed EC-121 Warning Star
|Developed into||L-1249 (R7V-2/YC-121F) Super Constellation
The Lockheed L-1049 Super Constellation is an American aircraft, a member of the Lockheed Constellation aircraft line. The L-1049 was Lockheed's response to the successful Douglas DC-6 airliner, first flying in 1950. The aircraft was also produced for both the United States Navy and Air Force as transport and AWACS aircraft.
Since 1943 Lockheed had been planning a stretched variant of the Constellation family. The first was an L-049 with a fuselage lengthened by 13 feet (4m). The next was an L-749 lengthened by 18 feet (5.5m). Neither was built due to the lack of suitable engines on the civilian market.
The idea was relaunched after a rival aircraft appeared, when Douglas launched a stretched version of its DC-6 airliner as a cargo transport, designated DC-6A, for both military and civilian operators. Douglas was soon to launch a passenger version (the DC-6B) of this new aircraft. The DC-6B could carry 23 more passengers than Lockheed's current production L-749 Constellation.
In 1950 Lockheed had repurchased the XC-69 Constellation prototype from the Hughes Tool Company. The XC-69 however, was equipped with four Pratt & Whitney R-2800 radial engines instead of the Wright R-3350s used on production models (Lockheed had made that installation on the prototype to test the R-2800 as a possible engine option for the L-049). Lockheed lengthened XC-69 by 18 feet (5.5m), to become the basis for the L-1049 Super Constellation. The aircraft first flew later that year still fitted with R-2800 engines, then was refitted with R-3350 956-C18CA-1 engines with jet stacks for slightly increased thrust. Later modifications included strengthened landing gear and larger vertical stabilizers. Being impressed, Eastern Air Lines had placed an order for 10 aircraft, while Trans World Airlines (TWA) followed with a larger order for 14 aircraft. The L-1049 had some 550 improvements and modifications compared to the L-749, including increased fuel capacity, rectangular portholes, larger cockpit windshields and improved heating and pressurization.
In 1953 the R-3350 Turbo-compounds were made available for civilian use. Lockheed incorporated them into the L-1049C, which first flew on February 17 of that same year. The R-330-972-TC18DA-1 turbo-compound engines used by the L-1049C included a new turbine system called a Power Recovery Turbine (PRT), located aft of each row of nine cylinders. This allowed the engine to produce more power by driving gasses through the triple-stage turbine, increasing the engine's output by 550 hp (410 kW). One drawback of the PRT was a significant flame in the exhaust pipes; this was resolved by placing armor plating 2 in (5.08 cm) thick under the stack. The L-1049C had an increased cruising speed and climb rate. Although still lacking the range of the DC-6B, the L-1049C was now identical in performance to the Douglas and was now capable of carrying a larger payload. The wings of the new model were strengthened, cabin soundproofing was increased, and the landing gear retraction system was improved. A new series of interior layouts was offered for the new model; "Siesta" (47 Passengers with increased luxury), "Intercontinental" (54 - 60 Passengers) and "Inter-urban" (105 Passengers). Each of these new layouts included reading lights attached to each seat. In all, 48 L-1049C models were constructed, being used by Eastern, TWA, Air France, KLM, Trans-Canada Air Lines, QANTAS, Air India, Pakistan International Airlines, Avianca, Iberia, Línea Aeropostal Venezolana and Cubana de Aviación.
A freighter version, the L-1049D, first flew in August 1954. It incorporated two cargo doors on the left side and a reinforced magnesium floor as used on the R7V-1 military variant of the L-1049B. The L-1049D could carry a total of 36,916 lb (16,745 kg) and had a volume of 5,579 ft³ (158 m³). At the time of its first flight, the L-1049D was the largest civil cargo aircraft. In the end only four were produced, all delivered to Seaboard & Western Airlines. Two of the four L-1049D aircraft were later converted to L-1049H standards.
The L-1049E was more successful; 28 were delivered to eight airlines. Similar to the L-1049C, the L-1049E was able to carry the same load as the L-1049D. The L-1049C and L-1049E could not usually fly Europe to New York nonstop against the wind. Lockheed thought of fitting a new variant based on the L-1049E with more powerful powerplants, but the project was cancelled. A different variant surfaced: using the L-1049C as a base, R-3350-972-TC18DA-3 Turbo-compound engines were fitted. The aircraft would carry 71 to 95 passengers at a speed of 331 mph (533 km/h). Wingtip tanks of 1,037 gallon (3,925 L) total capacity were incorporated, increasing range by 1,110 miles (1,770 km). A new Bendix or RCA weather radar could be installed in the nose, which changed the nosecone shape. New Hamilton Standard or Curtiss Electric propellers were offered. This new version of the L-1049 with over 100 modifications from the L-1049C was unveiled as the L-1049G (L-1049F being already used for the military C-121C). Over 100 L-1049G aircraft were ordered by sixteen airlines. The L-1049G flew on December 17, 1954 and entered service with TWA and Northwest in 1955.1 The nickname "Super G" (first used by TWA) was later adopted for the L-1049G.
The L-1049H flew on November 20, 1956. Called "Super H" and "Husky", the L-1049H was a convertible passenger/freight aircraft, mating a C-121C based fuselage with L-1049G components. The cargo hold had a volume of 565 ft³ (16 m³) when including the lower hold. The aircraft could carry up to 120 people with seats, luggage lockers and toilets all available along with the option of decorating the walls of the aircraft. When not in use, the luggage lockers and seats could be stowed in the lower hold. The aircraft entered service with QANTAS a month later. Some L-1049G and H aircraft in later production were fitted with the TC-18EA series engines used on the L-1649 Starliner. A final variant was planned in 1957, known as the L-1049J. Powered by four R-3350-988-TC-18EA-6 engines, the L-1049J was based on the L-1049H with the wings of the R7V-2 Constellation and an extra fuselage-mounted fuel tank.
The first production L-1049 flew on July 14, 1951 and received certification in November 1951. The Turbo-compound versions of the R-3350 engine were not yet available for civilian use, leaving Lockheed to use a less powerful version. The aircraft entered service with Eastern Air Lines in December 1951 on the Miami to New York run. Eastern would later operate the L-1049C and L-1049G. 1049s began flying for TWA in 1952; TWA used L-1049G aircraft on transatlantic flights starting in 1955. In 1956 a TWA L-1049 collided with a United Airlines DC-7 over the Grand Canyon, leading to the deaths of all on both aircraft.2
KLM introduced the L-1049C on the Amsterdam to New York run in 1953; it also used L-1049Gs to Tokyo and Sydney. Air France used its L-1049Cs on transatlantic flights. Seaboard & Western Airlines used L-1049Ds on transatlantic cargo flights to Germany and Switzerland. From the summer of 1955 to the spring of 1956 the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) leased three of Seaboards' L-1049D aircraft for passenger flights. Northwest Orient Airlines used L-1049G aircraft from Seattle, Washington to Tokyo, Okinawa and Manila. The scheduled freight airline, Flying Tiger Line, used the L-1049H on North American routes and service for the Military Air Transport Service. A Flying Tigers L-1049H was the last Constellation built (in 1959).
The first airline in Latin America to operate Super Constellations (L-1049E and L-1049G) was Cubana de Aviación, placing them in service in its Havana-Madrid, New York and Mexico City routes. Other Latin American airlines with Super Constellations were Línea Aeropostal Venezolana, Avianca, Real Transportes Aéreos, and Varig.
Most Super Constellations were retired by their original operators after the advent of the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 jet airliners. The last commercial flight of the L-1049 Super Constellation was in 1993, when the Federal Aviation Administration banned all airlines from the Dominican Republic that flew Constellations to the United States (this done due to safety concerns). The Dominican airlines were the last operators of any version of the Constellation.
Numerous military versions were operated by the United States Navy and United States Air Force. The aircraft were operated as transport aircraft and AWACS platforms. These aircraft served in the Vietnam War, in several roles including transmitting television programs from the United States for the troops on the ground, and in observing the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The last US Military Super Constellations were retired in 1982 by the Air Force. The Indian Air Force and Indian Navy used former Air India L-1049C, E and G versions converted by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited for use as Sea Air and Rescue aircraft. They were retired between the years of 1981 and 1983 and were replaced by Tupolev Tu-142 aircraft. The Indian Military was the last military operator of the Constellation.3
- Initial production version. 24 Built.
- Improved version powered by four R-3350 972TC-18DA1 Turbo-compound engines. 48 Built.
- All freight version constructed for Seaboard & Western Airlines with the same powerplants as the L-1049C. 4 Built.
- L-1049C with an increased MTOW. 28 Built.
- L-1049C with an increased MTOW and four R-3350 972-TC-18DA-3 engines. The options of tip tanks and weather radar were available.
- Version built for Varig with a strengthened wing, increased MTOW and R-3350 988-TC18EA3 engines.
- Convertible passenger/freight version of the L-1049G. 53 Built.
- Version built for the Flying Tiger Line with increased MTOW and powered by R-3350 988-TC-18EA-3 engines.
- Different landing gear and R-3350 988-TC-18EA-6 engines. Two built.
- Similar to the L-1049H/02. Two built.
- Proposed version of the L-1049H/02 with a lengthened wingspan and an extra fuel tank.
- Proposed version of the L-1049G and L-1049H to be powered by Allison 501D turboprop engines.
- Manufacturer's designation for the WV-2, WV-3 and RC-121D.
- Manufacturer's designation for the R7V-1, RC-121C and VC-121E.
- Manufacturer's designation for the C-121C with strengthened Landing Gear.
Data from Lockheed Constellation:From Excalibur to Starliner.5
- Crew: Four
- Capacity: 47-106 Passengers
- Length: 113 ft 7 in (34.62 m)
- Wingspan: 123 ft (37.49 m)
- Height: 24 ft 9 in (7.54 m)
- Wing area: 1,650 sq ft (153.29 sq m)
- Aspect ratio: 9.17
- Empty weight: 69,000 lb (31,300 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 120,000 lb (54,431 kg)
- Powerplant: 4 × Wright R-3350 972-TC-18DA-1 radial, 3,250 hp (2,245 kW) each
- Maximum speed: 330 mph (531 km/h)
- Cruise speed: 304 mph (489 km/h)
- Range: 5,150 mi (8,288 km)
- Service ceiling: 25,700 ft (7,833 m)
- Related development
- Lockheed Constellation
- Lockheed L-049 Constellation
- Lockheed C-69 Constellation
- Lockheed L-649 Constellation
- Lockheed L-749 Constellation
- Lockheed C-121/R7V Constellation
- Lockheed EC-121 Warning Star
- Lockheed L-1249 Super Constellation
- Lockheed L-1649A Starliner
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Boeing 377 Stratocruiser
- Bristol Britannia
- Douglas DC-6
- Douglas DC-7
- Ilyushin Il-18
- Lockheed L-188 Electra
- Vickers Viscount
- Related lists
- List of Lockheed aircraft
- List of models of the Lockheed Constellation
- List of Lockheed Constellation operators
- The 2/55 OAG shows a daily NW 1049G SEA-ANC and back starting on 15 Feb; TWA started 1049G flights on 1 April.
- "Lockheed L-1049A Super Constellation N6902C Grand Canyon, AZ". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
- Petersen, Ralph M. L1049 Super Constellation Lockheed Constellation Survivors Retrieved: 4 August 2011
- Breffort, Dominique. Lockheed Constellation: from Excalibur to Starliner Civilian and Military Variants. Histoire and Collecions, 2006, pp. 78-95
- Breffort, Dominique. Lockheed Constellation: from Excalibur to Starliner Civilian and Military Variants. Histoire and Collecions, 2006, p. 175
- Breffort, Dominique. Lockheed Constellation: from Excalibur to Starliner Civilian and Military Variants. Paris: Histoire and Collecions, 2006. Print. ISBN 2-915239-62-2
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Lockheed Constellation|
- Lockheed Constellation Survivors - A website that explains information and whereabouts of surviving Constellations of all variants, including the Super Constellation.